Urban Transport in the Developing World by grapieroo6

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									Urban Transport in the Developing World
     Elements of Urban Transport Sector
   Urban public transport:
       On-street systems (for buses, trolley-buses, trams)
       Mixed on-street and off-street systems (bus lanes, bus
        ways and light rail)
       Off-street systems (metros and commuter rail)
   The urban road system
   Traffic management systems (for increasing the
    efficiency of available road space)
   Non-motorized transport systems (facilities for
    pedestrians and people powered vehicles)
   Urban transport institutions (planning, design,
    finance, implementation, and enforcement)
                   Purpose

   Purpose of urban transport. Successful
    urban transport systems ought to increase
    commercial and labor market efficiency,
    increase access to amenities, and make
    changes in the scale and form of urban
    agglomerations possible, all without undue
    adverse effects on the environment.
                   Importance
   Importance of urban transport. The urban
    sector in most developing countries accounts
    for at least 50 percent of the gross national
    product and in some countries over 70 %.
    Cities in developing countries often devote 15
    % to 25 % of their annual expenditures to their
    transport systems, and sometimes much more.
   Household expenditures on urban
    transport. In developing countries it is
    common to find that 5 % to 10 % of urban
    household income is spent on transport. In
    some cases the figure is 15% or more.
       General Trends in Urban Transport
                    Sector
   Rapid growth of urban areas. Cities are major
    engines of growth in most developing countries, and
    urban populations are expanding at a high rate (more
    than 6 percent annually or doubling in size in less than
    12 years).
   Very rapid increase in motorization. Urban motor
    vehicle ownership and usage is growing even faster
    than the urban population. Vehicle ownership growth
    rates of 15-20% per year in developing countries is
    not uncommon. This has been largely caused by
    growing per capita incomes in urban areas.
      General Trends in Urban Transport Sector
   Substantial increases in traffic congestion. Ownership
    and usage of vehicles is growing much faster than the ability to
    provide road space and alternative means of coping with the
    problem. Severe traffic congestion, and its adverse side effects
    on the urban economy, environment, and society are being felt
    in many cities.
   Relative decline of public transport usage and services.
    The growing reliance on private vehicles has resulted in a
    substantial decline in the share of total trips being provided by
    urban public transport systems in many cities. Similarly, the
    travel environment for pedestrians and people-powered
    vehicles has rapidly declined. This trend is particularly
    unfavorable for the urban poor as they are typically captive
    riders and often dependent on public transit for access to
    employment.
    General Trends in Urban Transport Sector

   Shift from public to private sector provision of
    services and facilities. The public sector is
    increasingly relying on the private sector to provide
    these facilities and services. It is estimated that at least
    80% of all urban bus services provided around the world
    are now privately owned and operated. Increasingly
    cities are arranging for the private provision of urban
    transport infrastructure. In short, cities are moving from
    providers of transport infrastructure and services to
    facilitators.
     General Trends in Urban Transport
                  Sector
   Shift from new road construction to intensive
    management of urban road networks and
    improved public transit. Growing recognition that
    cities cannot build enough road capacity to
    accommodate the growth in travel demand by means of
    the private vehicle.
   While road networks will be required, especially in
    rapidly growing cities, greater reliance is being placed on
    (a) more intensive management of travel demand, (b)
    traffic management techniques to increase the practical
    capacity of available road space, and (c) improved urban
    public transport systems.
     General Trends in Urban Transport
                  Sector
   Rapid introduction of Intelligent Technology
    Systems (ITS). recent development of improved
    "intelligent technologies" (electronic toll collection
    systems, centralized traffic control systems, automatic
    vehicle location systems for public transport systems,
    and other similar technologies) has resulted in better
    utilizing urban transport facilities.
   The costs of these technologies are rapidly declining
    while their practical applications improve. This presents
    an opportunity for those developing countries with
    adequate financial and staff resources to "leapfrog"
    forward in applying these technologies to urban
    transport problems.
      General Trends in Urban Transport Sector
   Potential for better acceptance and deployment of
    demand management techniques.
   Charge road users for the use of scarce road space, primarily
    as a means of maximizing the use of urban roads during
    congested periods, and secondarily as a means of securing
    additional funds for transport investments.
   Proposals have been repeatedly rejected due to their political
    unpopularity. Up to the present these systems have been
    deployed in city centers only in Singapore and three Norwegian
    cities.
   With the introduction of much improved electronic road pricing
    technologies, the practical application of pricing may be ready
    for acceptance and more widespread deployment.
   Experience has shown that public acceptance of pricing
    schemes can be substantially enhanced by earmarking the
    funds that are collected expressly for additional urban transport
    improvements.
          Issues Requiring Attention

   Adverse Impacts of Rapid Growth in
    Vehicle Ownership and Use
   Inadequate Urban Transport Financial
    Mechanisms
   Inadequate Urban Transport Regulation
    and Legislation
   Weak and Fragmented Urban
    Transportation Institutions
Shanghai Mass Transit
Singapore’s Mass Rapid Transit

								
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