Study ordered by City on the Move and conducted at INRETS by Diallo Mamadou Sanoussi under the supervision of Laurent Hivert and Francis Papon PARC-AUTO PANEL: WHO RENTS? WHO SHARES? Francis.Papon@INRETS.fr Laurent.Hivert@INRETS.fr Breaking the « car & owner » paradigm The « car & owner » harmonious couple Nearly all adults who can drive and afford a car do own a car and drive it most of the time But, excessive solo driving threatens sustainability Constant annual mileage per car => reduce car ownership 26-oct-05 Unfaithfulness: driving not my own car Car sharing clubs: recent and small scale Car rental: well established economic activity Car sharing within households: wide-spread habit Who rents? Who shares? Household car sharing favours alternative transport modes % individual drivers 41 70 82 shared drivers 20 28 69 share in all trips share in car driver trips modal share CD Source: Papon, 2001 from 1994 French transport survey data •strong relationship between potential drivers and actual drivers •shared drivers use other modes 72% more than individual drivers 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? Car rental is marginal in transport research Tissier-Desbordes, In France, the car Cova & Manceau, rental market scored 2005, Projet 1.6 billion euros in Possession/Location, City 2002; on the Move "rent-a-car" societies, International Fr, It, insurance companies, comparison De, UK car manufacturers Sociologists’ and seem very interested in economists’ review this market evolution. Highlight etymology Frequently rented articles analyse Consumers survey and companies interview. Who shares? Who rents? 26-oct-05 Objectives Who rents? Who shares? How often, long? Which cars? Which trend? Whether more licences? Which households? Which households? How old, high, rich? How old, high, rich? Where? Which drivers? Which owned cars? Which gender? When, why, how? Which trend? How to model? How to model? 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? Overview Data Car rental Frequency and trend Household features Licences and cars Context Model Car sharing Licences and cars Wages Gender issues Age groups Trend and model Conclusions 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? The Parc-Auto database Annual postal surveys conducted by SOFRES Panel of 10 000 French households since 1983 Renewal rate of the sample by 1/3 per year Weights: region, agglomeration size, number of persons in hh, age, occupation of head Representative of French households and cars 26-oct-05 About 100 questions: Car ownership Car characteristics Main and secondary users Previous car characteristics Car use behaviour Attitude towards automobile Opinion vis-à-vis car brands Purchasing intents Who rents? Who shares? Two key questions Car rental: “During the last 12 months, did you — or another person from your home — rent a car in France for personal purpose?” “Yes.” 2308 (4.2%) Sample 1994-2001: 54 742 households-years 26-oct-05 Car sharing: “Is this car occasionally used by other persons?” (from household or not) “Yes.” 3256 (40%) Sample 2001: 8177 cars Who rents? Who shares? Renting households: no trend 6,00% 5,00% Proportion of households renting a car during the year 4,22% 4,00% 3,00% 2,00% 1,00% 0,00% 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Total 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? Two-thirds are one-time renters more often 5% 3-4 times 11% n.a. 1% twice 17% once 66% Annual renting frequency 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? Most hires are short (short = 1 to 4 days; long = 5-30 days) 3-4 times long & short 4% 3-4 times short 6% twice long 2% twice long & short 2% twice short 11% twice n.a. 2% once short 40% more often shortmore often long & short 2% 3% n.a. 1% once n.a. 9% Renting frequency and length once long 18% 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? Car rental is occasional 29% of renters in year t For a minority of rent again in t+1 renters, renting is a sustained habit 51% of renters in both year t and year t+1 Multi-renters rent rent again in year t+2 more often next year And so on Among those renting in year t several times once not Proportion of sample 1% 3% 96% Rent at least once 47% 22% 3% again in once 34% 16% 2% year t+1 several times 13% 6% 1% 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? Renters earn high income (over 200 000 francs) renters n.a. 3% low 10% all high 25% n.a. 4% low 22% high 51% middle 36% middle Distribution of households by income group 49% 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? Renters live in the Paris area MARSEILLE 2% PARIS 16% all renters PARIS 38% rural 14% LYON 2% LILLE 2% village 10% city town 23% 10% rural 25% village 17% town 13% MARSEILLE 2% LYON LILLE 3% 1% 26-oct-05 city 22% Distribution of households by habitat Who rents? Who shares? Renters are middle-aged hhh* renters 65 & + 12% 18-24 3% 65 & + 27% all 18-24 3% 25-39 29% 25-39 39% 40-64 46% 40-64 41% *hhh: household head. Distribution of hhh age groups 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? Renters have higher position and more active hhh renters Distribution of household head occupation craftsman farmer /trader/ all craftsman 0% not working 3% pensioner 18% professional 6% /trader/ professional 5% farmer not working 2% upper position 6% 10% upper position 31% pensioner 33% middle position 14% worker 12% employee 10% middle position 20% worker 19% Who rents? Who shares? employee 11% 26-oct-05 Households with an even number of adults rent more Proportion of households renting a car during year 6,00% 5,00% 4,00% 3,00% 2,00% 1,00% 0,00% Considered age groups over 18 over 15 4p 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? 