10. A sample critical discourse analysis by happo7

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									     10.      A sample critical discourse analysis
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     8.2.

     10.1. The text
 1   Women bombers break new ground
 2   By Neil Arun
 3   BBC News - 15 November 2005
 4

 5   The majority of suicide bombers, like most of the world's soldiers,
 6   have been young men.

 7   The Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the insurgency in Iraq, where suicide
 8   bombings are a near-daily occurrence, have promoted a view of the
 9   suicide bomber as a male motivated by a sense of injustice against Islam.

10   However, some of the most lethal exponents of suicide bombing have
11   been neither male nor Muslim.

12   Women involved in a series of recent attacks and attempted attacks -
13   including in Jordan and Indian-administered Kashmir - are beginning to       Veiled women wired with bombs were
14   undermine this stereotype.                                                   seen in Moscow's theatre siege


15   Women bombers were widely used by Tamil Tiger rebels in Sri Lanka, most dramatically in the 1991
16   assassination of the former Indian Prime Minister, Rajiv Gandhi.

17   Young women, with no dependents, are said to be among those most commonly chosen for suicide missions by
18   the Tigers.

19   Women bombers have also been used by Kurdish guerrilla groups operating in Turkey.

20   Like the Tamil Tigers, the Kurdish groups are motivated more by a secular, nationalistic cause than a religious
21   one.

22   Experts remain divided over whether female suicide bombers will be more widely deployed by al-Qaeda, whose
23   conservative philosophy restricts women to an auxiliary role in the jihad.

24   Gender and jihad

25   For modern militant movements with an Islamic inflection, the advantages of using women as suicide bombers
26   can override cultural arguments against their involvement.

27   A woman is less likely to be intercepted precisely because she does not match the typical profile of a suicide
28   bomber.

29   Moreover, her actions generate greater media coverage, arguably boosting the militants' propaganda battle.

30   The traditional perception of women as life-givers rather than killers is responsible for much of the shock their
31   attacks create.




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32   For the militants, therefore, deploying women suicide bombers remains a         Using women [in suicide
33   fraught tactic - instead of new recruits, it risks attracting revulsion.   attacks] transgresses on what
                                                                                is acceptable in Arab society
34   Where female suicide bombings succeed in bringing in new recruits, the
35   new militants are as likely to be men as women, according to Dr Laleh      Magnus Ranstorp
36   Khalili, lecturer in Middle-Eastern politics at the School of Oriental and Terrorism expert
37   African Studies in London.

38   Witnessing women traditionally associated with domestic duties taking part in frontline militancy operations can
39   have a shaming effect on the men, "impelling more of them to take part", she says.

40   Attacks by women also shatter "the male monopoly over jihad", according to Dr Mustafa Alani, a counter-
41   terrorism expert with the Gulf Research Centre in Dubai.

42   The martyrs' paradise - often cited as a reward for suicide attackers - need no longer be a male preserve, he says,
43   warning that attacks involving women are likely to increase, as will their stature within al-Qaeda.

44   Exception or rule?

45   Other experts disagree, arguing that the use of women bombers alienates the conservative Muslim constituency
46   from which the militants draw their support.

47   Such a reaction seemed to have been intended in Jordan, where officially-sanctioned television pictures showed
48   an alleged woman bomber captured after her explosives failed to
49   detonate.

50   Sajida Mubarak Atrous al-Rishawi said she had been hoping to die in the
51   manner of her husband, an Iraqi national alleged to have blown up the
52   Radisson SAS hotel in Amman in November 2005.

53   She was not al-Qaeda's first female recruit - in September 2005, eight
54   people were killed in the Iraqi town of Talafar by a woman suicide          A failed 'suicide bomber's' televised
55   bomber said to have been sent by al-Qaeda.                                  appearance shocked Jordan

56   But the BBC's Middle East analyst Roger Hardy says the network's occasional use of female bombers defies its
57   conservative ideologues, who have argued that women can best serve the jihad as dutiful wives and mothers to
58   fighters.

59   Female involvement in al-Qaeda bombings is therefore likely to remain an eye-catching exception rather than
60   becoming a rule, he says.

61   Magnus Ranstorp, a terrorism expert at the Swedish National Defence College, agrees: "Using women
62   transgresses on what is acceptable in Arab society."

63   Secular traditions

64   But women suicide bombers are better established elsewhere.

65   Chechen rebel commander Shamil Basayev has long boasted of his regiment of Black Widows, the wives of
66   men apparently killed by Russian forces.




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67   Images of women strapped with explosives and wearing black veils,
68   revealing only their eyes, became icons of the rebels' bloody hostage-
69   taking operations in Beslan and a Moscow theatre.

70   During a four-month period in 2003, six out of seven Chechen suicide
71   attacks were carried out by women.

72
                                                                                  Militants in Indian-administered Kashmir
73                                                                                have recruited women

74   Their high profile proves the nationalist tradition in the Chechen insurgency has survived despite the inroads
75   made by a more conservative brand of Islam imported into the region by Arab fighters, says the BBC's Roger
76   Hardy.

77   Female participation in suicide attacks is more influenced by a militant group's historical roots than by its
78   theological affiliations, according to Dr Khalili.

79   She says the growing involvement of Iraqi women in al-Qaeda suicide attacks comes as no surprise - for
80   decades under Saddam Hussein's secular regime, these women enjoyed more rights than most of their Arab
81   counterparts.

82   Long accustomed to political life, she says, they are now more ready to engage in political violence.

83   Loving the victims

84   Anger at losing loved ones to conflict appears to be a major source of motivation among female suicide
85   bombers.

86   The first suicide bombing by a Palestinian woman in Israel was carried
87   out by a 28-year-old paramedic, Wafa Idris, in January 2003.

88   Her mother later said that her daughter had probably been motivated "by
89   all the wounded people she saw in ambulances".

90   Some scientists who have studied suicide bombers say this is not             Rajiv Gandhi's assassin carries a garland,
91   surprising - many of their subjects appear driven more by a love of the      moments before the blast
92   victims of perceived injustices than by any hatred of the injustices'
93   perpetrators.




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