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					     The New
Stormwater Quality
  Design Manual

Sacramento and South
    Placer Regions

   Public Information
      March 2007
       Topics We’ll Cover Today

• Background and need for requirements
• Overview of stormwater quality control
  measures included in the Design Manual
• Stakeholder outreach
• Schedule
• Review of development standard
  requirements: what’s new, what’s changing?
• Challenges
Background and Need for

 Why Are We Doing This?
         Why Are We Doing This?

Required By State and Federal Regulations
• Stormwater Permits issued to the local municipalities
  implement Clean Water Act and California Water Code
• Permits require development standards to reduce
  pollutants in urban runoff to the “maximum extent

Protect Local Waterways and Associated Uses
   (e.g., fish, drinking water, recreation)
• Development can negatively impact urban streams,
   due to increased imperviousness and pollutant
   loadings from automobile use and other activities
    Negative Impacts of Development
           on Urban Streams
•   Reduced or no recharge for groundwater
•   Increased runoff volumes, peak flow rates and
    durations which can lead to downstream erosion
•   Increases in water temperature in creeks
•   Delivery of pollutants to creeks:
    •   Sediment and construction-related pollutants
    •   Pesticides and fertilizers (phosphorus)
    •   heavy metals, oil & grease, and hydrocarbons
    •   detergents and more
 National studies have shown correlations between increased
imperviousness in a watershed and stream/habitat degradation
        More pavement & roofs = impaired waterways
     Background: Permit Requirements
          Sacramento Areawide Phase I NPDES
               Municipal Stormwater Permit

•   Current permit effective January 2003 – December 2007
•   Sacramento Stormwater Quality Partnership includes 7
    permittees: County of Sacramento and Cities of
    Sacramento, Citrus Heights, Elk Grove, Folsom, Galt and
    Rancho Cordova
•   Program began in 1990; requirements for development
    initiated in mid 1990’s
•   Permit required a Development Standards Plan (Dec
    2003) to propose amendments to the local programs
•   Permittees required to amend standards by May 18, 2006
    Background: Permit Requirements
      City of Roseville Phase II NPDES Municipal
              Stormwater General Permit

•   General permit issued to Roseville in 2003
•   Development standard requirements are described in
    “Attachment 4” to the general permit
•   Roseville opted to proactively collaborate with
    Sacramento program to provide regional consistency
    for development community and share resources
•   Stormwater quality development standards will be new
    for Roseville
   The Sacramento/Roseville
     Collaborative Process

New Stormwater Quality Design Manual
Control measures included in the Manual

         Stakeholder outreach

             New Stormwater Quality
                 Design Manual
                      Project Goals

•   Create standardized, easy-to-use format to promote
    consistency and streamline the permitting process
•   Consolidate all stormwater quality design criteria in
    one manual
•   Tailor information to Sacramento Region
•   Integrate “low impact development” (LID; also known
    as runoff reduction) measures
            New Stormwater Quality
                Design Manual

•   Primary audience: engineers, planners, architects,
    landscape architects, environmental consultants, public
    agency plan reviewers
•   Additional audience: developers, property owners,
    elected and appointed government officials, regulators,
    interested general public
•   Goal is to get people to use the manual at the earliest
    possible stage in site layout and planning – this
    requires early involvement of engineers and
    collaboration between planners, architects and
        Post-Construction Stormwater
          Quality Control Measures

•   Control measures installed during construction to
    reduce pollution in runoff from completed (post-
    construction) projects, for the life of the project
•   Three types addressed in new design manual:
    •   Source control – prevent pollutants from
        contacting site runoff at the source
    •   Runoff reduction – reduce volume of runoff
        discharged from the site (also known as “LID”)
    •   Treatment control – remove or reduce pollutants
        that have been entrained in runoff
     Examples of Control Measures
      Featured in Design Manual

Source Control:
• “No Dumping” stamps on new storm drain inlets
• Design details for waste management, loading and
   other areas that can generate pollution
Runoff Reduction:
• Pervious pavement
• Disconnected pavement and roof drains
Treatment Control:
• Vegetated swales and filter strips
• Detention basins/ponds
      Source Control
“No Dumping” Messages for
    Storm Drain Inlets
Runoff Reduction Controls
    Pervious Pavement
     Runoff Reduction Controls
  Disconnect Impervious Surfaces

Divided Sidewalks   Alternative Driveways
       Runoff Reduction Controls
        Disconnected Roof Drains


Runoff Reduction Controls
    Interceptor Trees
Treatment Controls

           Stormwater Planters

            Portland State University
            City of Portland
          Treatment Controls
           Vegetated Swales

Old Way                        New Way
               Treatment Controls
                Vegetated Swales

