The Wordless Manual by olliegoblue28


									How to Write the
Wordless Manual

STC-Israel Technical
 National Conference 2004

Kibbutz Ma’aleh HaHamisha, Israel

February 2004
Presented by Yehuda Zelenko
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We assume that graphics is sort
 of a universal language -- that
 different cultures interpret
 graphics in the same way.


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Non-Verbal Learning

• Act of gaining knowledge, apart from
  language, speech or words.
• Knowledge gained by watching,
  imitating body movements

• Isotype: set of pictographic
  characters, to communicate
  directions, events, objects
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The process of sending and
 receiving word-less messages

•   Facial expressions   • Grooming habits
•   Gestures             • Body positioning
•   Postures             • Consumer
•   Tones of voice         product design

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Facial Expressions

•   Lips
•   Eyebrows
•   Tongue
•   Eyelids
•   Eyes
•   Eye contact
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What does this mean in Japan?

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What does this mean in France?

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What does this mean in Iran?

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        Body Gestures

• Clenched fist    • Crossing your arms
• Wave of hand     • Making facial
• Pointed finger
                   • Nodding
• Shrug of           persistently
  shoulders        • Overusing hand
• Palms Up           motions
• Palms Out        • Tapping your
                     fingers or feet.
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Successful Verbal

 Should end with

       “ I SEE! “

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Tactile Symbols for

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Tactile Symbols for

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 Language for the Deaf




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 Examples of visual

Seat cards in airplanes
Origami books
Lego building block instructions
IKEA furniture assembly
Books for Children
How-to-Do repair manuals
Various labels and tags
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IKEA Manuals

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From DVD Manual

             Don’t pull
            over bump!

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Table Lamp SAFETY!!

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Product Wrappings

             On a

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Shoe Tag
           • Shoe Upper –
             from leather
           • Shoe Insides –
             woven cloth
           • Shoe Soles –

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Packing Instructions

                If you
               box on a
               trip on
               its tail…
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IEC-ISO Safety Symbols

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ISO 3864 Safety Signs

rotating gear   wear safety   do not touch
   hazard         gloves
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Homeowner Wordless
Fix-It Manual
• The problem (presented in a
  A person sorting through laundry to
  wash, trying to separate the colors.
  Laundry is all over the floor in front
  of the machine.
• The solution:
  A frame is built which holds six little
  trash bins, stacked up one on top of
  the other, so clothes can be sorted
  into them by color.
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Don’t use ambiguous
illustrations !
Honda Motorcycle Manual

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The Wordless Manual
What’s it good for?
• For step-by-step   • Cannot teach
  procedures           programming
• For physical       • Not for
  activities           conceptual
                       tasks that need
                       branching or

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So why did HP want visual
 (wordless) manuals?

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Main Criteria for the HP
Visual Manual
• Main motivation: Company wanted to
  save money, but not necessarily
  promise better usability to their
• Wanted to enjoy a global market
• Both parties won…!

• Designed for a HP Network Computer
• Audience – Network Administrator /
  Tech Support Persons
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Main Logistic Benefits
• Product Engineering collaborated
  with Documentation team
• Localization costs were virtually
  eliminated (for up to 22 languages)
• Printing & Production costs per
  revision were substantially reduced
• HP internal documentation
  management was simplified

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Collaboration -- Engineering &
Documentation Teams
Improved the product:
• By adding instructional • By unifying
  cues, such as:            components onto
  decals, warnings,         same assembly
  engraved labels,        • By moving
  arrows                    components to
• By proposing              other locations
  alternative placement • By doing usability
  for card assemblies       testing repeatedly–
  and cables – making       to create ideal user
  assembly easier           experience.

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• “Process of creating or adapting a
  product to a specific locale --
  language, cultural context,
  conventions, and market requirement
  of a specific target market,
• So that User can interact in his/her
  own language and cultural
  conventions, and
• Product meets all regulatory
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Virtually Eliminated
Localization Cost$
• Localization -- used to cost up to
  80 cents per word before Wordless
  Manual was published (year 2000)
• For 5 languages: @ 25-page book not
  localized saved ~ $15,000!
• Savings did not include salaries of internal
  staffing or consultants to manage multiple
  localization vendors.

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Reduced Printing &
Production Cost$
• Single Wordless Manual saved lots of
• Non-Recoverable Expenses (initial
  print setup of manual) - small manual
  in color costs US $5,000.
• Printing production costs for each
  manual - reduced by combining
 As much as half saved per copy with large print

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Simplified HP Document
• Reduced the costs of handling
  multiple parts (e.g., manuals),
  multiple inventories, and
  different bills of material.

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HP Marketing Gains
• Flexibility – able to enter new
  language markets
• Improved Time-to-market - no delays
  for translation & localization
• Improved Usability -- for users
  who had difficulty with textual
• Manual portability (fewer pages)

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Marketing Power
• For countries who demanded
  instructions in their native language

• For limited markets, localization and
  re-printing costs were prohibitive

• Easy to enter very small markets ---
  no additional costs or waiting time

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How to Increase
Usability using Pictures
• Reduce visual       • In US, preferred words
                        with pictures
  traffic by taking   • In Japan, preferred
  out extraneous        Wordless manual

  details             • Tip:
                        “Illustrate only the
• Use only simple       instruction, not the
  illustrations         object in its perfect
• Help reader to      • Don’t scrimp, be
  focus only on         repetitive.
  relevant details
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Developing Non-Verbal
• Set size of manual,   • Chunk text in
  orientation, &          frames to create
  binding                 more succint
• Sketch out simple       instructions
  frames                • Group into logical
• Storyboard with         modules of related
  text information        steps
  and simple photos     • Make reading
  or videotape            sequence obvious
                        • Test and revise!

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Manual + Product --
Usability Testing
• 6- to 8-month development period
• Six product prototypes were built

• 1st product prototype tested with worded
  manual – problem: could not assemble the
  product with text.
• 3rd product prototype tested with first draft
  of Wordless manual
• 5th product prototype tested with final
  version of Wordless manual

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Off-Line Testing
• EQUIPMENT            • MANUAL
• Had to pass all      • First tested the
  performance,           text manual
  electrical, safety   • Next tested the
  tests                  visual manuals -
• No sacrifice in
                          Any revisions =
  performance and        mainly on icons,
  operation              not the
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Any Questions?

           • Now let’s see
             what an HP
             visual manual
             is all about.

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