PARC- AUTO PANEL WHO RENTS WHO S

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					Study ordered by City on the Move and conducted at INRETS by Diallo Mamadou Sanoussi
under the supervision of Laurent Hivert and Francis Papon

PARC-AUTO PANEL: WHO RENTS? WHO SHARES?
Francis.Papon@INRETS.fr Laurent.Hivert@INRETS.fr

Breaking the « car & owner » paradigm
 The « car & owner » harmonious couple  Nearly all adults who can drive and afford a car do own a car and drive it most of the time  But, excessive solo driving threatens sustainability  Constant annual mileage per car => reduce car ownership
26-oct-05

 Unfaithfulness: driving not my own car  Car sharing clubs: recent and small scale  Car rental: well established economic activity  Car sharing within households: wide-spread habit

Who rents? Who shares?

Household car sharing favours alternative transport modes
% individual drivers 41 70 82 shared drivers 20 28 69

share in all trips share in car driver trips modal share CD

Source: Papon, 2001 from 1994 French transport survey data •strong relationship between potential drivers and actual drivers •shared drivers use other modes 72% more than individual drivers

26-oct-05

Who rents? Who shares?

Car rental is marginal in transport research
 Tissier-Desbordes,  In France, the car Cova & Manceau, rental market scored 2005, Projet 1.6 billion euros in Possession/Location, City 2002; on the Move  "rent-a-car" societies,  International Fr, It, insurance companies, comparison De, UK car manufacturers  Sociologists’ and seem very interested in economists’ review this market evolution.  Highlight etymology  Frequently rented articles analyse  Consumers survey and companies interview. Who shares? Who rents? 26-oct-05

Objectives
Who rents?
       

Who shares?

How often, long?  Which cars? Which trend?  Whether more licences? Which households?  Which households? How old, high, rich?  How old, high, rich? Where?  Which drivers? Which owned cars?  Which gender? When, why, how?  Which trend? How to model?  How to model?
26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares?

Overview
Data

Car rental
     Frequency and trend Household features Licences and cars Context Model

Car sharing
 Licences and cars  Wages  Gender issues  Age groups  Trend and model

Conclusions
26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares?

The Parc-Auto database
 Annual postal surveys conducted by SOFRES  Panel of 10 000 French households since 1983  Renewal rate of the sample by 1/3 per year  Weights: region, agglomeration size, number of persons in hh, age, occupation of head  Representative of French households and cars
26-oct-05

        

About 100 questions: Car ownership Car characteristics Main and secondary users Previous car characteristics Car use behaviour Attitude towards automobile Opinion vis-à-vis car brands Purchasing intents

Who rents? Who shares?

Two key questions
 Car rental:  “During the last 12 months, did you — or another person from your home — rent a car in France for personal purpose?”  “Yes.” 2308 (4.2%)  Sample 1994-2001: 54 742 households-years
26-oct-05

 Car sharing:  “Is this car occasionally used by other persons?” (from household or not)  “Yes.” 3256 (40%)  Sample 2001: 8177 cars

Who rents? Who shares?

Renting households: no trend
6,00% 5,00%

Proportion of households renting a car during the year

4,22%
4,00% 3,00% 2,00% 1,00% 0,00% 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Total
26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares?

Two-thirds are one-time renters
more often 5% 3-4 times 11% n.a. 1%

twice 17%

once 66%

Annual renting frequency
26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares?

Most hires are short
(short = 1 to 4 days; long = 5-30 days)
3-4 times long & short 4% 3-4 times short 6% twice long 2% twice long & short 2% twice short 11% twice n.a. 2% once short 40% more often shortmore often long & short 2% 3% n.a. 1% once n.a. 9%

Renting frequency and length

once long 18%

26-oct-05

Who rents? Who shares?

Car rental is occasional
 29% of renters in year t  For a minority of rent again in t+1 renters, renting is a sustained habit  51% of renters in both year t and year t+1  Multi-renters rent rent again in year t+2 more often next year  And so on Among those renting in year t
several times once not Proportion of sample 1% 3% 96% Rent at least once 47% 22% 3% again in once 34% 16% 2% year t+1 several times 13% 6% 1%
26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares?

Renters earn high income
(over 200 000 francs)

renters

n.a. 3% low 10%

all
high 25% n.a. 4%

low 22%

high 51%

middle 36%

middle Distribution of households by income group 49%
26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares?

Renters live in the Paris area
MARSEILLE 2% PARIS 16%

all

renters
PARIS 38%

rural 14%

LYON 2% LILLE 2% village 10% city town 23% 10%

rural 25%

village 17% town 13%

MARSEILLE 2% LYON LILLE 3% 1%
26-oct-05

city 22%

Distribution of households by habitat

Who rents? Who shares?

Renters are middle-aged hhh*
renters
65 & + 12% 18-24 3%
65 & + 27%

all
18-24 3% 25-39 29%

25-39 39%

40-64 46%

40-64 41%

*hhh: household head. Distribution of hhh age groups
26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares?

Renters have higher position and more active hhh
renters Distribution of household head occupation craftsman farmer /trader/ all craftsman 0%
not working 3% pensioner 18% professional 6%

/trader/ professional 5% farmer not working 2% upper position 6% 10% upper position 31% pensioner 33% middle position 14%

worker 12% employee 10%

middle position 20%

worker 19%
Who rents? Who shares?

employee 11%

26-oct-05

Households with an even number of adults rent more
Proportion of households renting a car during year
6,00% 5,00% 4,00% 3,00% 2,00% 1,00% 0,00%

Considered age groups
over 18 over 15

4p

26-oct-05

Who rents? Who shares?

5p

Number of persons in household

ers on

ers on s

ers on s

any

ers on s

3p

ers on s

1p

2p

Renting households hold more licences
4 licences 4 licences renters &+ &+ 2% 3% no licence 2% 3 licences 3 licences 7% 9% 1 licence 36% 2 licences 45%

all
no licence 11%

1 licence 35%

2 licences 50%

Distribution of households by the number of driving licences
26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares?

One car households rent less

car ownership not significant
four cars 1% three cars 5%

renters
no car 21%

four cars 1% three cars 4% two cars 25%

all
no car 20%

two cars 29%

Distribution of households by car ownership
26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares?

one car 44%

one car 50%

Renters own multiple, young, large engine, high quality cars
8,00% 7,50% 7,00% 6,50% 6,00% 5,50% 5,00% 4,50% 4,00% 3,50% 3,00% 2,50% 0
26-oct-05

Proportion of renting households
young car old car new car second hand small engine medium engine large engine low quality medium quality high quality

1

2

3

Number of cars

Who rents? Who shares?

13% of renters vs 7% of all move house during year
 Those moving house rent a car twice more often (7.6% vs 4.2%)  Those renting a van rent a car 2.5 times more often and vice-versa, but confusing question  Among van renters, last renting context
other 9% vacations 11%

weekend 17%

regular 4% moving 59%

26-oct-05

Who rents? Who shares?

Modelling car rental
 Less significant variables (Backward elimination):  Number of working persons
 Number of adults
 Area type  Number of cars
 Region

 Most significant variables (Forward or Stepwise selection):  Income
 Habitat  Hhh age
 Hhh position  Number of persons in hh  Number of licences
    Number of young cars Number of large engine cars Number of persons over 15 Number of high quality cars

26-oct-05

Who rents? Who shares?

he ad po s

Selected variables yielding low or high renting activity

26-oct-05
0,000 0,200 0,400 0,600 0,800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800

Probability of renting as compared to reference
Who rents? Who shares?
min odd ratio

iti on ha far m ha bit er bi at v ta r u s t he r m ha vil al id ad b la v d po ha ita ge s P le si bi t c v ar tio ta it s is n t t y v Pa w o s ri ha or wn Pa s he b ke v r ad ha ita r v s P is he p ha b t s a ad os bit ita Lil m ris l po itio at M t L e v idd si n e a yon s P le tio m r s a n p eil vs ris pe loy le Pa n e v r he sio e v s P is ad ne s ar r m is nu fem vs idd m al m le be e idd r vs le of m lic al nu en e he m ad be in se r co s po la of a me si rg d tio e u n up y en lts pe ou gin r ng e vs m car id dl e

max

Who rents? Summary
Renting households are mainly working, high income, middle-aged households, living in the core of big cities, and in particular in Paris. Most of them have several driving licences and recent, high power, high quality cars. Car rental is mainly an occasional practice. Yet for a minority of renters, it is a sustained habit: 30% of households renting a car on year n rent again on year n+1.
26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares?