Expo Parkway                        Gateway Oaks
Sacramento                            Sacramento
          Treatment Controls
             Sand Filters

City of Sacramento Dept. of Utilities Parking Lot
     Treatment Controls
Water Quality Detention Basins

North Natomas
      Treatment Controls
Proprietary Filters and Separators
       What Do Local Agencies Allow?
  Sacramento Stormwater Quality Partnership

                                               Two types

                                               (7.5 gpm ZPG
                                               media) by

*For current approved list, see
    What Do Local Agencies Allow?
          City of Roseville

• The City of Roseville is currently reviewing
  performance information on many of the
  stormwater treatment devices that are
  available on the market today
• Prior to adoption of the new Stormwater
  Quality Design Manual, the City will post on
  their website a new list of approved
  proprietary stormwater treatment devices
 Water Quality Treatment Controls
 we can learn from others’ successes…

Dublin Ranch water quality swales and detention basin
  Runoff Reduction Measures
we can learn from others’ successes…

      Pervious pavement, Emeryville
    Combination Approaches
we can learn from others’ successes…

   Divided sidewalks and vegetated swales
     Greenbriar Development, Livermore
  How Are Redevelopment Projects

Significant Redevelopment includes, but is not
   limited to:

• Expansion of a building footprint;
• Replacement of a structure;
• Replacement of impervious surface that is not
  part of routine maintenance activity; and
• Land-disturbing activities related to structural
  or impervious surfaces.
       Significant Redevelopment

• The standards described in the Design Manual
  shall apply only to the redeveloped area.

• Exception: In cases where all drainage from
  the existing developed portion flows through
  the redeveloped portion, the treatment
  control measure must be designed for the
  entire contributing shed.

• Check with local permitting agency for details.
       What Is the Incentive for Using
       Runoff Reduction (Low Impact
         Development) Features?

• Reduced volume of runoff
• Less water to treat in stormwater quality
  treatment facilities
• Possibly less land required for certain types of
  facilities (e.g., detention basins)
• Possibly decreased size for other types of
  devices (e.g., underground vault)
• Possible cost savings to developer
     Stakeholder Outreach for the
           Design Manual

• Stakeholder mailing list
• Notifications when public draft is available
• Web site: Background information, access to
  documents, project update fact sheets
• Outreach to professional associations
• Development focus group – meetings and
  early review opportunity
• Public review draft available for 6 weeks
       Design Manual Schedule

• Agency review draft: July 2006
• Development focus group draft: December
• Public review draft: February 16, 2007
    Available at web site
    Written comments due: March 30, 2007
• Final manual: May 18, 2007 (regulatory
      Design Manual Workshops

• March 8, 2007
  9:00 am to 12:00 pm
  Woodcreek Oaks Golf Club

• March 20, 2007
  1:30 pm to 4:30 pm
  City of Elk Grove Council Chambers
 Development Standard
Sacramento County agencies
     City of Roseville

    How have (or will)
    standards change?

What projects are affected?
     Summary of Changes Being Made
          by Local Agencies

•   Adoption of new/revised planning policies to better
    address water quality impacts of urban development
•   Implementation of new standards, effective:
       •   May 18, 2006 (Sacramento County/cities)
       •   Summer 2007 (City of Roseville)-see next slide
•   Publication of new Stormwater Quality Design Manual
    by May 18, 2007
•   Standards address post-construction stormwater
    quality control measures. Construction-phase
    requirements are not changing at this time.
  Effective Date for New Standards
          in City of Roseville

• After City adopts Design Manual (anticipated
  Summer 2007), all projects without an
  entitlement will be required to adhere to new
  development standards

• Projects that received entitlement prior to
  Manual adoption will be encouraged to
  incorporate stormwater quality control
  measures as much as feasible
 Examples of Policies Being Added to
   General Plans/Other Documents

• Preserve, create or restore riparian corridors,
  buffers and wetlands
• Limit disturbance of natural water bodies
• Minimize impervious and directly-connected
  impervious areas (use infiltration where
• Implement source and/or treatment controls to
  protect downstream water quality
• Reduce downstream erosion
Projects Affected by Development Standards
          Residential (Sacramento)

       Old Standard                New Standard
•   SFR < 100 acres (25      •   SFR < 20 acres;
    acres for Sac City);         source control, runoff
    source control only          reduction encouraged
•   SFR ≥ 100 acres (25      •   SFR ≥ 20 acres;
    acres for Sac City);         treatment control also
    treatment control also       req’d
•   MFR < 1 acre; source     •   MFR: No Change
    control only
•   MFR ≥ 1 acre;
    treatment control also
Projects Affected by Development Standards
           Residential (Roseville)