5p Number of persons in household ers on ers on s ers on s any ers on s 3p ers on s 1p 2p Renting households hold more licences 4 licences 4 licences renters &+ &+ 2% 3% no licence 2% 3 licences 3 licences 7% 9% 1 licence 36% 2 licences 45% all no licence 11% 1 licence 35% 2 licences 50% Distribution of households by the number of driving licences 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? One car households rent less car ownership not significant four cars 1% three cars 5% renters no car 21% four cars 1% three cars 4% two cars 25% all no car 20% two cars 29% Distribution of households by car ownership 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? one car 44% one car 50% Renters own multiple, young, large engine, high quality cars 8,00% 7,50% 7,00% 6,50% 6,00% 5,50% 5,00% 4,50% 4,00% 3,50% 3,00% 2,50% 0 26-oct-05 Proportion of renting households young car old car new car second hand small engine medium engine large engine low quality medium quality high quality 1 2 3 Number of cars Who rents? Who shares? 13% of renters vs 7% of all move house during year Those moving house rent a car twice more often (7.6% vs 4.2%) Those renting a van rent a car 2.5 times more often and vice-versa, but confusing question Among van renters, last renting context other 9% vacations 11% weekend 17% regular 4% moving 59% 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? Modelling car rental Less significant variables (Backward elimination): Number of working persons Number of adults Area type Number of cars Region Most significant variables (Forward or Stepwise selection): Income Habitat Hhh age Hhh position Number of persons in hh Number of licences Number of young cars Number of large engine cars Number of persons over 15 Number of high quality cars 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? he ad po s Selected variables yielding low or high renting activity 26-oct-05 0,000 0,200 0,400 0,600 0,800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Probability of renting as compared to reference Who rents? Who shares? min odd ratio iti on ha far m ha bit er bi at v ta r u s t he r m ha vil al id ad b la v d po ha ita ge s P le si bi t c v ar tio ta it s is n t t y v Pa w o s ri ha or wn Pa s he b ke v r ad ha ita r v s P is he p ha b t s a ad os bit ita Lil m ris l po itio at M t L e v idd si n e a yon s P le tio m r s a n p eil vs ris pe loy le Pa n e v r he sio e v s P is ad ne s ar r m is nu fem vs idd m al m le be e idd r vs le of m lic al nu en e he m ad be in se r co s po la of a me si rg d tio e u n up y en lts pe ou gin r ng e vs m car id dl e max Who rents? Summary Renting households are mainly working, high income, middle-aged households, living in the core of big cities, and in particular in Paris. Most of them have several driving licences and recent, high power, high quality cars. Car rental is mainly an occasional practice. Yet for a minority of renters, it is a sustained habit: 30% of households renting a car on year n rent again on year n+1. 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? A fuzzy concept of sharing Only drivers not passengers From household or outside During the last 12 months Different aspects: Loan of a car -regular or not -different trips or purposes Division of driving e.g. long distance 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? More licences, more sharing One car shared the least or the most Proportion of 80% shared cars 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 24% 15% 20% 41% 37% 77% 75% 61% Number of licences more licences 2-#cars licences Car rank one car main car* one licence other car as defined by respondant 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? Hh with more licences than cars own 41% of shared cars vs 23% of all cars Shared cars secondary carexcess licences 6% secondary car-no excess licence 25% one car-one licence 10% secondary carno excess licence 27% secondary carexcess licences 4% All cars one car-one licence 26% one car-several licences 29% main car-excess licences 6% main car-no excess licence 24% main carexcess licences 3% main car-no excess licence 24% one car-several licences 16% Distribution of cars by car rank and the number of licences 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? More licences, more sharing 80% Licence structure Proportion of shared cars 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 26-oct-05 licensed head, licensed partner, licensed other licensed head, unlicensed partner, licensed other licensed head, licensed partner licensed single adult licensed head, unlicensed partner Size of bubble proportional to number of cars in fleet Who rents? Who shares? Given licence structure, sharing drops with car number* & rank 0 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1 Overbooked cars Number of cars in hh Secondary cars (S) are to the right of main cars (M) 2 3 Proportion of shared cars licensed head, licensed partner, licensed other licensed head, licensed partner licensed head, unlicensed partner, licensed other M S M S M S *except Don’t touch my car Size of bubble proportional to number of cars in fleet who share more when own two cars licensed single adult licensed head, unlicensed partner 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? High income hh share more but mainly because they own more cars and hold more licences 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 79% 80% 77% 75% 72% 63% 51% 49% 44% 42% 41% 37% 30% 26% Proportion of shared cars 70% 26-oct-05 ca r:m or el ot . he rc ar :m or el ma . in ca r:2 -# cl ot . he rc ar :2 -# cl . on ec ar :o ne l. Who rents? Who shares? on e