A fuzzy concept of sharing
 Only drivers not passengers  From household or outside  During the last 12 months  Different aspects:  Loan of a car -regular or not -different trips or purposes  Division of driving e.g. long distance

26-oct-05

Who rents? Who shares?

More licences, more sharing
One car shared the least or the most
Proportion of 80% shared cars
70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 24% 15% 20% 41% 37% 77% 75% 61%

Number of licences
more licences 2-#cars licences

Car rank

one car

main car*

one licence other car

as defined by respondant
26-oct-05

Who rents? Who shares?

Hh with more licences than cars own 41% of shared cars vs 23% of all cars
Shared cars
secondary carexcess licences 6% secondary car-no excess licence 25% one car-one licence 10%
secondary carno excess licence 27% secondary carexcess licences 4%

All cars
one car-one licence 26%

one car-several licences 29% main car-excess licences 6% main car-no excess licence 24%
main carexcess licences 3% main car-no excess licence 24% one car-several licences 16%

Distribution of cars by car rank and the number of licences
26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares?

More licences, more sharing
80%

Licence structure

Proportion of shared cars

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
26-oct-05

licensed head, licensed partner, licensed other licensed head, unlicensed partner, licensed other licensed head, licensed partner licensed single adult licensed head, unlicensed partner

Size of bubble proportional to number of cars in fleet
Who rents? Who shares?

Given licence structure, sharing drops with car number* & rank
0 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1

Overbooked cars

Number of cars in hh
Secondary cars (S) are to the right of main cars (M)

2

3

Proportion of shared cars

licensed head, licensed partner, licensed other licensed head, licensed partner licensed head, unlicensed partner, licensed other

M S M S M S

*except

Don’t touch my car

Size of bubble proportional to number of cars in fleet

who share more when own two cars

licensed single adult

licensed head, unlicensed partner

26-oct-05

Who rents? Who shares?

High income hh share more but
mainly because they own more cars and hold more licences
80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 79% 80% 77% 75% 72% 63% 51% 49% 44% 42% 41% 37% 30% 26%

Proportion of shared cars
70%

26-oct-05

ca r:m or el ot . he rc ar :m or el ma . in ca r:2 -# cl ot . he rc ar :2 -# cl . on ec ar :o ne l.
Who rents? Who shares?

on e

Car rank and number of licences

Household 13% 15% income 14% high 48% middle 40% low 28% of their cars are shared

ma

in

ca r :m or el

.

No significant sharing disparity according to position
Proportion of shared 83% cars 90% 87%
90% 84% 82% 78% 74% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 48% 47% 66% 69% 76% 80% 78% 77% 72% 78% 71% 70%

47% 41%

39% 38% 39% 39% 40% 40% 33% 33%

41% 41%

16% 17% 12% 14%

er ca r:2 -# c

er ca r:m

ot h

ain

m

26-oct-05

Who rents? Who shares?

ot h

on e

m

ca r:o ne l

on e

ain

ca r :2

Car rank 0% and number of licences

17% 7%

middle tr ader employee worker

Position of hhh upper

l.

or el

or e

or . ..

pensioner

.

l.

ca r:m

ca r :m

-# c

l.

.

When more work, sharing increases, but decreases given car-licence structure
90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Proportion of shared cars

er ca r :m

ot h

er ca r :2

m

ain

26-oct-05

Who rents? Who shares?

ot h

on e

m

ca r:o ne

on e

ain

Car rank and number of licences

or el

or e

or .. .

l.

3 working 2 working 1 working no working

ca r:m

ca r :m

-# c

ca r :2

-# c

50% 44% 38% 33% Overall sharing rate

Number of working persons

l.

.

l. l.

Partners share more than heads as main users* (47% vs 38%)
90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 42% 41% 44% 33% 32% 12% 15%

Proportion of shared cars 83% 80% Children share less 74% 77% 72% their cars 61%
52% 51%

Main user
other partner head

ca r:2

ar :2

ot h

er c

ain

m

26-oct-05

Who rents? Who shares?

ot h

on e

m

ca r:o

on e

er c

ain

Car rank and number of licences
ca r:m

l.

or e

l.

or e

l.

or e

cl

.

ca r:m

-# cl

-#

.

ar :m

l. ne

*but are less often main users of main cars

Female main users share more
90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 83% 77% 74% 63%

Proportion of shared cars
65%

57% 43% 40% 45% 31% 19% 12%

Main user gender
female male

ain

ot he r

ain

m

ot he r

26-oct-05

Who rents? Who shares?

on e

m

ca r:o ne

ca r:2

on e

ca

Car rank and number of licences

or el

. l.

or el

or e

.

l.

ca r:m

#c

l.

r:m

ca r:m

ca

r:2 -

-# c

l.

Gender prejudiced driver role
main user 80% first other user one car several licences 71%

70%
Proportion of female users

60% 54% 50% 46% 40% one car one licence

Other car Female Main user

59%

30%

20% 10%

Women are more often single
20% 30%

37%

Main car 52% Female Same pattern Other with more other drivers user 38%
several cars more licences

58%

56%

55%

several cars no more licences

34% 26%

Man main user
40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Proportion of shared cars

26-oct-05

Who rents? Who shares?

Female household heads share more
90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Proportion of shared cars

House hold head gender
or e or e cl -# cl .
female male

er ca r:m

er ca r:2

er ca r:o

in c

ma

ot h

ma

ot h

ma

in c

26-oct-05

Who rents? Who shares?

ot h

on e

ca r:o

on e

in c

Car rank and number of licences

l.

l.

or e

l.

.

ca r:m

ne l.

-#

ar :m

ne l.

ar :2

ar :o

ne l.

The youngest household heads share the most
Proportion of shared cars
90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 14% 17% 58% 45% 35% 41% 39% 79% 86% 69% 77%

37% 46% 33%

16% 14%

Age of household head
65 & + 40-64

on e

er c

ain

26-oct-05

Who rents? Who shares?

ot h

on e

m

ca r:o

Car rank and number of licences

0%

25-39

or e

cl

.

18-24

l.

ca r:2 -#

cl

.

ca r:m

-#

ar :2

ne

l.

40-64 years old share more
90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Proportion of shared cars

er ca r:2 -# c

er ca r:m

ot h

ain

m

26-oct-05

Who rents? Who shares?

ot h

on e

m

ca r:o ne l

on e

ain

Car rank and number of licences

or el

or e

or .. .

l.

65 & + 40-64 25-39 18-24

Main user age

l.

.

ca r:m

ca r: m

-# c

l.

ca r: 2

.

Car sharing is decreasing
45% 43% 41% 39% 37% 35%

Proportion of shared cars Cross-section trend

Proportion of multi-car ownership
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

Longitudinal •4 cars out of 10 are shared analysis: 3 of them are shared again next year Car sharing is a •6 cars out of 10 are not shared regular practice 1 of them is shared next year
26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares?

Modelling car sharing
 Less significant variables (Backward elimination):
 Area type  Number of adults
 Head position  Number of persons over 15  Number of persons in hh
 Existence of public transport at
proximity
26-oct-05

 Most significant variables (Forward or Stepwise selection)  Number of licences
 Number of cars
 Income  Main user  Main user gender
     Head gender Number of working persons Region Head age Main user age

Who rents? Who shares?

Who shares? Summary
Households with more licence holders than cars share the most: about three quarters of them share their cars. On the contrary, single driver-single car households have less opportunity to share: only 15% share. Car sharing shed light on the gender role within households: while 58% of the main users of the shared cars are male, 55% of secondary users are female. Car sharing is mainly a regular practice: four cars out of ten are shared on year n, three of them are shared again on year n+1.
26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares?

Conclusions
Who rents? Who shares? Who cares?
 Self established behaviour within households.  Diverse situations that cannot be easily handled by straightforward classifications.  The car cannot be reduced to a personal object.  Car sharing also carries strong links with the issue of car dependency.  Sifting car availability and choice universes may be useful for fitting disaggregated models of sharing.
26-oct-05 Who rents? Who shares?


				
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