      Old Standard          New Standard
•   None             •   SFR < 10 units; source
                         control req’d,
                     •   SFR ≥ 10 units; runoff
                         reduction and/or
                         treatment also req’d
                     •   MFR < 1 acre; source
                         control only
                     •   MFR ≥ 1 acre;
                         treatment control also
    Projects Affected by New Standards
    Commercial-Industrial (Sacramento)

       Old Standard              New Standard
•   < 1 acre impervious    •   Old thresholds remain,
    area; source control       and runoff reduction
    only                       also encouraged now
•   ≥ 1 ac impervious      •   Road projects < 5
    area; treatment            acres impervious;
    control also req’d         source control only
                           •   Road projects adding ≥
                               5 acres impervious;
                               treatment control also
     Projects Affected by New Standards
      Commercial-Industrial (Roseville)

      Old Standard           New Standard
•   None              •   ≥ 100,000 sf; source
                          control only
                      •   ≥ 1 acre impervious
                          area; treatment control
                          also req’d
 Projects Affected by New Standards
              Additional Notes
         Re: Commercial-Industrial

• Category includes public facilities, parks,
  schools and churches

• Rooftop area included in impervious area

• Sites discharging to an existing regional
  treatment facility (e.g., detention basin) may
  not have to do additional on-site treatment
     How Do Requirements Apply to
       Mixed Use Developments?

•   Total entitlement project size dictates the conditions
    and requirements that apply
•   Projects cannot be split into phases to avoid the
•   Decision will be made case-by-case, but in general:

    • If total project area < 20 acres: each land use type
      in the development is treated per Table 3-2 matrix
      (some portions may get treatment, others not)
    • If total project area ≥ 20 acres: treat runoff from
      entire project site

•   General challenges
•   Implementation Challenges
•   “Smart Growth” projects
•   Strategies for roadway projects
•   Proprietary treatment devices
            General Challenges

• EARLY collaboration by the ENTIRE design
  team (e.g., planners, architects, engineers) is
  not taking place for the most part

• Some of the features in the Manual may
  create conflicts with some existing agency
  codes and policies

• There is resistance by engineers to some of
  the practices (e.g., pervious pavement)
            General Challenges

• Infiltration techniques will be difficult on many
  sites due to C and D clay soils

• Some of the features may invite
  vector/mosquito problems if not properly
  designed, constructed and maintained
          Implementation Challenges

some features will not be plan or field checked by agency
  drainage engineers (e.g., disconnected roof drains)
 building department staff need to be brought on board

•   Conflict between achieving “Smart Growth”
    objectives, and allowing space on these dense project
    sites for utilities, runoff reduction (LID) measures,
    stormwater quality treatment features and open

•   However, the stormwater permits mandate that post-
    construction runoff is treated

•   Currently, there is no exemption or waiver option;
    such a program will take time to develop
What do the stormwater permits require?

•   “Permittees may propose a waiver program that would
    require any developers receiving waivers to transfer the
    savings in cost, to a stormwater mitigation fund”

•   “Funds may be used for projects … within the
    watershed of the waived project”

•   Waivers may be granted “when all appropriate
    treatment measures have been considered and
    rejected as infeasible”

•   The regulators must approve the waiver program prior
    to implementation
      Challenge: Finding Treatment
    Alternatives for Roadway Projects
•   Permit requires treatment of runoff from roadway
    projects of 5 acres or more in size

•   Difficult to isolate drainage for a portion of a roadway

•   Limited menu of treatment options for these types of
     • Vegetated swales and filter strips
     • Proprietary underground devices

•   Agencies need help coming up with practical solutions
     Challenge: Proprietary Devices

•   State of the practice is evolving rapidly; many vendors
    in the market

•   Most devices ineffective at removing fine sediments
    and other pollutants of concern for this area

•   Lack of quality field data to demonstrate pollutant
    removal effectiveness

•   Currently, only two types are accepted for use in
    Sacramento County

Sacramento agencies’ web site: (“new development”)
• Project fact sheets
• Links to Design Manual and other resources
• Links to Bay Area case studies
• Training opportunities

Other Sites:
• Low Impact Development (LID) Center:
• Cal Water and Land Use Partnership (formerly Cal
           Another Resource:
         Recent EPA Publications

Using Smart Growth Techniques as Stormwater BMPs
                 Summer 2006
 Design Manual Steering Committee

Sacramento County* — Dalia Fadl, 874-1321

City of Sacramento — Sherill Huun, 808-1455

City of Elk Grove — Leslie Nguyen-Pickett, 478-2213

City of Folsom — Sarah Amaya, 351-3545

City of Galt – Trung Trinh, 209-366-7268

City of Roseville — Kelye McKinney, 774-5552

* Also representing Citrus Heights and Rancho Cordova