Car rank and number of licences Household 13% 15% income 14% high 48% middle 40% low 28% of their cars are shared ma in ca r :m or el . No significant sharing disparity according to position Proportion of shared 83% cars 90% 87% 90% 84% 82% 78% 74% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 48% 47% 66% 69% 76% 80% 78% 77% 72% 78% 71% 70% 47% 41% 39% 38% 39% 39% 40% 40% 33% 33% 41% 41% 16% 17% 12% 14% er ca r:2 -# c er ca r:m ot h ain m 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? ot h on e m ca r:o ne l on e ain ca r :2 Car rank 0% and number of licences 17% 7% middle tr ader employee worker Position of hhh upper l. or el or e or . .. pensioner . l. ca r:m ca r :m -# c l. . When more work, sharing increases, but decreases given car-licence structure 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Proportion of shared cars er ca r :m ot h er ca r :2 m ain 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? ot h on e m ca r:o ne on e ain Car rank and number of licences or el or e or .. . l. 3 working 2 working 1 working no working ca r:m ca r :m -# c ca r :2 -# c 50% 44% 38% 33% Overall sharing rate Number of working persons l. . l. l. Partners share more than heads as main users* (47% vs 38%) 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 42% 41% 44% 33% 32% 12% 15% Proportion of shared cars 83% 80% Children share less 74% 77% 72% their cars 61% 52% 51% Main user other partner head ca r:2 ar :2 ot h er c ain m 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? ot h on e m ca r:o on e er c ain Car rank and number of licences ca r:m l. or e l. or e l. or e cl . ca r:m -# cl -# . ar :m l. ne *but are less often main users of main cars Female main users share more 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 83% 77% 74% 63% Proportion of shared cars 65% 57% 43% 40% 45% 31% 19% 12% Main user gender female male ain ot he r ain m ot he r 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? on e m ca r:o ne ca r:2 on e ca Car rank and number of licences or el . l. or el or e . l. ca r:m #c l. r:m ca r:m ca r:2 - -# c l. Gender prejudiced driver role main user 80% first other user one car several licences 71% 70% Proportion of female users 60% 54% 50% 46% 40% one car one licence Other car Female Main user 59% 30% 20% 10% Women are more often single 20% 30% 37% Main car 52% Female Same pattern Other with more other drivers user 38% several cars more licences 58% 56% 55% several cars no more licences 34% 26% Man main user 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Proportion of shared cars 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? Female household heads share more 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Proportion of shared cars House hold head gender or e or e cl -# cl . female male er ca r:m er ca r:2 er ca r:o in c ma ot h ma ot h ma in c 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? ot h on e ca r:o on e in c Car rank and number of licences l. l. or e l. . ca r:m ne l. -# ar :m ne l. ar :2 ar :o ne l. The youngest household heads share the most Proportion of shared cars 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 14% 17% 58% 45% 35% 41% 39% 79% 86% 69% 77% 37% 46% 33% 16% 14% Age of household head 65 & + 40-64 on e er c ain 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? ot h on e m ca r:o Car rank and number of licences 0% 25-39 or e cl . 18-24 l. ca r:2 -# cl . ca r:m -# ar :2 ne l. 40-64 years old share more 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Proportion of shared cars er ca r:2 -# c er ca r:m ot h ain m 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? ot h on e m ca r:o ne l on e ain Car rank and number of licences or el or e or .. . l. 65 & + 40-64 25-39 18-24 Main user age l. . ca r:m ca r: m -# c l. ca r: 2 . Car sharing is decreasing 45% 43% 41% 39% 37% 35% Proportion of shared cars Cross-section trend Proportion of multi-car ownership 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Longitudinal •4 cars out of 10 are shared analysis: 3 of them are shared again next year Car sharing is a •6 cars out of 10 are not shared regular practice 1 of them is shared next year 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? Modelling car sharing Less significant variables (Backward elimination): Area type Number of adults Head position Number of persons over 15 Number of persons in hh Existence of public transport at proximity 26-oct-05 Most significant variables (Forward or Stepwise selection) Number of licences Number of cars Income Main user Main user gender Head gender Number of working persons Region Head age Main user age Who rents? Who shares? Who shares? Summary Households with more licence holders than cars share the most: about three quarters of them share their cars. On the contrary, single driver-single car households have less opportunity to share: only 15% share. Car sharing shed light on the gender role within households: while 58% of the main users of the shared cars are male, 55% of secondary users are female. Car sharing is mainly a regular practice: four cars out of ten are shared on year n, three of them are shared again on year n+1. 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares? Conclusions Who rents? Who shares? Who cares? Self established behaviour within households. Diverse situations that cannot be easily handled by straightforward classifications. The car cannot be reduced to a personal object. Car sharing also carries strong links with the issue of car dependency. Sifting car availability and choice universes may be useful for fitting disaggregated models of sharing. 26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares?