Commercial Pesticide Training Manual by olliegoblue26

VIEWS: 423 PAGES: 136

									Applying Pesticides Correctly
A Guide for Private and Commercial Applicators




This guide was modified from the Applying Pesticides Correctly
A Guide for Private and Commercial Applicators
Bulletin 825

Published by the Ohio State University, 1992.
PREFACE
         This manual represents the second revision of "Applying Pesticides Correctly -- A Guide for Private and
Commercial Applicators." The series began with separate guides for private and commercial applic ators published
jointly by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in
1975. Those manuals were a part of the initial implementation of the applicator training requirements of the
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act of 1972. They established a threshold level of information
necessary for applicators seeking initial certification.
         The first revision, in 1983, recognized the need for private and commercial applicators to have a common
basis of knowledge about pesticide use. It combined the two 1974 publications into an expanded and updated
"core" manual for use by both groups of applicators. Produced by North Carolina State University and Information
Impact, in cooperation with USDA and EPA, it included new information and represented a step towards more
depth of knowledge for certified applicators.
         This second revision reflects the continuing evolution of the applicator certification program. Pesticide use
has become more complex. Safe, responsible pesticide use has become increasingly important to human health and
environmental quality. This new manual includes much new information about the effects of pesticides and how to
ensure that they can continue to be used for the benefit of society with a minimum of risk to either people or the
environment.
         Another major change is in the focus of the manual. The previous versions, while giving much basic
information, were slanted toward agricultural pesticide use. Recognizing that more and more applicants for
certification come from fields other than agriculture, this version has taken a broad approach. The "core" of
information it contains is, in general, applicable to the entire range of categories in which certification is granted.
         Finally, this revision constitutes a major change in the format of the core manual. The information is
contained in separate units, or modules, that each contain learning objectives and review questions and answers.
The structure allows for replacement of individual units, as needed, without the need to revise and renumber the
entire book. Since the modules are not numbered, training agencies can organize them to suit their individual needs
and can add or delete units as appropriate.
         This project, which has the support of both the Extension Service, USDA, and the Office of Pesticide
Programs, EPA, represents the continuation of a long-standing effort to ensure that pesticide applicator training is
relevant and useful to applicators who seek certification and that it fulfills the purpose of improving the safety and
efficacy of pesticide use.




                                                      ii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    This manual, "Applying Pesticides Correctly," was produced by The Ohio State University and Information
Impact, in cooperation with the Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Office of Pesticide
Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

     Principal participants in the project were:
Sally A. McDonald, Information Impact -- primary author and compiler.
Mary Ann Wamsley, Information Impact -- editor and reading level advisor.
John K. Victor and Mary Hoffelt, Section of Information and Applied Communications in the Ohio Cooperative
Extension Service at The Ohio State University -- artists and graphic designers.
Richard C. Funt, The Ohio State University -- project coordinator.

    Members of The Ohio State University Advisory Committee included:
    Richard C. Funt, Department of Horticulture, Chair
    Mark Headings, Agricultural Technical Institute
    Jo Anne Kick-Raak, Pesticide Applicator Training
    Richard Lindquist, Department of Entomology
    Erdal Ozkan, Department of Agricultural Engineering
    Charles Powell, Jr., Department of Plant Pathology
    Celeste Welty, Department of Entomology

    The following people are especially acknowledged for their thorough reviews and constructive suggestions:
    Karen Angulo, Environmental Protection Agency
    Robert Bellinger, University of South Carolina
    Burton C. Evans, University of Georgia
    Ronald Gardner, Cornell University

     Several printed sources were particularly crucial to the development of this manual:
"Agricultural Respiratory Hazards Education Series, Unit 9, Personal Protective Equipment". 1986. C. Mutel, C.
Hradek, and W. Popendorf. American Lung Association of Iowa, Des Moines, Iowa."Personal & Environmental
Safety". 1990. Lab Safety Supply, Janeville, Wisconsin.
"Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Core Manual". 1990. D. Rutz, R. Gardner, and W. Smith. Chemicals-
Pesticides Program, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
"Pesticide Education Manual, A Guide to Safe Use and Handling". C. Brown and W. Hock. The Pennsylvania
State University, University Park, Pennsylvania.
"Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings". 1989. D.P. Morgan. Fourth Edition. Iowa Pestic ide
Hazard Assessment Project, The University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa.

        Thanks go also to the many other reviewers who took the considerable time necessary to read the
draft manuscript and to offer comments and suggestions. Each had a significant hand in ensuring that this
final version represents the best and most up-to-date information available about the safe use of
pesticides. These reviewers included Cooperative Extension Service pesticide coordinators, EPA
headquarters and regional personnel, NIOSH personnel, and other experts from the pesticide industry.




                                                    iii
Contents
Unit 1 - Principles of Pest Control ................................................................................................................................................................... 1
Learning Objectives............................................................................................................................................................................................ 1
Principles of Pest Control.................................................................................................................................................................................. 1
   Pests.................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1
   Pest Control..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2
   Integrated Pest Management........................................................................................................................................................................ 3
   Pest Control Failures ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 5
Test Your Knowledge ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 6
Unit 2 - Pesticide Labeling ................................................................................................................................................................................ 8
Learning Objectives............................................................................................................................................................................................ 8
Pesticide Labeling ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 8
   EPA Approval of Pesticide Labeling ......................................................................................................................................................... 8
   Classification of Pesticide Uses .................................................................................................................................................................. 9
   Parts of Pesticide Labeling........................................................................................................................................................................... 9
   Restricted-Use Designation........................................................................................................................................................................ 11
   Front-Panel Precautionary Statements ..................................................................................................................................................... 12
   Hazards to Humans and Domestic Animals ............................................................................................................................................ 12
   Environmental Hazards............................................................................................................................................................................... 13
   Physical or Chemical Hazards................................................................................................................................................................... 13
   Directions for Use........................................................................................................................................................................................ 13
Know the Law.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15
Test Your Knowledge ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 15
Unit 3 - Formulations ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 17
Formulations...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 17
   Liquid Formulations.................................................................................................................................................................................... 17
   Dry Formulations......................................................................................................................................................................................... 20
   Fumigants...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 22
   Adjuvants ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 23
Test Your Knowledge ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 23
Unit 4 - Pesticides in the Environment.......................................................................................................................................................... 25
Learning Objectives.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 25
Pesticides in the Environment......................................................................................................................................................................... 25
   Sources of Contamination .......................................................................................................................................................................... 25
   Sensitive Areas............................................................................................................................................................................................. 26
   Pesticide Movement .................................................................................................................................................................................... 27
   Harmful Effects on Nontarget Plants and Animals ................................................................................................................................ 29
   Harmful Effects on Surfaces...................................................................................................................................................................... 30
Test Your Knowledge ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 30
Unit 5 - Special Environmental Concerns -- Protecting Ground Water and Endangered Species...................................................... 33
Learning Objectives.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 33
Special Environmental Concerns -- Protecting Ground Water and Endangered Species..................................................................... 33
Protecting Ground Water................................................................................................................................................................................. 34
   Sources of Ground Water........................................................................................................................................................................... 34
   Pesticide Contamination of Ground Water.............................................................................................................................................. 34
   The Certified Applicator's Role ................................................................................................................................................................. 36
Protection of Endangered Species.................................................................................................................................................................. 36
   Limitations on Pesticide Use..................................................................................................................................................................... 37
   Habitats of Endangered Species ................................................................................................................................................................ 37
   Importance of Protecting Endangered Species ....................................................................................................................................... 37
   The Certified Applicator's Role ................................................................................................................................................................. 38
Know the Law.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 38
Test Your Knowledge ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 39
Unit 6 - Harmful Effects and Emergency Response................................................................................................................................... 41
Learning Objectives.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 41
Harmful Effects and Emergency Response.................................................................................................................................................. 41
   Exposure ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 41
   Toxicity.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 43
   Harmful Effects............................................................................................................................................................................................ 43



                                                                                                    iv
Know the Law.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 47
   Signs and Symptoms of Harmful Effects ................................................................................................................................................ 48
   Responding to a Poisoning Emergency.................................................................................................................................................... 49
Know the Law.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 50
   Heat Stress..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 50
   Heat Cramps ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 51
Test Your Knowledge ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 51
Unit 7 - Personal Protective Equipment........................................................................................................................................................ 53
Learning Objectives.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 53
Personal Protective Equipment....................................................................................................................................................................... 53
   Chemical-Resistant Personal Protective Equipment.............................................................................................................................. 53
   Protecting Your Skin ................................................................................................................................................................................... 55
   Hand and Foot Protection........................................................................................................................................................................... 56
   Protecting Your Respiratory Tract............................................................................................................................................................ 59
   Personal Protective Equipment for Handling Fumigants...................................................................................................................... 63
   Disposables and Reusables......................................................................................................................................................................... 63
   Maintaining Personal Protective Equipment........................................................................................................................................... 64
   Washing Personal Protective Equipment................................................................................................................................................. 64
Test Your Knowledge ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 66
Unit 8 - Pesticide Handling Decisions........................................................................................................................................................... 69
Learning Objectives.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 69
Pesticide Handling Decisions.......................................................................................................................................................................... 69
   Personal Safety Considerations................................................................................................................................................................. 69
   Pre-Application Decisions.......................................................................................................................................................................... 71
   Avoid Heat Stress........................................................................................................................................................................................ 75
Test Your Knowledge ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 76
Unit 9 - Mixing, Loading and Application ................................................................................................................................................... 78
Learning Objectives.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 78
Mixing, Loading and Application .................................................................................................................................................................. 78
   Safe Mixing and Loading Practices .......................................................................................................................................................... 78
   Personal Protective Equipment.................................................................................................................................................................. 79
   Applying Pesticides Safely......................................................................................................................................................................... 81
   After Mixing, Loading, and Application ................................................................................................................................................. 84
   Safety Systems ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 87
Test Your Knowledge ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 89
Unit 10 - Applying the Correct Amount ....................................................................................................................................................... 92
Learning Objectives.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 92
Applying the Correct Amount......................................................................................................................................................................... 92
   Deciding How Much To Apply................................................................................................................................................................. 92
   Mixing, Loading, and Calibration Alternatives ...................................................................................................................................... 93
   Calibrating Your Equipment ...................................................................................................................................................................... 94
   Calibration Methods.................................................................................................................................................................................... 95
   Measure Accurately..................................................................................................................................................................................... 96
   Diluting Pesticides Correctly ..................................................................................................................................................................... 97
   Determining Size of Target Site................................................................................................................................................................ 97
Test Your Knowledge ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 97
Unit 11 - Transportation, Storage, Disposal, and Spill Cleanup............................................................................................................... 99
Learning Objectives.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 99
Transportation, Storage, Disposal, and Spill Cleanup................................................................................................................................ 99
   Transportation of Pesticides....................................................................................................................................................................... 99
   Pesticide Storage........................................................................................................................................................................................100
   Disposal.......................................................................................................................................................................................................103
   Spill Management......................................................................................................................................................................................105
Test Your Knowledge ....................................................................................................................................................................................108
Know the Law..................................................................................................................................................................................................109
Know the Law..................................................................................................................................................................................................110
Know the Law..................................................................................................................................................................................................110

APPENDIX - Terms to Know… Page 111 and EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES ON THE HUMAN BODY….. page 113



                                                                                                 v
                                                                        injures humans, animals, desirable plants,
Unit 1 - Principles of Pest Control                                  structures, or possessions,

                                                                       spreads disease to humans, domestic
                                                                     animals, wildlife, or desirable plants,
Learning Objectives                                                     annoys humans or domestic animals.

After you complete your study of this unit, you              Types of Pests
should be able to:
                                                             Types of pests include:
          Explain why identific ation of the pest is
        the first step in developing an effective pest
                                                                       insects, such as roaches, termites,
        control strategy.
                                                                     mosquitoes, aphids, beetles, fleas, and
                                                                     caterpillars,
          Explain the differences between
        continuous pests, sporadic pests, and
        potential pests.                                               insect-like organisms, such as mites, ticks,
                                                                     and spiders,
          Explain what is meant by prevention,
                                                                       microbial organisms, such as bacteria,
        suppression, and eradication of pests.
                                                                     fungi, nematodes, viruses, and mycoplasmas,
          Describe "thresholds" and why they are an
                                                                      weeds, which are any plants growing
        important consideration in developing a pest
                                                                     where they are not wanted,
        control strategy.
                                                                       mollusks, such as snails, slugs, and
          Describe "monitoring" as it relates to pest
                                                                     shipworms, and
        control and explain why it is important to
        pest control strategy.
                                                                       vertebrates, such as rats, mice, other
                                                                     rodents, birds, fish, and snakes.
           Define "integrated pest management" and
        list several possible control tactics that may
        be used in an IPM strategy.                          Most organisms are not pests. A species may be a
                                                             pest in some situations and not in others. An
                                                             organism should not be considered a pest until it is
          Name factors that can cause pesticide
                                                             proven to be one. Categories of pests include:
        applications to fail to control pests.
                                                                       continuous pests that are nearly always
          Name ways to help avoid the development                    present and require regular control.
        of pest resistance to pesticides.
                                                                       sporadic, migratory, or cyclical pests that
Principles of Pest Control                                           require control occasionally or intermittently.

                                                                       potential pests that do not require control
                                                                     under normal conditions, but may require
Pests                                                                control in certain circumstances.

A pest is anything that:                                     Pest Identification

          competes with humans, domestic animals,            Accurate identification is the first step in an effective
        or desirable plants for food or water,               pest management program. Never attempt a pest
                                                             control program until you are sure of what the pest is.
                                                             The more you know about the pest and the factors


                                                         1
that influence its development and spread, the easier,       Whenever you try to control a pest, you will want to
more cost-effective, and more successful your pest           achieve one of these three goals, or some
control will be. Correct identification of a pest allows     combination of them:
you to determine basic information about it,
including its life cycle and the time that it is most                  prevention -- keeping a pest from
susceptible to being controlled.                                     becoming a problem,

As a certified applicator, you must be familiar with                   suppression -- reducing pest numbers or
the pests you are likely to encounter in the type of                 damage to an acceptable level, and
work in your certification category. To identify and
control pests, you need to know:                                       eradication -- destroying an entire pest
                                                                     population.
          the physical features of the pests likely to
        be encountered,                                      Prevention may be a goal when the pest's presence
                                                             or abundance can be predicted in advance.
           characteristics of the damage they cause,         Continuous pests, by definition, are usually very
                                                             predictable. Sporadic and potential pests may be
           their development and biology,                    predictable if you know the circumstances or
                                                             conditions that favor their presence as pests. For
          whether they are continuous, sporadic, or          example, some plant diseases occur only under
        potential pests, and                                 certain environmental conditions. If such conditions
                                                             are present, you can take steps to prevent the plant
           what your control goal is.                        disease organisms from harming the desirable plants.

If you need help in identifying a pest, contact your         Suppression is a common goal in many pest
commodity or industry organization, Cooperative              situations. The intent is to reduce the number of pests
Extension educator, or state land-grant university.          to a level where the harm they cause is acceptable.
                                                             Once a pest's presence is detected and control is
                                                             deemed necessary, suppression and prevention often
                                                             are joint goals. The right combination of control
                                                             measures can often suppress the pests already present
Pest Control                                                 and prevent them from building up again to a level
                                                             where they are causing unacceptable harm.
Any time you are considering whether pest control is
necessary, remember:                                         Eradication is a rare goal in outdoor pest situations
                                                             because it is difficult to achieve. Usually the goal is
           Control a pest only when it is causing or         prevention and/or suppression. Eradication is
        is expected to cause more harm than is               occasionally attempted when a foreign pest has been
        reasonable to accept.                                accidentally introduced, but is not yet established in
                                                             an area. Such eradication strategies often are
          Use a control strategy that will reduce            supported by the government. The Mediterranean
        the pest numbers to an acceptable level.             fruit fly, gypsy moth, and fire ant control programs
                                                             are examples.
          Cause as little harm as possible to
        everything except the pest.                          Eradication is a more common goal indoors.
                                                             Enclosed environments usually are smaller, less
Even though a pest is present, it may not do much            complex, and more easily controlled than outdoor
harm. It could cost more to control the pest than            areas. In many enclosed areas, such as dwellings,
would be lost because of the pest's damage.                  schools, office buildings, and health care, food
                                                             processing, and food preparation facilities, certain
Pest Control Goals                                           pests cannot or will not be tolerated.

                                                             Threshold Levels


                                                         2
Thresholds are the levels of pest populations at which        in predicting when a pest outbreak will occur or will
you should take pest control action if you want to            hit threshold levels.
prevent the pests in an area from causing
unacceptable injury or harm. Thresholds may be                Monitoring is not necessary in situations where a pest
based on esthetic, health, or economic considerations.        is continually present and the threshold is zero. For
These levels, which are known as "action thresholds,"         example, there is zero tolerance for bacteria in
have been determined for many pests.                          operating rooms and other sterile areas of health care
                                                              facilities. In these situations, routine pest control
A threshold often is set at the level where the               measures are taken to eradicate any pests and to
economic losses caused by pest damage, if the pest            prevent pests from entering the area.
population continued to grow, would be greater than
the cost of controlling the pests. These types of action      Avoiding Harmful Effects
thresholds are called "economic thresholds." For
example, when the number of insects on a particular           Pest control involves more than simply identifying a
crop exceeds a given quantity, an insecticide                 pest and using a control tactic. The treatment site,
application to prevent economic damage could be               whether it is outdoors or indoors usually contains
justified.                                                    other living organisms (such as people, animals, and
                                                              plants) and nonliving surroundings (such as air,
In some pest control situations, the threshold level is       water, structures, objects, and surfaces). All of these
zero: even a single pest in such a situation is               could be affected by pest control measures. Unless
unreasonably harmful. For example, the presence of            you consider the possible effects on the entire system
any rodents in food processing facilities forces              within which the pest exists, your pest control effort
action. In homes, people generally take action to             could cause harm or lead to continued or new pest
control some pests, such as rodents or roaches, even          problems. Rely on your good judgment and, when
if only one or a few have been seen.                          pesticides are part of the strategy, on the pesticide
                                                              labeling.
Pest Monitoring
                                                              Most treatment sites are disrupted to some degree by
In most pest control situations, the area to be               pest control strategies. The actions of every type of
protected should be checked often. Regular                    organism or component sharing the site usually affect
monitoring can answer several important questions:            the actions and well-being of many others. When the
                                                              balance is disrupted, certain organisms may be
           What kinds of pests are present?                   destroyed or reduced in number, and others --
                                                              sometimes the pests -- may dominate.
          Are the numbers great enough to warrant
        control?

           When is the right time to begin control?           Integrated Pest Management

          Have the control efforts successfully               Integrated pest management is the combination of
        reduced the number of pests?                          appropriate pest control tactics into a single plan to
                                                              reduce pests and their damage to an acceptable level.
Monitoring of insect, insect-like, mollusk, and               Using many different tactics to control a pest
vertebrate pests usually is done by trapping or by            problem tends to cause the least disruption to the
scouting. Monitoring of weed pests usually is done            living organisms and nonliving surroundings at the
by visual ins pection. Monitoring for microbial pests         treatment site. Relying only on pesticides can cause
is done by looking for the injury or damage they              pests to develop resistance to pesticides, cause
cause.                                                        outbreaks of other pests, and can harm surfaces or
                                                              nontarget organisms. With some pests, using
Monitoring also can include checking environmental            pesticides alone will not achieve adequate control.
conditions in the area. Temperature and moisture
levels, especially humidity, are often important clues        To solve pest problems, you must:



                                                          3
         identify the pest or pests and determine          Geographic barriers -- Features such as mountains
        whether control is warranted for each,             and large bodies of water restrict the spread of many
                                                           pests. Other features of the landscape can have
          determine your pest control goal(s),             similar effects.

          know what control tactics are available,         Food and water supply -- Pest populations can
                                                           thrive only as long as their food and water supply
           evaluate the benefits and risks of each         lasts. Once the food source -- plant or animal -- is
        tactic or combination of tactics,                  exhausted, the pests die or become inactive. The life
                                                           cycle of many pests depends on the availability of
           choose a strategy that will be most             water.
        effective and will cause the least harm to
        people and the environment,                        Shelter -- The availability of shelter can affect some
                                                           pest populations. Overwintering sites and places to
          use each tactic in the strategy correctly,       hide from predators are important to the survival of
                                                           some pests.
          observe local, state, and federal regulations
        that apply to the situation.                       Applied Controls

The strategy you choose will depend on the pest you        Unfortunately, natural controls often do not control
have identified and the kind and amount of control         pests quickly or completely enough to prevent
you need.                                                  unacceptable injury or damage. Then other control
                                                           measures must be used. Those available include:
Natural Controls
                                                                     host resistance,
Some natural forces act on all organisms, causing the
                                                                     biological control,
populations to rise and fall. These natural forces act
independently of humans and may either help or
hinder pest control. You may not be able to alter the                cultural control,
action of natural forces on a pest population, but you
should be aware of their influence and take advantage                mechanical control,
of them when possible. Natural forces that affect pest
populations include climate, natural enemies, natural                sanitation, and
barriers, availability of shelter, and food and water
supplies.                                                            chemical control.

Climate -- Weather conditions, especially                  Host resistance -- Some plants, animals, and
temperature, day length, and humidity, affect pest         structures resist pests better than others. Some
activity and rate of reproduction. Pests may be killed     varieties of plants, wood, and animals are resistant to
or suppressed by rain, freezing temperatures, drought,     certain pests. Use of resistant types, when available,
or other adverse weather. Climate also affects pests       helps keep pest populations below harmful levels by
indirectly by influencing the growth and development       making conditions less favorable for the pests.
of their hosts. A population of plant-eating pests is
related to growth of its host plants. Unusual weather      Host resistance works in three ways:
conditions can change normal patterns so that
increased or decreased damage results.                               Chemicals in the host repel the pest or
                                                                   prevent the pest from completing its life
Natural enemies -- Birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish,              cycle.
and mammals feed on some pests and help control
their numbers. Many predatory and parasitic insect                   The host is more vigorous or tolerant than
and insect-like species feed on other organisms, some              other varieties and thus less likely to be
of which are pests. Pathogens often suppress pest                  seriously damaged by pest attacks.
populations.


                                                       4
         The host has physical characteristics that          Lights, heat, and refrigeration can alter the
        make it more difficult to attack.                    environment enough to suppress or eradicate some
                                                             pest populations. Altering the amount of water,
Biological control -- Biological control involves the        including humidity, can control some pests,
use of natural enemies -- parasites, predators, and          especially insects and disease agents.
pathogens. You can supplement this natural control
by releasing more of a pest's enemies into the target        Sanitation -- Sanitation practices help to prevent and
area or by introducing new enemies that were not in          suppress some pests by removing the pests or their
the area before. Biological control usually is not           sources of food and shelter. Urban and industrial
eradication. The degree of control fluctuates. There is      pests can be reduced by improving cleanliness,
a time lag between pest population increase and the          eliminating pest harborage, and increasing the
corresponding increase in natural controls. But, under       frequency of garbage pickup. Management of pests
proper conditions, sufficient control can be achieved        attacking domestic animals is enhanced by good
to eliminate the threat to the plant or animal to be         manure management. Carryover of agricultural pests
protected.                                                   from one planting to the next can be reduced by
                                                             removing crop residues.
Biological control also includes methods by which
the pest is biologically altered, as in the production       Other forms of sanitation that help prevent pest
and release of large numbers of sterile males and the        spread include using pest-free seeds or transplants
use of pheromones or juvenile hormones.                      and decontaminating equipment, animals, and other
                                                             possible carriers before allowing them to enter a pest-
Pheromones can be useful in monitoring pest                  free area or leave an infested area. The proper design
populations. Placed in a trap, for example, they can         of food-handling areas can reduce access and shelter
attract the insects in a sample area so that pest            for many pests.
numbers can be estimated. Pheromones also can be a
control tool. Sometimes a manufactured copy of the           Chemical control -- Pesticides are chemicals used to
pheromone that a female insect uses to attract males         destroy pests, control their activity, or prevent them
can be used to confuse males and prevent mating,             from causing damage. Some pesticides either attract
resulting in lower numbers of pests. Applying                or repel pests. Chemicals that regulate plant growth
juvenile hormones to an area can reduce pest                 or remove foliage also are classified as pesticides.
numbers by keeping some immature pests from                  Pesticides are generally the fastest way to control
becoming normal, reproducing adults.                         pests. In many instances, they are the only tactic
                                                             available.
Cultural control -- Cultural practices sometimes are
used to reduce the numbers of pests that are attacking
cultivated plants. These practices alter the
environment, the condition of the host plant, or the         Pest Control Failures
behavior of the pest to prevent or suppress an
infestation. They disrupt the normal relationship            Sometimes you may find that even though you
between the pest and the host plant and make the pest
                                                             applied a pesticide, the pest has not been controlled.
less likely to survive, grow, or reproduce. Common
                                                             You should review the situation to try to determine
cultural practices include rotating crops, cultivating
                                                             what went wrong. There are several possible reasons
the soil, varying time of planting or harvesting,
                                                             for the failure of chemical pest control.
planting trap crops, adjusting row width, and pruning,
thinning, and fertilizing cultivated plants.
                                                             Pest Resistance
Mechanical (physical) control -- Devices, machines,
and other methods used to control pests or alter their       Pesticides fail to control some pests because the pests
environment are called mechanical or physical                are resistant to the pesticides. Consider this when
controls. Traps, screens, barriers, fences, nets,            planning pest control programs that rely on the use of
radiation, and electricity sometimes can be used to          pesticides. Rarely does any pesticide kill all the target
prevent the spread of pests into an area.                    pests. Each time a pesticide is used, it selectively kills
                                                             the most susceptible pests. Some pests avoid the
                                                             pesticide. Others withstand its effects. Pests that are


                                                         5
not destroyed may pass along to their offspring the         Q-3. Explain the differences between continuous
trait that allowed them to survive.                         pests, sporadic pests, and potential pests.

When one pesticide is used repeatedly in the same           • A. Continuous pests are nearly always present
place against the same pest, the surviving pest             and require regular control; sporadic pests are
population may be more resistant to the pesticide           migratory, cyclical, or other occasional pests that
than the original population was. The opportunity for
                                                            require control once in a while, but not regularly;
resistance is greater when a pesticide is used over a
                                                            potential pests are organisms that are not pests
wide geographic area or when a pesticide is applied
repeatedly to a rather small area where pest                under normal conditions, but can become pests
populations are isolated. A pesticide that leaves a         and require control in certain circumstances.
residue that gradually loses its effectiveness over
time will help select out resistance. Rotating              Q-4. Explain what is meant by prevention,
pesticides may help reduce the development of pest          suppression, and eradication of pests.
resistance.
                                                            • A. Prevention is keeping a pest from becoming
Other Reasons for Failure                                   a problem; suppression is reducing pest numbers
                                                            or damage to an acceptable level; eradication is
Not every pesticide failure is caused by pest               destroying an entire pest population.
resistance. Make sure that you have used the correct
pesticide and the correct dose and that you have            Q-5. What is a threshold? Why should you
applied it correctly. Sometimes a pesticide                 consider thresholds when you develop a pest
application fails to control a pest because the pest        control strategy?
was not identified correctly and the wrong pesticide
was chosen. Other applications fail because the             • A. Thresholds are the levels of pest
pesticide was not applied at an appropriate time -- the
                                                            populations at which you must take pest control
pest may not have been in the area during the
application or it may have been in a life cycle stage       action to prevent unacceptable damage or injury.
or location where it was not susceptible to the             Using threshold information can improve your
pesticide. Also remember that the pests that are            pest control strategy by helping you decide about
present may be part of a new infestation that               when to begin control tactics.
developed after the chemical was applied.
                                                            Q-6. Describe pest monitoring and explain how it
                                                            can be important to pest control strategy.

Test Your Knowledge                                         • A. Monitoring is checking or scouting for
                                                            pests in an area to determine what pests are
Q-1. What is the first thing you should do when             present, how many of each kind are in the area,
you detect the presence of a pest that you think            and how much damage they are causing.
you may need to control?                                    Monitoring is important to many pest control
                                                            strategies because it helps determine if the
• A. Identify the pest to be sure you know                  threshold has been reached and whether control
exactly what the problem is.                                measures have been effective.

Q-2. How can pest identification help you develop           Q-7. Define "integrated pest management" (IPM)
a good pest control strategy?                               and list several possible control tactics that may
                                                            be used in an IPM strategy.
• A. Identification of the pest allows you to
determine basic information about it, including             • A. Integrated pest management is when
its life cycle and the time that it is most                 several pest control tactics are combined into a
susceptible to being controlled.                            single plan to reduce pests and their damage to
                                                            an acceptable level. Pest control tactics may


                                                        6
include: host resistance, biological, cultural,        applying the wrong amount, or applying the
mechanical or chemical (pesticide) controls, and       pesticide incorrectly.
sanitation.
                                                       Q-9. What can you do to keep the pests you are
Q-8. You applied a pesticide, but it did not control   trying to control from becoming resistant to the
the pest. Name three reasons why your control          pesticides you use?
effort might have failed.
                                                       • A. Pest resistance can be reduced by using
• A. The failure of the pesticide might have           integrated pest management and rotating the
been caused by misidentifying the pest, pest           types of pesticides used.
resistance, choosing the wrong pesticide,




                                                   7
Unit 2 - Pesticide Labeling                                   law to comply with all the instructions and
                                                              directions for use in pesticide labeling.

                                                              EPA Approval of Pesticide Labeling
Learning Objectives
                                                              No pesticide may be sold in the United States until
                                                              the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has
After you finish studying this unit, you should be            reviewed the manufacturer's application for
able to:
                                                              registration and determined that the use of the
                                                              product will not present an unreasonable risk to
          Interpret the terms "label" and "labeling."         humans or the environment. As part of this product
                                                              registration process, EPA has certain labeling
           Identify the meaning of "Restricted Use"           information requirements and must approve all
        classification and explain where to look for it       language that the manufacturer proposes to include in
        on pesticide labeling.                                the product labeling.

          Distinguish among the terms "common                 EPA reviews the labeling to make sure that it
        name," "chemical name," and "brand name"              contains all the information needed for safe and
        and know which most accurately identifies a           effective use of the pesticide product and that the
        pesticide product.                                    information is backed up by data submitted (or cited)
                                                              by the manufacturer. EPA may require the
          Interpret the signal words (and symbols)            manufacturer to change the labeling if it does not
        on pesticide labeling.                                contain enough information or if the information is
                                                              wrong. EPA also may require that the labeling
           Know the types of hazard precautionary             include other information about laws or regulations
        statements on pesticide labeling.                     that have been adopted to protect humans or the
                                                              environment.
          Interpret the statement "It is a violation of
        Federal law to use this product in a manner           Only after EPA has reviewed the labeling and
        inconsistent with its la beling."                     registered the product can a pesticide product be sold.
                                                              If the manufacturer wants to change the information
           Explain the pesticide user's responsibility        in the labeling after the product and labeling are
        to follow use directions and requirements             registered, EPA must approve the change. EPA also
        contained in separate documents that,                 may require changes in labeling.
        although referenced on the labeling, do not
        necessarily accompany the product at the              Types of Registration
        time of purchase.
                                                              You are responsible for applying only registered
                                                              pesticides. You may encounter three major types of
                                                              registration:
Pesticide Labeling
                                                                        Federal registration
Pesticide product labeling is the main method of
communication between a pesticide manufacturer and                      Special local needs registration
pesticide users. The information printed on or
attached to the pesticide container is the label.                       Emergency exemptions from registration
Labeling includes the label plus all other information
you receive from the manufacturer about the product           Federal EPA registrations are the most common.
when you buy it. The labeling may include                     Most pesticide uses are registered this way. Look for
brochures, leaflets, and other information that               the official EPA registration number (which must
accompanies the pesticide product. Pesticide labeling         appear on the label) to be sure you are buying an
gives you instructions on how to use the product              approved product.
safely and correctly. Pesticide users are required by


                                                          8
Special local needs registrations (known as SLN or            Restricted-Use Pesticides
24(c) registrations) allow states to further control
how the pesticide is used in their jurisdiction,              A pesticide, or some of its uses, is classified as
including registering additional uses or adding               restricted if it could cause harm to humans (pesticide
limitations for a federally registered pesticide. These       handlers or other persons) or to the environment
registrations often involve adding application sites,         unless it is applied by certified applicators who have
pests, or alternate control techniques to those listed        the knowledge to use these pesticides safely and
on the federally registered labeling.                         effectively. The word "use" in this phrase is a general
                                                              term -- it refers to such activities as:
Supplemental labeling must be provided for each
SLN registration. Applicators must have a copy of                        application
the SLN labeling in their possession in order to apply
the pesticide for that purpose. The registration                         mixing and loading
number of SLN labeling will include the initials
"SLN" and the standard two-letter abbreviation code
                                                                        transporting, storing, or handling
for the state that issued the registration. These
                                                                      pesticides after the manufacturer's seal is
registrations are legal only in the state or local area
                                                                      broken
specified in the labeling. Any application in another
state or region is subject to civil and criminal
penalties. Extension personnel, pesticide dealers, and                  care and maintenance of application and
other professionals will help inform you of SLN                       handling equipment
registrations that pertain to your area.
                                                                         disposal of pesticides and their containers
Emergency exemptions from registration are used
when an emergency pest situation arises for which no          Certified Pesticide Applicators
pesticide is registered. If both federal and SLN
registrations would take too long to enact, an                Only a certified pesticide applicator may use or
emergency registration can be used. Known as                  supervise the use of restricted-use pesticides. Under
"Section 18 exemptions", these registrations are              federal law, there are two types of certified pesticide
handled by the highest governing official involved --         applicators -- private applicators and commercial
usually a state governor or federal agency head. This         applicators.
provision allows a pesticide product to be sold and
used for a nonregistered purpose for a specified              Private applicators use or supervise the use of
period of time. Strict controls and recordkeeping are         restricted-use pesticides to produce an agricultural
required for all these emergency uses. You must               commodity on property owned or rented by
understand all of the special requirements and                themselves or their employer, or on the property of
responsibilities involved whenever you use pesticides         another person with whom they trade services.
with emergency exemptions. The agency that has
granted the emergency exemption will provide                  Commercial applicators use or supervise the use of
application rates, safety precautions, and other vital        restricted-use pesticides on any property or for any
information.                                                  purpose other than that listed for private applicators.

Classification of Pesticide Uses                              Certification requires training or testing for
                                                              competency in the safe and effective handling and
EPA categorizes every use of every pesticide as               use of restricted-use pesticides. Your state, tribal, or
either "unclassified" or "restricted use." Often all uses     federal agency will conduct training and/or testing for
of a particular formulation are classified as restricted      certification and may impose stricter standards than
or all are unclassified. Sometimes, however, certain          those required by federal law. Many such agencies
uses of a formulation are restricted and other uses of        have agreements to allow certification by one to be
the same product are not. In these cases, the                 accepted by others nearby.
directions for use for the two classifications must be
clearly separate. Entirely different packaging and            Parts of Pesticide Labeling
labeling are used.



                                                          9
The information on pesticide labeling usually is             Ingredient statement -- Each pesticide label must
grouped under headings to make it easier to find the         list what is in the product. The list is written so you
information you need. Some information is required           can readily see what the active ingredients are and the
by law to appear on a certain part of the labeling or        amount of each ingredient (as a percentage of the
under certain headings. Other information may be             total product). The ingredient statement must list the
placed wherever the manufacturer chooses.                    official chemical name and/or common name for
                                                             each active ingredient. Inert ingredients need not be
Identifying Information                                      named, but the label must show what percent of the
                                                             total contents they make up.
Pesticide labeling contains basic information that
helps users clearly identify the product. Some of            The chemical name is a complex name that
these items will be on the front panel of every label        identifies the chemical components and structure of
according to EPA requirements. Other items, while            the pesticide. This name is almost always listed in the
generally on the front panel, may be located                 ingredient statement on the label. For example, the
elsewhere on the label or in the labeling if the             chemical name of Diazinonr is O,O-Diethyl O-(2-
manufacturer chooses.                                        isopropyl-4-methyl-6-pyrimidinyl) phosphorothioate.

Brand name -- Each manufacturer has a brand name             Because pesticides have complex chemical names,
for each product. Different manufacturers may use            many are given a shorter common name . Only
different brand names for the same pesticide active          common names that are officially accepted by the
ingredient. Most companies register each brand name          EPA may be used in the ingredient statement on the
as a trademark and do not allow any other company            pesticide label. The official common name may be
to use that name. The brand or trade name is the one         followed by the chemical name in the list of active
used in advertisements and by company salespeople.           ingredients. For example, a label with the brand name
The brand name shows up plainly on the front panel           Sevinr 50% WP would read:
of the label.
                                                             Active ingredient:
Pesticide handlers must beware of choosing a
pesticide product by brand name alone. Many                  Carbaryl (1-naphthyl N-methyl carbamate) 50%
companies use the same basic name with only minor
variations to designate entirely different pesticide         Inert ingredients 50%
chemicals. For example:
                                                             By purchasing pesticides according to the common or
          DePesto = carbaryl                                 chemical names, you will always be sure to get the
                                                             right active ingredient.
          DePesto Super = parathion and methomyl
                                                             Registration and establishment numbers -- The
          DePesto Supreme = carbaryl, parathion,             pesticide handler needs these numbers in case of
        and methomyl                                         poisoning, claims of misuse, or liability claims.

Sometimes several companies will sell the same               An EPA registration number (for example, EPA
pesticide product under different brand names. For           Reg. No. 3120-280-AA) indicates that the pesticide
example:                                                     label has been approved by EPA. Most products will
                                                             contain only two sets of numbers; for example, EPA
          De Weed 2E = diquat 2 lbs per gallon EC            Reg. No. 3120-280. The first set of numbers, 3120,
        formulated by Company X                              identifies the manufacturer or company. The second
                                                             set, 280, identifies the product.
          No Weeds = diquat 2 lbs per gallon EC
        formulated by Company Z.                             Additional letters and numbers are sometimes part of
                                                             the EPA registration number; for example, EPA Reg.
Always read the ingredient statement to determine            No. 3120-280-AA-0850. The letters AA might be
the active ingredients in a product.                         required by a particular state to appear on that label.



                                                        10
The 0850 is the distributor's identification number            Restricted-Use Designation
and appears on labels of distributor products.
                                                               When a pesticide is classified as restricted, the label
When a pesticide is registered by a state because of a         will state "Restricted Use Pesticide" in a box at the
special local need, the registration is designated, for        top of the front panel. Below this heading may be a
example, as EPA SLN No. KS-770009. In this case,               statement describing the reason for the restricted-use
SLN indicates "special local need" and KS means                classification. Usually another statement will
that the product is registered for use in Kansas. If the       describe the category of certified applicator who can
SLN registration is for only a few of the registered           buy and use the product. Unclassified pesticides have
uses in the pesticide labeling, the SLN number may             no designation on the product label. Examples of
not be on the front panel of the pesticide label.              restricted-use statements on pesticide labels include:
Instead, it may be located in the supplementary
labeling for the use to which it applies.                                 "RESTRICTED USE PESTICIDE due to
                                                                       acute toxicity and toxicity to birds and
The establishment number (for example, EPA Est.                        mammals. For retail sale and use only by
No. 5840-AZ-I) appears on either the pesticide label                   certified applicators or persons under their
or container. It identifies the facility where the                     direct supervision and only for those uses
product was made in case there are questions or                        covered by the certified applicator's
concerns about the pesticide product, the facility that                certification."
made the product can be determined.
                                                                         "RESTRICTED USE PESTICIDE due to
Name and address of manufacturer -- The law                            very high acute toxicity to humans and birds.
requires the maker or distributor of a product to put                  For retail sale to and use only by certified
the name and address of the company on the label.                      applicators or persons under their direct
This is so you will know who made or sold the                          supervision and only for those uses covered
product.                                                               by the certified applicator's certification.
                                                                       Direct supervision for this product is defined
Net contents -- The front panel of the pesticide label                 as the certified applicator being physically
tells you how much is in the container. This can be                    present during application, mixing, loading,
expressed as pounds or ounces for dry formulations                     repair, and cleaning of application
and as gallons, quarts, pints, or fluid ounces for                     equipment. Commercial certified applicators
liquids. Liquid formulations also may list the pounds                  must also ensure that all persons involved in
of active ingredient per gallon of product.                            these activities are informed of the
                                                                       precautionary statements."
Type of pesticide -- The type of pesticide usually is
listed on the front panel of the label. This short                        "RESTRICTED USE PESTICIDE due to
statement indicates in general terms what the product                  oncogenicity. For retail sale and use only by
will control. For example:                                             certified applicators or persons under their
                                                                       direct supervision and only for those uses
          "insecticide for control of certain insects                  covered by the certified applicator's
        on fruits, nuts, and ornamentals"                              certification. The use of this product may be
                                                                       hazardous to your health. This product
           "algicide"                                                  contains [active ingredient], which has been
                                                                       determined to cause tumors in laboratory
          "herbicide for the control of trees, brush,                  animals."
        and weeds"
                                                                         "RESTRICTED USE PESTICIDE due to
Type of formulation -- The front panel of some                         ground water concern. For retail sale to and
pesticide labels will tell you what kind of formulation                use only by certified applicators or persons
the product is. The formulation may be named or the                    under their direct supervision and only for
label may show only an abbreviation, such as WP for                    those uses covered by the certified
wettable powder, D for dust, or EC for emulsifiable                    applicators' certification. Users must read and
concentrate.                                                           follow all precautionary statements and



                                                          11
        instructions for use in order to minimize                    nontoxic. The product has only slight
        potential of [active ingredient] to reach                    potential to cause acute illness from oral,
        ground water."                                               dermal, or inhalation exposure. The skin or
                                                                     eye irritation it would cause, if any, is likely
Front-Panel Precautionary Statements                                 to be slight.

Signal words and symbols -- The signal words --                      Statement of practical treatment (first aid)
DANGER, WARNING, or CAUTION -- must                                  -- Most pesticide products are required to
appear in large letters on the front panel of the                    include instructions on how to respond to an
pesticide label. It indicates how acutely toxic the                  emergency exposure involving that product.
product is to humans. The signal word is immediately                 The instructions usually include first aid
below the statement, "Keep out of reach of children,"                measures and may include instructions to
which also must appear on every label.                               seek medical help. If the Statement of
                                                                     Practical Treatment is not located on the
The signal word is based not on the active ingredient                front panel, a statement on the front panel
alone, but on the contents of the formulated product.                must refer the user to the section of the label
It reflects the hazard of any active ingredients,                    or labeling where the Statement of Practical
carriers, solvents, or inert ingredients. The signal                 Treatment may be found.
word indicates the risk of acute effects from the four
routes of exposure to a pesticide product (oral,             Hazards to Humans and Domestic
dermal, inhalation, and eye) and is based on the one         Animals
that is greatest. The signal word does not indicate the
risk of delayed effects or allergic effects.                 Acute effects statements -- The label or labeling will
                                                             contain statements that indicate which route of entry
Use the signal word to help you decide what                  (mouth, skin, eyes, lungs) you must particularly
precautionary measures are needed for you, your              protect and what specific action you need to take to
workers, and other persons (or animals) who may be           avoid acute effects from pesticide exposure. These
exposed.                                                     statements may be on the front or side panel of the
                                                             label, or they may be somewhere else in the labeling.
          DANGER -- This word signals you that               The statements will warn you if you may be harmed
        the pesticide is highly toxic. The product is        by swallowing or inhaling the product or getting it on
        very likely to cause acute illness from oral,        your skin or in your eyes.
        dermal, or inhalation exposure, or to cause
        severe eye or skin irritation.                       Many pesticides can cause acute effects by more than
                                                             one route, so study these statements carefully. These
           POISON/SKULL AND CROSSBONES                       precautionary statements tell you what parts of your
        -- All highly toxic pesticides that are likely to    body will need the most protection. "DANGER: Fatal
        cause acute illness through oral, dermal, or         if swallowed or inhaled" gives a far different
        inhalation exposure also will carry the word         indication than "DANGER: Corrosive -- causes eye
        POISON printed in red and the skull and              damage and severe skin burns."
        crossbones symbol. Products that have the
        signal word DANGER due to skin and eye               Delayed effects statements -- The labeling of
        irritation potential will not carry the word         pesticides that the EPA considers to have the
        POISON or the skull and crossbones symbol.           potential to cause delayed effects must warn you of
                                                             that fact. These statements will tell you whether the
          WARNING -- This word signals you that              product has been shown to cause problems such as
        the product is moderately likely to cause            tumors or reproductive problems in laboratory
        acute illness from oral, dermal, or inhalation       animals.
        exposure or that the product is likely to cause
        moderate skin or eye irritation.                     Allergic effects statement -- If tests or other data
                                                             indicate that the pesticide product has the potential to
          CAUTION -- This word signals you that              cause allergic effects, such as skin irritation or
        the product is slightly toxic or relatively          asthma, the product labeling must state that fact.


                                                        12
Sometimes the labeling refers to allergic effects as          physical or chemical hazards, there may be no
"sensitization."                                              statement in the labeling.

Personal protective equipment statements --                   Directions for Use
Immediately following the statements about acute,
delayed, and allergic effects, the labeling usually lists     Directly under the heading "Directions for Use" on
personal protective equipment requirements. These             every pesticide product labeling is the following
statements tell you the minimum personal protective           statement: "It is a violation of Federal Law to use this
equipment that you must wear when using the                   product in a manner inconsistent with its labeling."
pesticide. Sometimes the statements will require              The Directions for Use section also contains sections
different personal protective equipment for different         on storage and disposal and may contain a section on
pesticide handling activities. For example, an apron          entry into treated areas after a pesticide application.
may be required only during mixing, loading or                In addition, the Directions for Use section will
equipment cleaning. Sometimes the statements will             contain specific directions for product use.
allow reduced personal protective equipment when
you use safety systems, such as closed systems or             Use inconsistent with the labeling -- It is illegal to
enclosed cabs.                                                use a pesticide in any way not permitted by the
                                                              labeling. A pesticide may be used only on the plants,
Environmental Hazards                                         animals, or sites named in the Directions for Use.
                                                              You may not use higher dosages, higher
This section of the pesticide labeling will indicate          concentrations, or more frequent applications. You
precautions for protecting the environment when you           must follow all directions for use, including
use the pesticide. Some general statements appear on          directions concerning safety, mixing, diluting,
the labeling of nearly every pesticide. Most pesticide        storage, and disposal. You must wear the specified
labeling, for example, will warn you not to                   personal protective equipment even though you may
contaminate water when you apply the pesticide or             be risking only your own safety by not wearing it.
when you clean your equipment or dispose of                   The use directions and instructions are not advice,
pesticide wastes. The labeling will contain specif ic         they are requirements.
precautionary statements if the pesticide poses a
specific hazard to the environment. For example, it           Federal law does allow you to use pesticides in some
may warn you that the product is highly toxic to bees         ways not specifically mentioned in the labeling.
or other wildlife.                                            Unless you would be in violation of the laws of your
                                                              state or tribe, you may:
Physical or Chemical Hazards
                                                                         Apply a pesticide at any dosage,
This section of the pesticide labeling will tell you of               concentration, or frequency less than that
any special fire, explosion, or chemical hazards the                  listed on the labeling
product may pose. For example, it will alert you if
the product is so flammable that you need to be                          Apply a pesticide against any target pest
especially careful to keep it away from heat or open                  not listed on the labeling if the application is
flame or if it is so corrosive that it must be stored in a            to a plant, animal, or site that is listed
corrosion-resistant container. When pesticides are
flammable, smoking while handling them is                                Use any appropriate equipment or method
extremely hazardous.                                                  of application that is not prohibited by the
                                                                      labeling
NOTE: The physical or chemical hazard statements
are not located in the same place in all pesticide                       Mix a pesticide or pesticides with a
labeling. Some labeling groups them in a box under                    fertilizer if the mixture is not prohibited by
the heading "Physical or Chemical Hazards." Other                     the labeling
labeling may list them on the front panel of the label
beneath the signal word. Still other labeling may list                   Mix two or more pesticides, if all of the
the hazards in paragraph form under headings such as                  dosages are at or below the recommended
"Note" or "Important." If there are no unusual                        rate


                                                         13
Entry statement -- Some pesticide labeling contains                      How much pesticide to use
a precaution about entering a treated area after
application. This statement tells you how much time                      Mixing directions
must pass before people can enter a treated area
except under special circumstances. These entry                         Whether the product can be mixed with
intervals are set by both the EPA and some states.                    other often-used products
Entry intervals set by states are not always listed on
the label; it is your responsibility to determine
                                                                        Whether the product is likely to cause
whether one has been set.                                             unwanted injuries or stains to plants, animals,
                                                                      or surfaces
The entry statement may be printed in a box under
the heading "Entry" or "Worker Protections," or it                       Where the material should be applied, and
may be in a section with a title such as "Important,"
"Note," or "General Information." If the entry interval
                                                                         When and how often it should be applied.
applies only to certain uses or locations, the heading
may indicate that limitation. For example, the
heading might be "Agricultural Use Restrictions."             Directions for use by reference -- Some directions
                                                              for use that pesticide users must obey are contained
Storage and disposal -- All pesticide labeling                in documents that are only referred to on the product
                                                              labeling. Such instructions include EPA or other
contains some instructions for storing the pesticide.
                                                              government agency regulations or requirements
These may include both general statements, such as
                                                              concerning the safe use of the pesticide product. For
"Keep out of reach of children and pets," and specific
                                                              example, a pesticide label might state:
directions, such as "Do not store in temperatures
below 32oF."
                                                              "Use of this product in a manner inconsistent with the
                                                              PESTICIDE USE BULLETIN FOR PROTECTION
Pesticide labeling also contains some general
                                                              OF ENDANGERED SPECIES is a violation of
information about how to dispose of excess pesticide
                                                              Federal laws. Restrictions for the protection of
and the pesticide container in ways that are
                                                              endangered species apply to this product. If
acceptable under federal regulations. State and local
                                                              restrictions apply to the area in which this product is
laws vary, however, so the labeling usually does not
                                                              to be used, you must obtain the PESTICIDE USE
give exact disposal instructions.
                                                              BULLETIN FOR PROTECTION OF
                                                              ENDANGERED SPECIES for that county."
Storage and disposal statements usually appear in a
special section of the labeling titled "Storage and
                                                              This statement probably would be the only indication
Disposal."
                                                              on the pesticide label or in the labeling that other use
                                                              directions and restrictions apply to the product.
Other directions for use -- The instructions on how
to use the pesticide are an important part of the
                                                              You are responsible for determining whether the
labeling. This is the best way you can find out the
                                                              regulation, bulletin, or other document referred to on
right way to handle the product.
                                                              the pesticide product labeling applies to your
                                                              situation and your intended use of the pesticide
The use instructions will tell you:
                                                              product. If the document is applicable, you must
                                                              comply with all the specific directions for use and
          the pests that the manufacturer claims the          other requirements that it contains. These documents
        product will control,                                 do not always accompany the pesticide product when
                                                              it is sold. Instead, you may have to get the additional
           The plant, animal, or site the product is          directions and requirements from other sources, such
        intended to protect                                   as pesticide dealers or company representatives,
                                                              industry or commodity organizations, land-grant
          In what form the product should be applied          universities, or Cooperative Extension educators.

          The correct equipment to use                        This reference to other documents is a new practice.
                                                              It is necessary because there is no longer room on the


                                                         14
traditional pesticide label to explain the requirements       Major Provisions of FIFRA
of all laws and regulations that may apply to the user.
For example, EPA has adopted or is considering new            FIFRA affects certified applicators in many ways.
requirements concerning:                                      For example, it provides that:

           Ground water protection                                      EPA must register pesticides and pesticide
                                                                      uses.
           Endangered species protection
                                                                         All pesticides must be used only as
          Pesticide transportation, storage, and                      directed on the labeling.
        disposal
                                                                        EPA must classify as "restricted use" those
           Worker protection.                                         pesticide uses that may cause unreasonable
                                                                      adverse effects to the environment, including
Some of these are general use directions that apply to                humans, even when used as directed on the
all pesticides, so one copy should be sufficient for                  product labeling.
each affected user. In other cases, the instructions and
restrictions apply only in certain geographical areas                   Persons who buy or use restricted-use
or to certain uses of a pesticide product. Directions                 pesticides must be certified as competent
for use applicable in these specific situations need to               pesticide applicators or must be directly
be distributed only to the affected users.                            supervised by a certified applicator.

The EPA decision not to require all applicable                          States may establish stricter standards
directions for use to be distributed with each                        governing pesticides, but not more
pesticide product places greater responsibility on the                permissive standards.
pesticide user. One sentence or paragraph on a
pesticide label may be the only notice you will                          Persons who use pesticides in a way that is
receive that additional use directions are required in                "inconsistent with the pesticide labeling" are
order for the product to be used in compliance with                   subject to penalties.
its labeling. You must:
                                                              Penalties Under FIFRA
           determine whether you are affected,
                                                              If you violate FIFRA, or regulations issued under it,
           locate the applicable directions for use,          you are subject to civil penalties. They can be as
                                                              much as $5,000 for each offense ($1,000 for private
           determine how to comply with the                   applicators). Before EPA can fine you, you have the
        instructions and requirements in the                  right to ask for a hearing in your city or county. Some
        directions for use, and                               violations of the law also may subject you to criminal
                                                              penalties. These can be as much as $25,000 or one
          comply with those instructions and                  year in prison, or both, for commercial applicators;
        requirements.                                         $1,000 and/or 30 days in prison for private
                                                              applicators. States may establish higher penalties.


Know the Law
                                                              Test Your Knowledge
A law passed by Congress in 1947 and substantially
amended in 1972, 1975, 1978, and 1988 regulates the           Q. Explain the differences between the terms
registration, manufacture, sale, transportation, and          "label" and "labeling."
use of pesticides. The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide,
and Rodenticide Act is commonly referred to by its            A. The label is the information printed on or attached
initials -- FIFRA.                                            to the pesticide container. Labeling includes the label,


                                                         15
plus all other product information received from the        A. Signal words and symbols indicate the likelihood
manufacturer when you buy it.                               that you will experience acute harmful effects if you
                                                            are over-exposed. Signal words do not tell you
Q. What do the words "Restricted Use Pesticide"             anything about the risks of delayed harmful effects or
tell you about the pesticide product?                       allergic effects.

A. "Restricted Use Pesticide" means that the product        Q. What types of hazard statements should you
has been shown to be likely to harm people or the           look for in the pesticide labeling?
environment if it is not used correctly. It may be
purchased and used only by certified applicators and        A. You should look for precautions about hazards to
those under their direct supervision.                       humans (and domestic animals), environmental
                                                            hazards, and physical/chemical hazards.
Q. Where would you look to find out whether a
pesticide is classified as Restricted Use?                  Q. What types of precautionary statements may
                                                            be included in the labeling section titled "Hazards
A. If a pesticide is classified as Restricted Use, the      to Humans"?
words "Restricted Use Pesticide" will appear in a box
on the front panel of the pesticide label.                  A. Acute effects precautions, delayed effects
                                                            precautions, allergic effect precautions, and personal
Q. Explain the differences between chemical                 protective equipment requirements may be in the
name, common name, and brand name. Which of                 section of the labeling titled "Hazards to Humans."
these terms should you use to most accurately
identify a pesticide product?                               Q. What is the meaning of the statement: "It is a
                                                            violation of Federal law to use this product in a
A. The chemical name is a complex name that                 manner incons istent with its labeling"?
identifies the chemical components and structure of
the pesticide. A common name is a shorter name that         A. It is illegal to use a pesticide in any way not
EPA recognizes as a substitute for the chemical name        permitted by the labeling. A pesticide may be used
of a product. A brand name is the name -- usually a         only on the plants, animals, or sites named in the
trademark -- used by a chemical company to identify         directions for use. You may not use higher dosages,
a pesticide product. The common name (or the                higher concentrations, or more frequent applications.
chemical name, if no common name is given) is the           You must follow all directions for use, including
most accurate and useful way to identify a pesticide        directions concerning safety, mixing, diluting,
product.                                                    storage, and disposal. You must wear the specified
                                                            personal protective equipment even though you may
Q. Name and explain the meaning of the signal               be risking only your own safety by not wearing it.
words and symbols you may see on a pesticide
product.                                                    Q. Does the pesticide label contain all the
                                                            instructions and directions for use that you need
A. "Caution" indicates that the pesticide product is        to use the product safely and legally?
slightly toxic or relatively nontoxic. "Warning"
indicates that the pesticide product is moderately          A. Some pesticide products have all the necessary
toxic. "Danger" indicates that the pesticide product is     instructions and directions for use on the product
highly toxic. "Poison" and the skull and crossbones         label. For other products, more instructions and
[symbol here] indicates that the pesticide product is       directions may be in other labeling that accompanies
highly toxic as a poison, rather than as a skin or eye      the product at the time of purchase. The label or
irritant.                                                   labeling of still other products may refer to separate
                                                            documents that contain specialized instructions and
Q. Can you use the signal word on a pesticide               directions. Pesticide users are required by law to
label to judge the likelihood of suffering acute,           comply with all these types of instructions and
delayed, or allergic effects if you are overexposed         directions -- not just with the label itself.
to the product? Explain.



                                                       16
Unit 3 - Formulations                                           situation, you must choose the best one for the job.
                                                                Before you choose, ask yourself several questions
                                                                about each formulation. For example:

                                                                          Do you have the necessary application
Learning Objectives                                                     equipment?
After you finish studying this unit, you should be
                                                                          Can the formulation be applied safely
able to:
                                                                        under the conditions in the application area?
           Explain what a pesticide formulation is.
                                                                           Will the formulation reach your target and
                                                                        stay in place long enough to control the pest?
          Distinguish between "active" and "inert"
        ingredients.
                                                                          Is the formulation likely to harm the
                                                                        surface to which you will apply it?
           Identify factors to consider when choosing
        a formulation.                                          To answer these kinds of questions, you need to
                                                                know something about the characteristics of different
          Use your knowledge of the characteristics,            types of formulations and the general advantages and
        advantages, and disadvantages of different              disadvantages of each type.
        types of pesticide formulations to select
        appropriate formulations for specific
        purposes.                                               Liquid Formulations

           Recognize the purpose of adjuvants and               Emulsifiable Concentrates (EC or E)
        list several types.
                                                                An emulsifiable concentrate formulation usually
                                                                contains a liquid active ingredient, one or more
                                                                petroleum-based solvents, and an agent that allows
                                                                the formulation to be mixed with water to form an
Formulations                                                    emulsion. Each gallon of EC usually contains 25 to
                                                                75 percent (2 to 8 pounds) active ingredient. EC's are
The active ingredients in a pesticide are the                   among the most versatile formulations. They are used
chemicals that control the target pest. Most pesticide          against agricultural, ornamental and turf, forestry,
products also have other ingredients, called inert              structural, food processing, livestock, and public
(inactive) ingredients. They are used to dilute the             health pests. They are adaptable to many types of
pesticide or to make it safer, more effective, easier to        application equipment, from small, portable sprayers
measure, mix, and apply, and more convenient to                 to hydraulic sprayers, low-volume ground sprayers,
handle.                                                         mist blowers, and low-volume aircraft sprayers.

Usually the pesticide is diluted in water, a petroleum-         Advantages:
based solvent, or another diluent.Other chemicals in
the product may include wetting agents, spreaders,                         Relatively easy to handle, transport, and
stickers, or extenders. This mixture of active and                      store
inert ingredients is called a pesticide formulation.
                                                                          Little agitation required -- will not settle
Some formulations are ready for use. Others must be                     out or separate when equipment is running
further diluted with water, a petroleum-based solvent,
or air (as in airblast or ULV applications) by the user                   Not abrasive
before they are applied.
                                                                          Do not plug screens or nozzles
A single active ingredient often is sold in several
formulations. If you find that more than one
                                                                          Little visible residue on treated surfaces
formulation is available for your pest control


                                                           17
Disadvantages:                                                         Control of some household pests

          High concentration makes it easy to                          Livestock and poultry pest control
        overdose or underdose through mixing or
        calibration errors                                             Space sprays in barns and warehouses

          May cause unwanted harm to plants                            Shade tree pest control

          Easily absorbed through skin of humans or                    Mosquito control
        animals
                                                             Advantages:
           Solvents may cause rubber or plastic
        hoses, gaskets, and pump parts and surfaces                    No agitation necessary
        to deteriorate
                                                             Disadvantages:
          May cause pitting or discoloration of
        painted finishes                                               Limited number of formulations available

          Flammable -- should be used and stored             The other advantages and disadvantages of solutions
        away from heat or open flame                         vary depending on the solvent used, the concentration
                                                             of the active ingredient, and the type of application
          May be corrosive                                   involved.

Solutions (S)                                                Ultra-low-volume (ULV)

Some pesticide active ingredients dissolve readily in        These concentrates may approach 100 percent active
a liquid solvent, such as water or a petroleum-based         ingredient. They are designed to be used as is or to be
solvent. When mixed with the solvent, they form a            diluted with only small quantities of specified
solution that will not settle out or separate.               solvents. These special-purpose formulations are
Formulations of these pesticides usually contain the         used mostly in outdoor applications, such as in
active ingredient, the solvent, and one or more other        agricultural, forestry, ornamental, and mosquito
ingredients. Solutions may be used in any type of            control programs.
sprayer indoors or outdoors.
                                                             Advantages:
Ready-to-use (RTU) -- Some solutions are products
that contain the correct amount of solvent when you                     Relatively easy to handle, transport, and
buy them. No further dilution is required before                     store
application. These formulations, usually solutions in
petroleum-based solvents, contain small amounts                        Little agitation required
(often 1 percent or less) of active ingredient per
gallon.
                                                                       Not abrasive to equipment
Concentrate solutions (C or LC) -- Other solutio ns
are sold as concentrates that must be further diluted                  No plugging of screens and nozzles
with a liquid solvent before you apply them.
Occasionally the solvent is water, but more often the                  Little visible residue on treated surfaces
solvent is a specially refined oil or petroleum-based
solvent.                                                     Disadvantages:

Some uses of solutions are:                                             Difficult to keep pesticide in the target site
                                                                     -- high drift hazard
          Structural and institutional pest control
                                                                       Specialized equipment required


                                                        18
          Easily absorbed through skin of humans or                   Easily stored
        animals
                                                                      Convenient way to buy small amount of a
           Solvents may cause rubber or plastic                     pesticide
        hoses, gaskets, and pump parts and surfaces
        to deteriorate                                                Retain potency over fairly long time

Flowables (F or L)                                          Disadvantages:

Some active ingredients are insoluble solids. These                   Practical for very limited uses
may be formulated as flowables in which the finely
ground active ingredients are mixed with a liquid,                    Risk of inhalation injury
along with inert ingredients, to form a suspension.
Flowables are mixed with water for application and                    Hazardous if punctured, overheated, or
are similar to EC or wettable powder formulations in                used near an open flame
ease of handling and use. They are used in the same
types of pest control operations as EC's.                             Difficult to confine to target site or pest

Advantages:                                                 Formulations for smoke or fog generators -- These
                                                            aerosol formulations are not under pressure. They are
           Seldom clog nozzles                              used in machines that break the liquid formulation
                                                            into a fine mist or fog (aerosol) using a rapidly
           Easy to handle and apply                         whirling disk or heated surface. These formulations
                                                            are used mainly for insect control in structures such
Disadvantages:                                              as greenhouses and warehouses and for mosquito and
                                                            biting fly control outdoors.
           Require moderate agitation
                                                            Advantages:
           May leave a visible residue
                                                                      Easy way to fill entire space with pesticide
Aerosols (A)
                                                            Disadvantages:
These formulations contain one or more active
ingredients and a solvent. Most aerosols contain a                    Highly specialized use and equipment
low percentage of active ingredient. There are two
types of aerosol formulations -- the ready-to-use type                Difficult to confine to target site or pest
and those made for use in smoke or fog generators.
                                                                      May require respiratory protection to
Ready-to-use aerosols -- These aerosol formulations                 prevent risk of inhalation injury
are usually small, self-contained units that release the
pesticide when the nozzle valve is triggered. The           Invert Emulsions
pesticide is driven through a fine opening by an inert
gas under pressure, creating fine droplets. These           This mixture contains a water-soluble pesticide
products are used in greenhouses, in small areas            dispersed in an oil carrier. Invert emulsions require a
inside buildings, or in localized outdoor areas.            special kind of emulsifier that allows the pesticide to
Commercial models, which hold 5 to 10 pounds of             be mixed with a large volume of petroleum-based
pesticide, are usually refillable.                          carrier, usually fuel oil. When applied, invert
                                                            emulsions form large droplets that do not drift easily.
Advantages:                                                 Invert emulsions are most commonly used in
                                                            vegetation control along rights-of-way where drift to
           Ready to use                                     susceptible nontarget plants is a problem.



                                                       19
Dry Formulations                                               attracts the pests or is placed where the pests will find
                                                               it. Pests are killed by eating the pesticide in the bait.
Dusts (D)                                                      The amount of active ingredient in most bait
                                                               formulations is quite low, usually less than 5 percent.
Most dust formulations are ready to use and contain a
low percentage of active ingredient (usually 1/2 to 10         Baits are used inside buildings to control ants,
percent), plus a very fine dry inert carrier made from         roaches, flies, other insects, and rodents. Outdoors
talc, chalk, clay, nut hulls, or volcanic ash. The size        they sometimes are used to control snails, slugs, and
of individual dust particles varies.                           some insects, but their main use is to control
                                                               vertebrate pests such as rodents, other mammals, and
                                                               birds.
A few dust formulations are concentrates and contain
a high percentage of active ingredient. These must be
mixed with dry inert carriers before they can be               Advantages:
applied.
                                                                          Ready to use
Dusts are always used dry, and they easily drift into
nontarget sites. Sometimes they are used for                             Entire area need not be covered, because
agricultural applications. In structures, dust                         pest goes to bait
formulations are used in cracks and crevices and for
spot treatments. They are widely used in seed                            Control pests that move in and out of an
treatment. Dusts also are used to control lice, fleas,                 area
and other parasites on pets and livestock.
                                                               Disadvantages:
Advantages:
                                                                          Can be attractive to children and pets
            Usually ready to use, with no mixing
                                                                         May kill domestic animals and nontarget
          Effective where moisture from a spray                        wildlife outdoors
        might cause damage
                                                                         Pest may prefer the crop or other food to
            Require simple equipment                                   the bait

            Effective in hard-to-reach indoor areas                       Dead pests may cause odor problem

Disadvantages:                                                           Other animals may be poisoned as a result
                                                                       of feeding on the poisoned pests
            Easily drift off target during application
                                                                         If baits are not removed when the pesticide
         Residue easily moved off target by air                        becomes ineffective, they may serve as a
        movement or water                                              food supply for the target pest or other pests

            May irritate eyes, nose, throat, and skin          Granules (G)

            Do not stick to surfaces as well as liquids        Granular formulations are similar to dust
                                                               formulations except that granular particles are larger
          Difficult to get an even distribution of             and heavier. The coarse particles are made from an
        particles on surfaces                                  absorptive material such as clay, corn cobs, or walnut
                                                               shells. The active ingredient either coats the outside
                                                               of the granules or is absorbed into them. The amount
Baits (B)                                                      of active ingredient is relatively low, usually ranging
                                                               from 1 to 15 percent.
A bait formulation is an active ingredient mixed with
food or another attractive substance. The bait either


                                                          20
Granular pesticides are most often used to apply             Most pellet formulations are very similar to granular
chemicals to the soil to control weeds, nematodes,           formula tions; the terms often are used
and insects living in the soil. Sometimes granular           interchangeably. In a pellet formulation, however, all
formulations are used in airplane or helicopter              particles are the same weight and shape. The
applications to minimize drift or to penetrate dense         uniformity of the particles allows them to be applied
vegetation.                                                  by precision applicators such as those being used for
                                                             precision planting of pelleted seed. A few fumigants
Granular formulations also are used to control larval        are formulated as pellets; however, these will be
mosquitoes and other aquatic pests. Granules are             clearly labeled as fumigants and should not be
used in agricultural, structural, ornamental, turf,          confused with nonfumigant, granule -like pellets.
aquatic, right-of-way, and public health (biting
insect) pest control operations.                             Wettable Powders

Advantages:                                                  (WP or W)

          Ready to use -- no mixing                          Wettable powders are dry, finely ground formulations
                                                             that look like dusts. They usually must be mixed with
          Drift hazard is low, and particles settle          water for application as a spray. A few products,
        quickly                                              however, may be applied either as a dust or as a
                                                             wettable powder -- the choice is left to the applicator.
          Little hazard to applicator -- no spray, little
        dust                                                 Wettable powders contain 5 to 95 percent active
                                                             ingredient, usually 50 percent or more. Wettable
           Weight carries the formulation through            powder particles do not dissolve in water. They settle
        foliage to soil or water target                      out quickly unless constant agitation is used to keep
                                                             them suspended.
          Simple application equipment, such as
        seeders or fertilizer spreaders                      Wettable powders are one of the most widely used
                                                             pesticide formulations. They can be used for most
          May break down more slowly than                    pest problems and in most types of spray equipment
        wettable powders or Emulsifiable                     where agitation is possible.
        concentrates through a slow-release coating
                                                             Advantages:
Disadvantages:
                                                                       Easy to store, transport, and handle
          Do not stick to foliage or other nonlevel
        surfaces                                                       Less likely than emulsifiable concentrates
                                                                     and other petroleum-based pesticides to
          May need to be incorporated into soil or                   cause unwanted harm to treated plants,
        planting medium                                              animals, and surfaces

          May need moisture to start pesticidal                        Easily measured and mixed
        action
                                                                       Less skin and eye absorption than
          May be hazardous to nontarget species,                     emulsifiable concentrates and other liquid
        especially waterfowl and other birds that                    formulations
        mistakenly feed on the grain- or seed-like
        granules                                             Disadvantages:

Pellets (P or PS)                                                      Inhalation hazard to applicator while
                                                                     pouring and mixing the concentrated powder




                                                        21
          Require good and constant agitation                             Some bees may pick up the capsules and
        (usually mechanical) in the spray tank and                     carry them back to their hive where the
        quickly settle out if agitation is turned off                  released pesticide may poison the entire hive

          Abrasive to many pumps and nozzles,                  Water-Dispersible Granules (dry flowables)
        causing them to wear out quickly                       (WDG or DF)

           Difficult to mix in very hard or very               Water-dispersible granular formulations are like
        alkaline water                                         wettable powder formulations, except the active
                                                               ingredient is prepared as granule -sized particles.
          Often clog nozzles and screens                       Water-dispersible granules must be mixed with water
                                                               to be applied. Once in water, the granules break apa rt
          Residues may be visible                              into fine powder. The formulation requires constant
                                                               agitation to keep it suspended in water. Water-
Soluble powders                                                dispersible granules share the advantages and
                                                               disadvantages of wettable powders except:
(SP or WSP)
                                                                          They are more easily measured and mixed
Soluble powder formulations look like wettable
powders. However, when mixed with water, soluble                         They cause less inhalation hazard to the
powders dissolve readily and form a true solution.                     applicator during pouring and mixing.
After they are mixed thoroughly, no additional
agitation is necessary. The amount of active                   Fumigants
ingredient in soluble powders ranges from 15 to 95
percent; it usually is over 50 percent. Soluble                Fumigants are pesticides that form poisonous gases
powders have all the advantages of wettable powders            when applied. Some active ingredients are liquids
and none of the disadvantages except the inhalation            when packaged under high pressure but change to
hazard during mixing. Few pesticides are available in          gases when they are released. Other active
this formulation because few active ingredients are            ingredients are volatile liquids when enclosed in an
soluble in water.                                              ordinary container and so are not formulated under
                                                               pressure. Others are solids that release gases when
Microencapsulated Pesticides (M)                               applied under conditions of high humidity or in the
                                                               presence of water vapor. Fumigants are used for
Microencapsulated formulations are particles of                structural pest control, in food and grain storage
pesticides (liquid or dry) surrounded by a plastic             facilities, and in regulatory pest control at ports of
coating. The formulated product is mixed with water            entry and at State and national borders. In agricultural
and applied as a spray. Once applied, the capsule              pest control, fumigants are used in soil and in
slowly releases the pesticide. The encapsulation               greenhouses, granaries, and grain bins.
process can prolong the active life of the pesticide by
providing a timed release of the active ingredient.            Advantages:

Advantages:                                                               Toxic to a wide range of pests

          Increased safety to applicator                                  Can penetrate cracks, crevices, wood, and
                                                                       tightly packed areas such as soil or grains
          Easy to mix, handle, and apply
                                                                         Single treatment usually will kill most
          Releases pesticide over a period of time                     pests in treated area

Disadvantages:                                                 Disadvantages:

          Constant agitation necessary in tank


                                                          22
           The target site must be enclosed or covered                 Compatibility agents -- aid in combining
        to prevent the gas from escaping                             pesticides effectively.

          Highly toxic to humans and all other living                  Buffers -- allow pesticides to be mixed
        organisms                                                    with diluents or other pesticides of different
                                                                     acidity or alkalinity.
          Require the use of specialized protective
        equipment, including respirators                               Anti-foaming agents -- reduce foaming of
                                                                     spray mixtures that require vigorous
          Require the use of specialized application                 agitation.
        equipment

Adjuvants
                                                              Test Your Knowledge
An adjuvant is a chemical added to a pesticide
formulation or tank mix to increase its effectiveness         Q-1. What is a pesticide formulation?
or safety. Most pesticide formulations contain at least
a small percentage of adjuvants. Some of the most
                                                              • A. A pesticide formulation is the mixture of
common adjuvants are surfactants -- "surface active
                                                              active and inert (inactive) ingredients that forms
ingredients" that alter the dispersing, spreading, and
wetting propertie s of spray droplets.                        a pesticide product.

Common adjuvants are:                                         Q-2. What is the difference between active
                                                              ingredients and inert ingredients?
           Wetting agents -- allow wettable powders
        to mix with water.                                    • A. Active ingredients are the chemicals in a
                                                              pesticide product that control pests. Inert
          Emuls ifiers -- allow petroleum-based               ingredients are the chemicals in a pesticide
        pesticides (EC's) to mix with water.                  product that are added to make the product safer,
                                                              more effective, easier to measure, mix, and
          Invert emulsifiers -- allow water-based             apply, and more convenient to handle.
        pesticides to mix with petroleum carrier.
                                                              Q-3. What types of factors should you consider
          Spreaders -- allow pesticide to form a              when you have a choice of formulations for a pest
        uniform coating layer over the treated                control task?
        surface.
                                                              • A. You should think about the characteristics
           Stickers -- allow pesticide to stay on the         of each formulation, and you should consider
        treated surface.                                      which of the formulation's advantages and
                                                              disadvantages are important in your application
           Penetrants -- allow the pesticide to get           situation. Also consider the following: Do you
        through the outer surface to the inside of the
                                                              have the right applicatio n equipment? Can you
        treated area.
                                                              apply the formulation safely? Will the
                                                              formulation reach the target and stay in place
          Foaming agents -- reduce drift.
                                                              long enough to control the pest? Might the
                                                              formulation harm the target site?
          Thickeners -- reduce drift by increasing
        droplet size.
                                                              Q-4. If you had a choice of either a wettable
                                                              powder formulation or a granular formulation for
          Safeners -- reduce the toxicity of a
                                                              a particular pest control task, which would be best
        pesticide formulation to the pesticide handler
        or to the treated surface.                            if drift were a major concern? Which would be



                                                         23
best if you need the pesticide to stay on a surface        in very hard or very alkaline water, so the
that is not level, such as foliage?                        emulsifiable concentrate formulation would be
                                                           the best choice in the second situation.
• A. The granular formulation would be the best
choice in the first situation because granules             Q-6. Why are adjuvants sometimes added to
have a much lower drift hazard than wettable               pesticide formulations?
powders. Granules do not stick to nonlevel
surfaces, so the wettable powder would be the              • A. Adjuvants are added to a pesticide
best choice in the second situation.                       formulation or tank mix to increase its
                                                           effectiveness or safety.
Q-5. If you had a choice of either a wettable
powder or an emulsifiable concentrate for a                Q-7. What type(s) of adjuvants should you
particular pest control task, which would be               consider for reducing drift? for coating a surface
better if you were concerned about harming the             evenly? When you wish to combine two or more
treated surface? Which would be best if you were           pesticides for one application?
diluting with very hard or alkaline water?
                                                           • A. Foaming agents and thickeners help reduce
• A. The wettable powder would be the best                 drift. Spreaders help coat the treated surface with
choice in the first situation, because emulsifiable        an even layer of pesticide. Compatibility agents
concentrates are corrosive and may cause pitting,          aid in combining pesticides effectively.
discoloration, or other damage to treated
surfaces. Wettable powders are difficult to mix




                                                      24
                                                            The environment is not limited to the outdoors -- it
Unit 4 - Pesticides in the Environment                      also includes the indoor areas where we live and
                                                            work.

                                                            The environment, then, is much more than the oceans
                                                            and the ozone layer. It is air, soil, water, plants,
Learning Objectives                                         animals, houses, restaurants, office buildings, and
                                                            factories and all that they contain. Anyone who uses
After you complete your study of this unit, you             a pesticide -- indoors or outdoors, in a city or in the
should be able to:                                          country -- must consider how that pesticide will
                                                            affect the environment.
          Explain the meaning of the word
        "environment".                                      The user must ask two questions:

          Distinguish between point-sources and                       How will this pesticide affect the
        non-point-sources of environmental                          immediate environment where it is being
        contamination by pesticides.                                used?

          List factors to consider when you                           What are the dangers that the pesticide will
        accidentally or intentionally release a                     move out of the use site and cause harm to
        pesticide into the environment.                             other parts of the environment?

          Explain why sensitive areas are important         Pesticides can harm all types of environments if they
        considerations for pesticide handlers.              are not used correctly. Responsible pesticide users
                                                            know and follow good practices that achieve
         Name the routes by which pesticides can            effective pest control with very little risk of
        move offsite into the environment.                  environmental damage. Pesticide product labeling
                                                            statements are intended to alert you to particular
          Describe factors that influence whether           environmental concerns that a pesticide product
        pesticides will move offsite in the air.            poses. Use good judgment, too. The lack of a
                                                            particular precautionary statement does not
          Describe factors that influence whether           necessarily mean that the product does not pose a
        pesticides will move offsite in water.              hazard to the environment.

           Describe ways that pesticides move offsite       Both the public and the EPA are becoming
        in or on objects, plants, or animals.               increasingly concerned about harmful effects on the
                                                            environment from pesticide use. As a result, the EPA
                                                            is looking closely at environmental effects when it
          Recognize that nontarget plants and
                                                            considers new registration applications. It also is
        animals can be harmed by both pesticides
                                                            reexamining existing pesticide registrations.
        and pesticide residues.
                                                            Previously, the primary reason for the EPA
                                                            classifying a pesticide as a restricted-use product was
          Describe harmful effects that pesticides          its potential as a hazard to humans. Now, more and
        can have on surfaces.                               more pesticide labels list environmental effects, such
                                                            as contamination of ground water or toxicity to birds
                                                            or aquatic invertebrate animals, as a reason for
                                                            restriction.
Pesticides in the Environment
                                                            Sources of Contamination
The environment is everything around us. It includes
not only the natural elements that the word                 Environmental contamination is caused by either
"environment" most often brings to mind, but also           point-source or non-point-source pollution. Point-
people and the manmade components of our world.             source pollution comes from a specific, identifiable


                                                       25
place (point). A pesticide spill that moves into a                    Whether there are conditions in the
storm sewer is an example of point-source pollution.                environment at the pesticide use site that
Non-point-source pollution comes from a wide area.                  might cause the pesticide to move offsite
The movement of pesticides into streams after
broadcast applications is an example of non-point-                    Whether you need to change any factors in
source pollution.                                                   your application or in the pesticide use site to
                                                                    reduce the risk of environmental
Non-point-source pollution from pesticide                           contamination
applications has commonly been blamed for pesticide
contamination outdoors, but more and more studies           Sensitive Areas
are revealing that, in fact, much environmental
contamination does not result from non-point-source         Sensitive areas are sites or living things that are
pollution. Contamination also results from point
                                                            easily injured by a pesticide.
sources, such as:
                                                            Sensitive areas outdoors include:
          wash water and spills produced at
        equipment cleanup sites,
                                                                      areas where ground water is near the
                                                                    surface or easily accessed (wells, sinkholes,
           improper disposal of containers, water                   porous soil, etc.);
        from rinsing containers, and excess
        pesticides,
                                                                       areas in or near surface water;
          pesticide storage sites where leaks and
        spills are not correctly cleaned up, and                      areas near schools, playgrounds, hospitals,
                                                                    and other institutions;
          spills that occur while mixing concentrates
        or loading pesticides into application                        areas near the habitats of endangered
                                                                    species;
        equipment.

These kinds of tasks are involved with nearly every                   areas near apiaries (honeybee sites),
pesticide use, whether the pesticide is applied                     wildlife refuges, or parks; and
outdoors or in or around an enclosed structure.
                                                                      areas near ornamental gardens, food or
                                                                    feed crops, or other sensitive plantings.
As a pesticide handler, especially if you use and
supervise the use of restricted-use pesticides, you
must become aware of the potential for                                 Sensitive areas indoors include:
environmental contamination during every phase of
your pesticide operation. Many pesticide uses are                      areas where people -- especially children,
restricted because of environmental concerns.                       pregnant women, the elderly, or the sick --
Whenever you release a pesticide into the                           live, work, or are cared for;
environment -- whether intentionally or accidentally -
- consider:                                                           areas where food or feed is processed,
                                                                    prepared, stored, or served;
          Whether there are sensitive areas in the
        environment at the pesticide use site that                     areas where domestic or confined animals
        might be harmed by contact with the                         live, eat, or are otherwise cared for; and
        pesticide
                                                                      areas where ornamental or other sensitive
          Whether there are sensitive offsite areas                 plantings are grown or maintained.
        near the use site that might be harmed by
        contact with the pesticide                          Sometimes pesticides must be deliberately applied to
                                                            a sensitive area to control a pest. These applications



                                                       26
should be performed by persons well trained about                        in water, through runoff or leaching,
how to avoid causing injury in such areas.
                                                                         on or in objects, plants, or animals
At other times, the sensitive area is part of a larger                (including humans) that move or are moved
target site. Whenever possible, take special                          offsite.
precautions to avoid direct application to the sensitive
area. For example, leaving an untreated buffer zone           Air
around sensitive areas is often a practical way to
avoid contamination.                                          Pesticide movement away from the release site in the
                                                              air is usually called drift. Pesticide particles, dusts,
In other instances, the sensitive area may be near a          spray droplets, and vapors all may be carried offsite
site that is used for application, mixing/loading,            in the air. People who mix, load, and apply pesticides
storage, disposal, or equipment washing. Pesticide            outdoors usually are aware of the ease with which
users must take precautions to avoid accidental               pesticides drift offsite. People who handle pesticides
contamination of the sensitive area. For example, a           indoors may not realize how easily some pesticides
permanent site for mixing/loading or equipment                move offsite in the air currents created by ventilation
washing could be equipped with a collection pad or            systems and by forced-air heating and cooling
tray to catch and contain leaks, spills, or waste water.      systems.

Typical pesticide labeling statements that alert you to       Particles and droplets -- Lightweight particles, such
these concerns include:                                       as dusts and wettable powders, are easily carried by
                                                              moving air. Granules and pellets are much heavier
           "Do not use in hospital patient quarters."         and tend to settle out of air quickly. Small spray
                                                              droplets also are easily carried in air currents. High-
           "Remove all animals from building prior to         pressure and fine nozzles produce very small spray
        treatment and keep animals out until spray            droplets that are very likely to drift. Lower pressure
        has dried."                                           and coarse nozzles produce larger droplets with less
                                                              drift potential.
          "Applications prohibited in areas where
        food is held, processed, prepared or served."         The likelihood that pesticide particles and spray
                                                              droplets will drift offsite depends partly on the way
          "Do not use around home gardens, schools,           they are released. Pesticides released close to the
        recreational parks, or playgrounds."                  ground or floor are not as likely to be caught up in air
                                                              currents as those released from a greater height.
           "In living areas, make applications in such        Pesticides applied in an upward direction or from an
        a manner as to avoid deposits on exposed              aircraft are the most likely to be carried on air
        surfaces or introducing the material into the         currents.
        air."
                                                              Vapors -- Pesticide vapors move about easily in air.
           "Do not use in or around residences."              Fumigant pesticides are intended to form a vapor
                                                              when they are released. Persons using fumigants
                                                              must take precautions to make sure the fumigant
Pesticide Movement                                            remains in a sealed container until it is released into
                                                              the application site, which also must be sealed to
Pesticides that move away from the release site may           prevent the vapor from escaping. Some nonfumigant
cause environmental contamination. This can occur             pesticides also can vaporize and escape into the air.
indoors or outdoors and may cause harm in both                The labeling of volatile pesticides often includes
environments. Pesticides move in several ways,                warning statements that the pesticide handler should
including:                                                    heed. Any time you release a volatile pesticide in an
                                                              enclosed area, consider the hazards not only to
          in air, through wind or through air currents        yourself and to fellow workers, but also to people,
        generated by ventilation systems,                     animals, and plants in or near the release site or
                                                              which may be in the area soon after the release.



                                                         27
Typical pesticide labeling statements that alert you to       Some pesticides can leach downwards in indoor
avoid drift include:                                          environments. In a greenhouse, for example,
                                                              pesticides may leach through the soil or other
          "Do not apply when weather conditions               planting medium to floors or benches below. Some
        favor drift from areas treated."                      pesticides used indoors may be absorbed into carpets,
                                                              wood, and other porous surfaces and remain trapped
          "Do not allow drift onto plants intended            for a long time.
        for food or feed."
                                                              Typical pesticide labeling statements that alert you to
           "Drift from treated areas may be hazardous         these concerns include:
        to aquatic organisms in neighboring areas."
                                                                        "Do not contaminate water through runoff,
Water                                                                 spills, or improper disposal of excess
                                                                      pesticide, spray mixtures, or rinsates."
Pesticide particles and liquids may be carried offsite
in water. Pesticides can enter water through:                           "Do not allow runoff or spray to
                                                                      contaminate wells, irrigation ditches, or any
                                                                      body of water used for irrigation or domestic
          drift, leaching, and runoff from nearby
        applications,                                                 purposes."

                                                                        "Do not apply directly to water and
          spills, leaks, and back-siphoning from
                                                                      wetlands (swamps, bogs, marshes, and
        nearby mixing, loading, storage, and
                                                                      potholes)."
        equipment cleanup sites, and

          improper disposal of pesticides, rinsates,                    "Maintain a buffer zone (lay-off distance)
                                                                      of 100 feet from bodies of water."
        and containers.

Most pesticide movement in water is across the                           "This product is water soluble and can
treated surface (runoff) or downward from the                         move with surface runoff water. Do not
surface (leaching). Runoff and leaching may occur                     contaminate cropland, water, or irrigation
when:                                                                 ditches."

           too much liquid pesticide is applied,              On or in Objects, Plants, or Animals
        leaked, or spilled onto a surface, or
                                                              Pesticides can move away from the release site when
          too much rainwater, irrigation water, or            they are on or in objects or organisms that move (or
        other water gets onto a surface containing            are moved) offsite. Pesticides may stick to shoes or
        pesticide residue.                                    clothing, to animal fur, or to blowing dust and be
                                                              transferred to other surfaces. When pesticide handlers
                                                              bring home or wear home contaminated personal
Runoff water in the outdoor environment may travel
                                                              protective equipment, work clothing, or other items,
into drainage ditches, streams, ponds, or other surface
                                                              residues can rub off on carpeting, furniture, and
water where the pesticides can be carried great
                                                              laundry items and onto pets and people.
distances offsite. Pesticides that leach downward
through the soil in the outdoor environment
sometimes reach the ground water.                             Pesticides may stick to treated surfaces, such as food
                                                              or feed products that are to be sold. To protect
                                                              consumers, there are legal limits (tolerances) for how
Runoff water in the indoor environment may get into
                                                              much pesticide residue may safely remain on crops or
domestic water systems and from there into surface
                                                              animal products sold for food or feed. Products
water and ground water. Runoff can flow into floor
                                                              exceeding these tolerances are illegal and cannot be
drains or other drains and into the water system.
                                                              sold. Crops and animal products will not be over
Sometimes a careless pesticide handler washes
                                                              tolerance if the pesticides are applied according to
pesticide down a sink drain and into the water
system.


                                                         28
product labeling. Illegal pesticide residues usually          destroy their food source. Pesticides applied over
result when:                                                  large areas, such as in mosquito, biting fly, and forest
                                                              pest control, must be chosen with great care to avoid
          too much pesticide is applied to the crop or        poisoning nontarget plants and animals in or near the
        animal,                                               target site. Read the warnings and directions on the
                                                              pesticide labeling carefully to avoid harming
           the days-to-harvest, days-to-grazing, or           nontarget organisms during a pesticide application.
        days-to-slaughter directions on the pesticide
        labeling are not obeyed, or                           Drift from the target site may injure wildlife,
                                                              livestock, pets, sensitive plants, and people. For
          pesticides move out of the release site and         example, herbicide drift can damage sensitive nearby
        contaminate plants or animals nearby.                 plants, including crops, forests, or ornamental
                                                              plantings. Drift also can kill beneficial parasites and
Typical pesticide labeling statements that alert you to       predators near the target site.
these concerns include:
                                                              Pesticide runoff may harm fish and other aquatic
           "Do not apply within five days of harvest."        animals and plants in ponds, streams, and lakes.
                                                              Aquatic life also can be harmed by careless tank
                                                              filling or draining and by rinsing or discarding used
          "Do not apply under condit ions involving           containers along or in waterways.
        possible drift to food, forage, or other
        plantings that might be damaged or the crops
        thereof rendered unfit for sale, use, or              Typical pesticide labeling statements that alert you to
        consumption."                                         these concerns include:

                                                                         "Phytotoxic. Do not spray on plants."
           "Remove meat animals from treated areas
        at least one day before slaughter if they were
        present at application or grazed treated areas                  "Do not apply this product or allow it to
        within 21 days after application."                            drift to blooming crops or weeds if bees are
                                                                      visiting the treatment area."
           "Do not pasture or feed treated hay to
        lactating dairy cattle within 21 days after                     "Extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. Do
        application."                                                 not contaminate water by cleaning of
                                                                      equipment or disposal of wastes."
Harmful Effects on Nontarget Plants and
                                                                         "This product is toxic to fish, shrimp, crab,
Animals                                                               birds, and other wildlife. Keep out of lakes,
                                                                      streams, ponds, tidal marshes, and estuaries.
Nontarget organisms may be harmed by pesticides in                    Shrimp and crab may be killed at application
two ways:                                                             rates. Do not apply where these are important
                                                                      resources."
          the pesticide may cause injury by
        contacting the nontarget organism directly, or        Harmful Effects from Residues
          the pesticide may leave a residue that              A residue is the part of a pesticide remaining in the
        causes later injuries.                                environment after an application or spill. Pesticides
                                                              usually break down into harmless components after
Harmful Effects from Direct Contact                           they are released into an environment. The
                                                              breakdown time ranges from less than a day to
Pesticides may harm nontarget organisms present               several years. The rate of pesticide breakdown
during application. Poorly timed applications can kill        depends mostly on the chemical structure of the
bees and other pollinators in or near the target site.        active ingredient in the pesticide. The rate of
Pestic ides may harm other wildlife, too. Even tiny           breakdown also may be affected by environmental
amounts of some pesticides may harm them or                   conditions at the release site, such as:


                                                         29
          surface type, chemical composition, and             Typical pesticide labeling statements that alert you to
        pH,                                                   these concerns include:

          surface moisture,                                             "Toxic to fish, birds, and wildlife. This
                                                                      product can pose a secondary hazard to birds
          presence of microorganisms,                                 of prey and mammals."

          temperature, and                                               "Do not use fish as food or feed within
                                                                      three days of application."
          exposure to direct sunlight.
                                                                         "Animals feeding on treated areas may be
Persistent pesticides leave residues that stay in the                 killed and pose a hazard to hawks and other
environment without breaking down for a long time.                    birds-of-prey. Bury or otherwise dispose of
Sometimes these pesticides are desirable because                      dead animals to prevent poisoning of other
they provide long-term pest control and may reduce                    wildlife."
the need for repeated applications. However, some
persistent pesticides that are applied to or spilled on       Harmful Effects on Surfaces
soil, plants, lumber, and other surfaces or into water
can later cause harm to sensitive plants, animals, or         Sometimes surfaces are harmed by pesticides or
humans that contact them. Clues on pesticide labeling         pesticide residues. Some surfaces may become
that a particular pesticide product is likely to be           discolored, while others may become pitted or
persistent include:                                           marked. Some pesticides can corrode or obstruct
                                                              electronic systems or metal. Others will leave a
          "Can remain in the soil for 34 months or            visible deposit on the treated surface.
        more and cause injury to certain crops other
        than those listed as acceptable on the label."        Typical pesticide labeling statements that alert you to
                                                              these concerns include:
          "This product can remain phytotoxic for a
        year or more."                                                  "Do not apply to carpeting, linoleum, or
                                                                      other porous floor coverings, as discoloration
When using persistent pesticides, consider whether                    may result."
their continued presence in the environment is likely
to harm people, plants or animals.                                      "Do not spray on plastic, painted, or
                                                                      varnished surfaces."
When pesticides build up in the bodies of animals or
in the soil, they are said to accumulate. When the                      "May cause pitting of automobile and
same mixing/loading site or equipment cleaning site                   other vehicle paint."
is used frequently without taking steps to limit and
clean up spills, pesticides are likely to accumulate in                 "Do not spray directly into any electronic
the soil. When this occurs, plants, animals, and                      equipment or into outlets and switches, or
objects that come into contact with the soil may be                   any other location where the pesticide may
harmed. When pesticides accumulate in the soil, there                 foul or short-circuit contacts and circuits."
is also a higher likelihood that the pesticides will
move offsite and contaminate the surrounding                            "A visible deposit may occur on some dark
environment or move into surface or ground water.                     surfaces."
Sometimes animals can be harmed when they feed on
plants or animals that have pesticide residues on or in
them. A special concern is for predator birds or
mammals that feed on animals that have been killed            Test Your Knowledge
by pesticides. The predators may be harmed by the
pesticide residues remaining on or in the bodies of           Q-1. What is the "environment"?
the dead animals.


                                                         30
• A. Environment is everything that surrounds                3. Whether there are conditions in the immediate
us -- indoors and outdoors -- including natural              environment that might cause the pesticide to move
elements, manmade objects, people, and other                 offsite, and
living organisms.
                                                             4. Whether you can change any factors in your
                                                             application or in the pesticide use site to reduce the
Q-2. Explain what is meant by point-source and
                                                             risk of environmental contamination.
non-point-source contamination of the
environment by pesticides, and give an example of
each.                                                        Q-5. What is a "sensitive area"? Give four
                                                             examples of sensitive areas that you must be
                                                             especially careful to protect when you are
• A. Point-source pollution comes from a                     handling pesticides.
specific, identifiable place (point). A pesticide
spill that moves into a storm sewer is an example            • A. Sensitive areas are sites or living things in
of point-source pollution. Non-point-source                  environments that are easily injured by a
pollution comes from a wide area. The                        pesticide. Some examples of sensitive areas
movement of pesticides into streams after                    include: places where pesticides might get into
broadcast applications is an example of non-
                                                             ground water or surface water; homes, schools,
point-source pollution.                                      playgrounds, hospitals, and other places where
                                                             people are present; places where there are
Q-3. Name some ways that careless pesticide
                                                             animals -- endangered species, bees, other
handling could lead to point-source pollution.
                                                             wildlife, livestock, pets; places where crops,
                                                             ornamental plants, or other sensitive plants are
• A. Ways that careless pesticide handling could
                                                             growing; and areas where food or feed is
cause point-source pollution include, for
                                                             processed, stored, or served.
example:
                                                             Q-6. List three routes by which pesticides can
1. Mismanagement of wash water and spills produced
                                                             move offsite.
at equipment cleanup sites.

2. Improper disposal of containers, water from               • A. 1. In air, through wind or through air
rinsing containers, and excess pesticides.                   currents generated by ventilation systems

3. Failure to correctly cle an up leaks and spills at        2. In water, through runoff or leaching
pesticide storage sites.
                                                             3. On or in objects, plants, or animals (including
4. Spilling pesticides while mixing concentrates or          humans) that move or are moved offsite.
loading pesticides into application equipment.
                                                             Q-7. What factors influence whether a pesticide
Q-4. What environmental factors should you                   will move offsite in the air?
consider any time you accidentally or intentionally
release a pesticide into an environment?                     • A. 1. Droplet or particle size

• A. Consider:                                               2. Height and direction of release

1. Whether there are sensitive areas in the                  3. Whether the pesticide tends to form vapors
environment at the pesticide use site that might be
harmed by contact with the pesticide,                        Q-8. Name two circumstances that might cause a
                                                             pesticide to move offsite in water.
2. Whether there are sensitive offsite areas near the
use site that might be harmed by contact with the            • A. 1. Too much liquid pesticide is applied,
pesticide,                                                   leaked, or spilled onto a surface


                                                        31
2. Too much rainwater, irrigation water, or wash             runoff, how else may nontarget plants and
water gets onto a surface that contains pesticide            animals be harmed by a pesticide?
residue
                                                             • A. Nontarget plants and animals may be
Q-9. Give some examples of ways that pesticides              harmed by pesticide residues that stay in the
can move offsite on or in objects, plants, or                environment after the release. These can be
animals.                                                     residues in soil or on surfaces, or they may be
                                                             residues that build up in the bodies of animals,
• A. 1. Pesticides may be carried offsite if they            harming those animals themselves and
stick to such things as shoes or clothing, animal            sometimes other animals that feed on them.
fur, or blowing dust -- anything that moves from
the use site to another location.                            Q-11. What kinds of damage can some pesticides
                                                             cause to surfaces?
2. Pesticide residues may remain on treated surfaces,
such as food or feed products, when they are taken
                                                             • A. Surfaces may become discolored, be pitted
from the use site to be sold.
                                                             or marked, be corroded or obstructed, or be left
                                                             with a visible deposit.
Q-10. In addition to direct contact with the
pesticide during application or through drift or




                                                        32
Unit 5 - Special Environmental                                         Describe how pesticides may harm
                                                                     endangered species.
Concerns -- Protecting Ground Water
and Endangered Species

                                                             Special Environmental Concerns --
Learning Objectives                                          Protecting Ground Water and
                                                             Endangered Species
After you complete your study of this unit, you
should be able to:                                           Concerns about wildlife and the environment are
                                                             becoming more important in decisions about which
          Name pesticide handling activities that            pesticides will be registered and what they may be
        pose a threat to ground water or endangered          used for. Two environmental concerns are receiving
        species.                                             particular attention:

          Explain why the location of your pesticide                    protection of ground water, and
        use site is the main factor determining
        whether you must take special steps to                          protection of endangered species
        protect ground water and endangered species.
                                                             Federal and state efforts to protect ground water and
           Explain where to find out whether your            endangered species are resulting in new instructions
        pesticide use is subject to any special              and limitations for pesticide handlers. Whether you
        limitations related to ground water or               apply pesticides indoors or outdoors, in an urban area
        endangered species.                                  or in a rural area, you must become aware of the
                                                             importance of protecting these two vital national
          Name factors determining whether                   resources. Pesticides that are incorrectly or
        pesticides will reach ground water.                  accidentally released into the environment -- either
                                                             during application or during other handling activities,
                                                             such as mixing, loading, equipment cleaning, storage,
          Describe how pesticide users can avoid             transportation, or disposal -- pose a threat to ground
        contaminating ground water.
                                                             water and endangered species.
           Explain how water on surfaces at the              Whether you must take special action to protect
        release site affects the movement of
                                                             ground water and endangered species depends mainly
        pesticides into ground water.                        on the location of your use site. Ground water
                                                             contamination is of greatest concern in release sites
          Explain how the solubility, adsorption, and        where ground water is close to the surface or where
        persistence of a pesticide influence its             the soil type or the geology allows contaminants to
        movement into ground water.                          reach ground water easily. Protection of endangered
                                                             species usually is required only in locations where
         Explain how soil type affects the                   they currently live or are being reintroduced. Read
        movement of pesticides into ground water.            the pesticide labeling carefully to determine whether
                                                             your pesticide use is subject to any special ground
           Describe how the geology of a release site        water or endangered species limitations.
        affects the movement of pesticides into
        ground water.                                        The EPA may establish specific limitations or
                                                             instructions for pesticide users in locations where
          Define "endangered species".                       ground water or endangered species are most at risk.
                                                             These limitations and instructions are often too long
          Explain the concept of habitat.                    to be included in pesticide labeling. The labeling may
                                                             tell you to consult another source for details about the
          Define biological diversity.                       instructions and limitations for your situation. Your


                                                        33
legal responsibility for following instructions that are    ground water. Five major factors determine whether a
distributed separately is the same as it is for             pesticide will reach ground water:
instructions that appear in full on the pesticide
labeling.                                                             the practices followed by pesticide users,

                                                                       the presence or absence of water on the
                                                                    surface of the site where the pesticides are
Protecting Ground Water                                             released,

Ground water is water located beneath the earth's                     the chemical characteristics of the
surface. Many people think that ground water occurs                 pesticides,
in vast underground lakes, rivers, or streams. Usually,
however, it is located in rock and soil. It moves                     the type of soil in the site where the
slowly through irregular spaces within otherwise                    pesticides are released,
solid rock or seeps between particles of sand, clay,
and gravel. An exception is in limestone areas, where                 the location of the ground water -- its
ground water may flow through large underground                     distance from the surface and the type of
channels or caverns. Surface water may move several                 geological formations above it.
feet in a second or a minute. Ground water may move
only a few feet in a month or a year. If the ground         By being aware of these considerations, you can
water is capable of providing significant quantities of     handle pesticides in ways that will make the potential
water to a well or spring, it is called an aquifer.         for ground water contamination less likely.
Pesticide contamination of aquifers is very troubling
because these are sources of drinking, washing, and         Practices for Pesticide Users
irrigation water.
                                                            The best way to keep from contaminating ground
Sources of Ground Water                                     water is to follow labeling directions exactly. Be sure
                                                            to note whether the labeling requires you to take any
Ground water is recharged (replaced) mostly from            special steps to protect ground water. In addition,
rain or snow that enters the soil. However, some            remember the following:
water from lakes and streams and from irrigation also
becomes ground water. Water that is above the                         Avoid the temptation to use more pesticide
ground can move in three ways: 1) it can evaporate                  than the labeling directs. Overdosing will
into the air; 2) it can move across the surface, as in a            increase both the cost of pest control and the
stream or river; or, 3) it can move down from the                   odds that the pesticide will reach ground
surface. Some water that moves downward is                          water. Overdosing is also illegal. Keeping the
absorbed by plants and other organisms. Another                     use of pesticides to a minimum greatly
portion of this water is held in the upper soil layers.             reduces the risk of ground water
The rest moves down through the root zone and the                   contamination.
relatively dry soil zone until it reaches a zone
saturated with water. This saturated zone is the                       Consider whether your application method
uppermost layer of ground water and is called the                   presents any special risks. For example, soil
water table. The water table is the "dividing line"                 injection of some pesticides may not be wise
between the ground water and the unsaturated rock or                when ground water is close to the surface.
soil above it.
                                                                      Take precautions to keep pesticides from
Pesticide Contamination of Ground Water                             back-siphoning into your water source.

When water that is moving downward from the                            Locate pesticide storage facilities at least
surface contains pesticides -- or comes into contact                100 feet from wells, springs, sinkholes, and
with them as it moves -- the pesticides may be carried              other sites that directly link to ground water
along with the water until they eventually reach the                to prevent their contamination from runoff or
                                                                    firefighting water.


                                                       34
           Whenever possible, locate mix-load sites                       persistence -- Some pesticides break down
        and equipment-cleaning sites at least 100 feet                 slowly and remain in the environment for a
        from surface water or from direct links to                     long time.
        ground water. This will help prevent back-
        siphoning, runoff, and spills from                     These factors are all related to one another. Pesticides
        contaminating the water sources. If you must           most likely to move into ground water are highly
        locate one of these work sites near a water            soluble, moderately to highly persistent, and are not
        source, use methods such as dikes, sump pits,          strongly adsorbed to soil. A nonpersistent pesticide
        and containment pads to keep pesticides from           would be less likely to move to ground water, even if
        reaching the water.                                    it is highly soluble or not strongly adsorbed to soil. A
                                                               pesticide that is strongly adsorbed to soil would be
          Do not contaminate ground water through              less likely to move to ground water even if it is
        improper disposal of unused pesticides,                persistent.
        pesticide containers, or equipment and
        container rinse water. Dispose of all pesticide        Pesticide labeling usually does not tell you about
        wastes in accordance with local, state, tribal,        these properties of the pesticide product. The Soil
        and federal laws.                                      Conservation Service, Cooperative Extension
                                                               Service, your trade association, or your pesticide
Water on the Treated Surface                                   dealer may have specific information about the
                                                               characteristics of the pesticides you are using.
If there is more water on the soil than the soil can
hold, the water (along with any pesticides it contains)        Soil Factors
is likely to move downward to the ground water.
Prolonged heavy rain or excessive irrigation will              Soil is also an important factor in the breakdown and
produce excess water on the soil surface.                      movement of pesticides. Your local Soil
                                                               Conservation Service can help you determine the
Rain -- If weather forecasts or your knowledge of              types of soil in your area and how they affect
local weather signs cause you to expect heavy rain,            breakdown and movement. The three major soil
delay outdoor handling operations -- including                 characteristics that affect pesticides are texture,
mixing and loading, application, and disposal -- to            permeability, and organic matter.
prevent wash-off, surface runoff, or leaching.
                                                               Soil texture is an indication of the relative
Irrigation -- Pesticide movement into ground water             proportions of sand, silt, and clay in the soil. Coarse,
is affected by both the amount of water used in                sandy soils generally allow water to carry the
irrigation and how soon before or after a pesticide            pesticides rapidly downward. Finer textured soils
application the irrigation is done. If irrigation water        generally allow water to move at much slower rates.
contains pesticides, be careful to prevent it from             They contain more clay, and sometimes organic
flowing into water sources.                                    matter, to which pesticides may cling.

Pesticide Factors                                              Soil permeability is a general measure of how fast
                                                               water can move downward in a particular soil. The
Some pesticides are more likely than others to move            more permeable soils must be managed carefully to
to ground water. Such movement depends mainly on:              keep pesticides from reaching ground water.

           solubility -- Some pesticides dissolve              Soil organic matter influences how much water the
        easily in water and are more likely to move            soil can hold before it begins to move downward.
        into water systems.                                    Soil containing organic matter has greater ability to
                                                               stop the movement of pesticides. Soils in which
           adsorption -- Some pesticides become                plants are growing are more likely to prevent
        tightly attached (strongly adsorbed) to soil           pesticide movement than bare soils.
        particles and are not likely to move out of the
        soil and into water systems.                           Geology



                                                          35
The distance from the soil surface to the water              area that drains to a sinkhole, even a moderate rain or
table is the measure of how deep the ground water is         irrigation may carry some of the pesticide directly to
in a given location. If the ground water is within a         the ground water.
few feet of the soil surface, pesticides are more likely
to reach it than if it is farther down. In humid areas,      The Certified Applicator's Role
the water table may be only a few feet below the soil
surface. In arid areas, the water table may lie several      Some pesticides or certain uses of some pesticides
hundred feet below the soil surface. The depth to the        may be classified as restricted use because of ground
water table does not stay the same over the course of        water concerns. As a certified applicator, you have a
the year. It varies according to:                            special responsibility to handle all pesticides safely in
                                                             and near use sites where ground water contamination
          the amount of rain, snow, and irrigation           is particularly likely. Take extra precautions when
        water being added to the soil surface,               using techniques that are known to be likely to cause
                                                             contamination of ground water, such as chemigation
          the amount of evaporation and plant                and soil injection.
        uptake,
                                                             When a pesticide product has been found in ground
           whether the ground is frozen, and                 water or has characteristics that may pose a threat of
                                                             contamination of ground water, the pesticide product
          how much ground water is being                     labeling may contain statements to alert you to the
        withdrawn by pumping.                                concern. Typical pesticide labeling statements
                                                             include:
The Soil Conservation Service can provide you with
valuable information on the geology of an area and                      "This chemical has been identified in
on the potential for ground water contamination on                   limited ground water sampling and there is
your property.                                                       the possibility that it can leach through the
                                                                     soil to ground water, especially where soils
The water table generally is closest to the soil surface             are coarse and ground water is near the
in spring and fall. The water table often moves                      surface."
downward during the summer when evaporation and
plant uptake are high and irrigation is used. The                       "This product is readily decomposed into
water table also moves downward in winter if surface                 harmless residues under most use conditions.
water cannot move down through the frozen soil to                    However, a combination of permeable and
recharge the ground water.                                           acidic soil conditions, moderate to heavy
                                                                     irrigation and/or rainfall, use of 20 or more
The permeability of geological layers between the                    pounds per acre, and soil temperature below
soil and ground water is also important. If surface                  50oF (10oC) at application time tend to
water can move down quickly, pesticides are more                     reduce degradation and promote movement
likely to reach ground water. Gravel deposits are                    of residues to ground water. If the above
highly permeable. They allow water and any                           describes your local use conditions and
pesticides in it to move rapidly downward to ground                  ground water in your area is used for
water. Regions with limestone deposits are                           drinking, do not use this product without first
particularly susceptible to ground water                             contacting (registrant's name and telephone
contamination, because water may move rapidly to                     number)."
the ground water through caverns or "rivers" with
little filtration or chemical breakdown. On the other
hand, layers of clay may be totally impermeable and
may prevent most water and any pesticides in it from         Protection of Endangered Species
reaching the ground water.
                                                             An endangered species is a plant or animal in danger
Sinkholes are especially troublesome. Surface water
                                                             of becoming extinct. There are two classifications of
often flows into sinkholes and disappears quickly into
                                                             these plants and animals -- "endangered species" and
the ground water. If a pesticide is released into an
                                                             "threatened species." The term "endangered species"


                                                        36
is used here to refer to the two classifications               The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is attempting to
collectively. Scientists believe that some pesticides          identify the habitats as accurately as possible so that
may threaten the survival of some of America's                 pesticide use will need to be limited only in locations
endangered species if they are used where these                where it is absolutely necessary. For this reason,
plants and animals still exist.                                limitations on pestic ide use may apply on one
                                                               property, while a similar adjoining property may not
A federal law, the Endangered Species Act, requires            have these limitations.
the EPA to ensure that endangered species are
protected from pesticides. An EPA goal is to remove            Importance of Protecting Endangered
or reduce the threat that pesticide use poses to               Species
endangered species. Reaching this goal will require
some limitations on pesticide use. These limitations           Hundreds of animals (including fish, birds, mammals,
usually will apply only in the currently occupied
                                                               reptiles, amphibians, insects, and aquatic
habitat or range of each endangered species at risk.
                                                               invertebrates) and thousands of plants have been
Occasionally the limitations will apply where
                                                               named as endangered or threatened species under the
endangered specie s are being reintroduced into a
                                                               provisions of the Endangered Species Act. Some of
habitat they previously occupied.
                                                               these animals and plants are ones that everyone
                                                               knows about, such as the bald eagle. Others are tiny,
Habitats, sometimes called "critical habitats," are the        little-known creatures that may rarely be seen by
areas of land, water, and air space that an endangered         anyone except trained naturalists.
species needs for survival. Such areas include
breeding sites; sources of food, cover, and shelter;
                                                               Regardless of the size or apparent significance of
and surrounding territory that gives room for normal
                                                               these endangered species, it is important that each is
population growth and behavior.
                                                               allowed to survive -- mankind's well-being depends
                                                               on maintaining biological diversity. Biological
Limitations on Pesticide Use                                   diversity is the variety and differences among living
                                                               things, and the complex ways they interact. Diversity
Read all pesticide labeling carefully to find out              is necessary for several reasons:
whether the use of that product requires you to take
any special steps to protect endangered species. The           Agriculture -- Nearly all of today's crops started as
label may direct you to another source for the details         wild species. Genes from wild species often are used
about what you must do. When limitations do apply,             to create new hybrids that have resistance to plant
they usually will be in effect only in some specific           diseases and insects, better climatic tolerance, and
geographic locations. Use of a particular pesticide is         higher yields. Having different varieties available is
usually limited in a particular location when:                 necessary insurance against devastating crop failures
                                                               caused by climate extremes or major pest outbreaks.
          the site is designated as the current habitat
        of an endangered species, and                          Medicine -- Many of today's most important
                                                               medicines come from obscure plant and animal
          the endangered species that uses the site            species. A mold is the source of penicillin, the
        might be harmed by the use of the pesticide            miracle drug; an herb is the source of quinine, a cure
        within (or close to) its habitat.                      for malaria. Scientists are testing countless plant and
                                                               animal species around the world for sources of cures
Habitats of Endangered Species                                 for major diseases.

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is responsible for          Preserving choices -- No one can predict which
identifying the current habitat or range of each               species may be essential to the future of mankind. A
endangered species. For aquatic species, the                   species that is allowed to become extinct might have
restricted habitat often will include an additional zone       been the key to stopping a global epidemic or to
around the body of water to keep any drift, runoff, or         surviving a major climate change.
leachate in the watershed from reaching the water.
                                                               Interdependence -- The extinction of a single
                                                               species can set off a chain reaction of harm to other


                                                          37
species. The disappearance of a single kind of plant                      "Under the Endangered Species Act, it is a
from an area, for example, may lead to the                             Federal offense to use any pesticide in a
disappearance of certain insects, higher animals, and                  manner that results in the death of a member
other plants.                                                          of an endangered species. Prior to making
                                                                       applications, the user must determine that
Natural balance -- Extinction has always been a                        endangered species are not located in or
natural part of an ever-changing process. During                       immediately adjacent to the site to be treated.
most of history, species have formed at a rate greater                 If the users are in doubt whether or not
than the rate of extinctions. Now, however, it appears                 endangered species may be affected, they
that human activity is greatly speeding up the rate of                 should contact the regional U.S. Fish and
extinctions. People, plants, and animals live together                 Wildlife Service office (Endangered Species
in a delicate balance; the disappearance of species                    specialist) or personnel of the State Fish and
could easily upset that balance.                                       Game office."

Stability -- The more diversity that exists in an                        "Endangered Species Restrictions: For
ecosystem, the more stable it is likely to be. There is                Aerial Application -- Do not use within 100
less likelihood of huge swings in populations of                       yards of aquatic habitats. For Ground
particular organisms. There is also less likelihood of                 Application -- Do not use within 20 yards of
devastation from the introduction of a new species                     aquatic habitats."
from outside the system.

The Certified Applicator's Role
                                                               Know the Law
Pesticides have the potential to harm living
organisms, including endangered species:                       The Endangered Species Act (ESA) is a federal law
                                                               administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)
          Pesticides can kill endangered plants and            of the Department of the Interior. The ESA makes it
        animals directly.                                      illegal to kill, harm, or collect endangered or
                                                               threatened wildlife or fish or to remove endangered
          Pesticides in the habitat of the endangered          or threatened plants from areas under federal
        organisms can disrupt or destroy their                 jurisdiction. It also requires other federal agencies to
        sources of food and shelter.                           ensure that any action they carry out or authorize is
                                                               not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of
           Pesticide application, drift, runoff, and           any endangered or threatened species, or to destroy or
        leachate can contaminate water ingested by             adversely modify its critical habitat. As a result, EPA
        or inhabited by endangered organisms.                  must ensure that no registered pesticide use is likely
                                                               to jeopardize the survival of any endangered or
          Some pesticides can build up to dangerous            threatened species.
        levels in endangered predators that feed on
        plants or anima ls exposed to pesticides.              The FWS has the authority to designate land and
                                                               freshwater species as endangered or threatened and to
As a certified applicator, you have a clearly defined          identify their current habitat or range. The National
legal responsibility to protect endangered species             Marine Fisheries Service has the same authority for
against the hazards posed by pesticides. Using                 marine species.
pesticides carefully in and around the key habitat
areas will help these fragile plants and animals               The FWS has the authority to prosecute persons,
survive, and it also may prevent some important                including pesticide users, who harm endangered or
pesticides from being removed from the market.                 threatened species. In addition, EPA enforcement
                                                               personnel have the authority to ensure that pesticide
Typical pesticide labeling statements that alert you to        users observe labeling restrictions.
concerns about endangered species include:




                                                          38
Test Your Knowledge                                     present special risks; keep pesticides from back-
                                                        siphoning into your water source; locate
Q-1. Which pesticide handling activities pose a         pesticide storage facilities at least 100 feet from
threat to ground water or endangered species?           wells, springs, sinkholes, and other sites that
                                                        directly link to ground water; locate mix- load
• A. All handling activities may pose a threat,         sites and equipment-cleaning sites at least 100
including mixing, loading, applying, equipment          feet from surface water or from direct links to
cleaning, storage, transportation, disposal, and        ground water or take precautions to protect those
spill cleanup.                                          sites; dispose of unused pesticides, pesticide
                                                        containers, and equipment and container rinse
Q-2. Why is the location of your pesticide use site     water correctly.
the main factor that determines whether you must
take special action to protect endangered species       Q-6. Explain why the amount of water on the
or ground water?                                        surface of the soil at the pesticide use site is an
                                                        important factor in ground water contamination.
• A. These special limitations on pesticide use
are usually in effect only in locations where           • A. If there is more water on the soil than the
endangered species live or are being introduced         soil can hold, the water (along with any
and in areas where ground water is especially           pesticides it contains) is likely to move
likely to be contaminated. Unless your pesticide        downward to the ground water.
use site is in one of these places, the special
restrictions do not apply to you.                       Q-7. Explain how the solubility, adsorption, and
                                                        persistence of a pesticide affect its ability to move
Q-3. How will you know if you must take special         into ground water.
action to protect endangered species or ground
water?                                                  • A. Solubility -- Some pesticides dissolve
                                                        easily in water and are more likely to move into
• A. The pestic ide labeling will tell you if           water systems.
special measures are necessary, but it may not
contain the detailed instructions that you must         Adsorption -- Some pesticides become tightly
follow. The labeling may instruct you to get            attached (strongly adsorbed) to soil particles and are
these from another source.                              not likely to move out of the soil and into water
                                                        systems.
Q-4. What are some factors that determine
whether pesticides will reach ground water?             Persistence -- Some pesticides do not break down
                                                        quickly and remain in the environment for a long
                                                        time, so are more likely to move into ground water.
• A. The factors include: practices followed by
pesticide users; presence or absence of water on
                                                        Q-8. What types of soil slow the movement of
the surface of the site where the pesticides are        pesticides into ground water? What types permit
released; chemical characteristics of the               rapid movement?
pesticides; type of soil in the site where the
pesticides are released; location of the ground         • A. Soils that are fine-textured and contain
water -- its distance from the surface and the type     organic matter slow the downward movement of
of geological formations above it.                      water containing pesticides. Coarse, sandy soils
                                                        generally allow water to carry pesticides rapidly
Q-5. How can you help to prevent pesticides from        downward.
reaching ground water?
                                                        Q-9. What geologic factors affect the movement of
• A. Avoid using more pesticide than the                pesticides into ground water?
labeling directs; avoid application methods that


                                                   39
• A. Distance to ground water, permeability of            Q-13. How can pesticides harm endangered
geologic layers, and the presence or absence of           species?
sinkholes.
                                                          • A. Pesticides may harm endangered species by
Q-10. What is an endangered species?                      direct contact; by disrupting or destroying
                                                          sources of food and shelter; by contaminating
• A. An endangered species is a plant or animal           water ingested by or inhabited by endangered
that is in danger of becoming extinc t.                   organisms; by building up to dangerous levels in
                                                          endangered predators that feed on plants or
Q-11. What is a habitat?                                  animals exposed to pesticides.

• A. A habitat is the area of land, water, and air        Endangered Species Restriction
space that an endangered species needs for
survival. Such areas include breeding sites;              Under the Endangered Species Act, it is a federal
sources of food, cover, and shelter; and enough           offense to use any pesticide in a manner that results
                                                          in the death of a member of an endangered species.
surrounding territory to give room for normal             Prior to making applications, the user must determine
population growth and behavior.                           that endangered species are not located immediately
                                                          adjacent to the site to be treated. If users are in doubt
Q-12. What is biological diversity?                       whether endangered species may be affected, they
                                                          should contact the regional U.S. Fish and Wildlife
• A. Biological diversity is the variety and              Service Office (Endangered Specialist) or personnel
differences among living things, and the                  of the State Fish and Game Office.
complex ways they interact.




                                                     40
Unit 6 - Harmful Effects and                                  harmful effects by avoiding being exposed to
                                                              pesticides.
Emergency Response
                                                              Humans may be harmed by pesticides in two ways:
                                                              they may be poisoned or injured. Pesticide
                                                              poisoning is caused by pesticides that harm internal
Learning Objectives                                           organs or other systems inside the body. Pesticide-
                                                              related injuries usually are caused by pesticides that
After you study this unit, you should be able to:             are external irritants.

          Explain the concepts of hazard, exposure,           Pesticides that are chemically similar to one another
        and toxicity and how they relate to one               cause the same type of harmful effects to humans.
        another.                                              These effects may be mild or severe, depending on
                                                              the pesticide involved and the amount of
          List the four routes through which your             overexposure. But the pattern of illness or injury
        body can be exposed to pesticides, and name           caused by each chemical group is usually the same.
        the route that should be of most concern to           Some pesticide chemical families can cause both
        you.                                                  external irritation injuries and internal poisoning
                                                              illnesses.
          List three factors determining how quickly
        pesticides will be absorbed through your              Some pesticides are highly toxic to humans; only a
        skin.                                                 few drops in the mouth or on the skin can cause
                                                              extremely harmful effects. Other pesticides are less
           Explain the three main types of harmful            toxic, but too much exposure to them also will cause
        effects that pesticides can cause in humans.          harmful effects. A good equation to remember is:

           Describe how to avoid harmful effects              Hazard = Toxicity x Exposure
        from pesticides.
                                                              Hazard is the risk of harmful effects from pesticides.
                                                              Hazard depends on both the toxicity of the pesticide
          Describe some general signs and
                                                              and your exposure.
        symptoms of pesticide poisoning and of
        pesticide irritation effects.
                                                              Exposure
          Describe appropriate first aid for pesticide
        exposures.                                            When a pesticide contacts a surface or organism, that
                                                              contact is called a pesticide exposure. For humans, a
           Define "heat stress" and describe some             pesticide exposure means getting pesticides in or on
        signs and symptoms of heat stress.                    the body. The toxic effect of a pesticide exposure
                                                              depends on how much pesticide is involved and how
           Describe appropriate first aid for heat            long it remains there.
        stress.
                                                              Types of Exposures

                                                              Pesticides contact your body in four main ways:
Harmful Effects and Emergency                                           oral exposure (when you swallow a
Response                                                              pesticide),

Most pesticides are designed to harm or kill pests.                     inhalation exposure (when you inhale a
Because some pests have systems similar to the                        pesticide),
human system, some pesticides also can harm or kill
humans. Fortunately, humans usually can avoid                            ocular exposure (when you get a pesticide
                                                                      in your eyes), or


                                                         41
          dermal exposure (when you get a pesticide           One of the best ways to avoid pesticide exposures is
        on your skin).                                        to avoid situations and practices where exposures
                                                              commonly occur.
Avoiding Exposure
                                                              Oral exposures often are caused by:
Avoiding and reducing exposures to pesticides will
reduce the harmful effects from pesticides. You can                     not washing hands before eating, drinking,
avoid exposures by using safety systems, such as                      smoking, or chewing,
closed systems and enclosed cabs, and you can
reduce exposures by wearing appropriate personal                        mistaking the pesticide for food or drink,
protective equipment, washing exposed areas often,
and keeping your personal protective equipment                          accidentally applying pesticides to food, or
clean and in good operating condition.
                                                                        splashing pesticide into the mouth through
In most pesticide handling situations, the skin is the                carelessness or accident.
part of the body that is most likely to receive
exposure. Evidence indicates that about 97 percent of         Inhalation exposures often are caused by:
all body exposure that happens during pesticide
spraying is through skin contact. The only time
                                                                        prolonged contact with pesticides in closed
inhalation is a greater hazard than skin contact is                   or poorly ventilated spaces,
when you are working in a poorly ventilated enclosed
space and are using a fumigant or other pesticide that
is highly toxic by inhalation.                                          breathing vapors from fumigants and other
                                                                      toxic pesticides,
The amount of pesticide absorbed through your skin
(and eyes) and into your body depends on:                               breathing vapors, dust, or mist while
                                                                      handling pesticides without appropriate
                                                                      protective equipment,
           the pesticide itself and the material used to
        dilute the pesticide. Emulsifiable
        concentrates, oil-based liquid pesticides, and                  inhaling vapors immediately after a
        oil-based diluents (such as xylene) are, in                   pesticide is applied; for example, from drift
        general, absorbed most readily. Water-based                   or from reentering the area too soon, and
        pesticides and dilutions (such as wettable and
        soluble powders and dry flowables) usually                      using a respirator that fits poorly or using
        are absorbed less readily than the oil-based                  an old or inadequate filter, cartridge, or
        liquid formulations5 but more readily than                    canister.
        dry formulations. Dusts, granules, and other
        dry formulations are not absorbed as readily          Dermal exposures often are caused by:
        as liquids.
                                                                        not washing hands after handling
          the area of the body exposed. The genital                   pesticides or their containers,
        area tends to be the most absorptive. The
        scalp, ear canal, and forehead are also highly                  splashing or spraying pesticides on
        absorptive.                                                   unprotected skin or eyes,

          the condition of the skin exposed. Cuts,                       wearing pesticide-contaminated clothing
        abrasions, and skin rashes allow absorption                   (including boots and gloves),
        more readily than intact skin. Hot, sweaty
        skin will absorb more pesticide than dry, cool                 applying pesticides (or flagging) in windy
        skin.                                                         weather,

Causes of Exposure                                                      wearing inadequate personal protective
                                                                      equipment while handling pesticides, and


                                                         42
           touching pesticide-treated surfaces.               Acute Effects

Eye exposures often are caused by:                            Acute effects are illnesses or in juries that may appear
                                                              immediately after exposure to a pesticide (usually
           splashing or spraying pesticides in eyes,          within 24 hours). Studying a pesticide's relative
                                                              ability to cause acute effects has been the main way
          applying pesticides in windy weather                to assess and compare how toxic pesticides are.
        without eye protection,                               Acute effects can be measured more accurately than
                                                              delayed effects, and they are more easily diagnosed
          rubbing eyes or forehead with                       than effects that do not appear until long after the
        contaminated gloves or hands, and                     exposure. Acute effects usually are obvious and often
                                                              are reversible if appropriate medical care is given
                                                              promptly.
          pouring dust, granule, or powder
        formulations without eye protection.
                                                              Pesticides cause four types of acute effects:
Toxicity                                                                 acute oral effects,
Toxicity is a measure of the ability of a pesticide to
                                                                         acute inhalation effects,
cause harmful effects. Toxicity depends on:
                                                                         acute dermal effects,
           type and amount of active ingredient(s),
                                                                         acute eye effects.
          type and amount of carrier or solvent
        ingredient(s),
                                                              Acute oral effects -- Your mouth, throat, and
                                                              stomach can be burned severely by some pesticides.
           type and amount of inert ingredient(s), and
                                                              Other pesticides that you swallow will not burn your
                                                              digestive system, but will be absorbed and carried in
          type of formulation, such as dust, granule,         your blood throughout your body and may cause you
        powder, or emulsifiable concentrate.                  harm in various ways. For some pesticides,
                                                              swallowing even a few drops from a splash or wiping
The toxicity of a particular pesticide is measured by         your mouth with a contaminated glove can make you
subjecting laboratory animals (usually rats, mice,            very ill or make it difficult to eat and drink and get
rabbits, and dogs) or tissue cultures to different            nourishment. Typical precautionary statements on
dosages of the active ingredient and of the formulated        pesticide labeling include:
product over various times. These toxicity studies
help to estimate the risk that the pesticide may cause
harmful effects in humans. However, some people               ACUTE ORAL
react more severely or more mildly than estimated.            • Highly Toxic
Be alert to your body's reaction to the pesticides you
are handling. Some people seem to be especially                 "Fatal if swallowed," or "Can kill you if
sensitive to individual pesticides or to groups of            swallowed."
similar pesticides.
                                                              • Moderately Toxic
You may have a choice of pesticides for a particular
pest problem. Consider how toxic each pesticide is to
                                                                "Harmful or fatal if swallowed," or "May be fatal if
persons who will use it or be exposed to it.
                                                              swallowed."

Harmful Effects                                               • Slightly Toxic
Pesticides can cause three types of harmful effects:
                                                                "Harmful if swallowed." or "May be harmful if
acute effects, delayed effects, and allergic effects.
                                                              swallowed."



                                                         43
Acute inhalation effects -- Your entire respiratory           • Slightly Toxic
system can be burned by some pesticides, making it
difficult to breathe. Other pesticides that you may              "Harmful if absorbed through the skin," or "May
inhale may not harm your respiratory system, but are          be harmful by skin contact," combined with the
carried quickly in your blood throughout your whole           statement "Avoid contact with skin or clothing."
body where they can harm you. Typical
precautionary statements on pesticide labeling
include:                                                      SKIN IRRITATION
                                                              • Highly Toxic
ACUTE INHALATION
                                                                "Corrosive -- causes severe skin burns," combined
• Highly Toxic                                                with the statement "Do not get on skin."
  "Poisonous if inhaled," or "Can kill you if
                                                              • Moderately Toxic
breathed," combined with the statement "Do not
breathe dusts, vapors, or spray mists."
                                                                "Causes skin irritation," or "Causes skin burns,"
                                                              followed by a statement such as "Do not get on skin."
• Moderately Toxic
                                                              • Slightly Toxic
  "Harmful or fatal if inhaled," or "May be fatal if
breathed," followed by a statement such as "Do not
breathe dusts, vapors, or spray mist."                          "May irritate skin," combined with the statement
                                                              "Avoid contact with skin."
• Slightly Toxic                                              Acute eye effects -- Some pesticides that get into
                                                              your eyes can cause temporary or permanent
  "Harmful if inhaled," or May be harmful if                  blindness or severe irritation. Other pesticides may
breathed," combined with the statement "Avoid                 not irritate your eyes, but pass through your eyes and
breathing dusts, vapors, or spray mist."                      into your body. These pesticides can travel
                                                              throughout your body, harming you. Typical
Acute dermal effects -- Contact with some                     precautionary statements on pesticide labeling
pesticides will harm your skin. These pesticides may          include:
cause your skin to itch, blister, crack, or change
color. Other pesticides can pass through your skin
and eyes and get into your body. Once inside your             EYE IRRITATION
body, these pesticides are carried throughout your            • Highly Toxic
system where they can harm you. Typical
precautionary statements on pesticide labeling                  "Corrosive -- causes irreversible eye damage," or "
include:                                                      Causes severe eye burns or blindness," combined
                                                              with the statement "Do not get in eyes."
ACUTE DERMAL
• Highly Toxic                                                • Moderately Toxic

  "Fatal if absorbed through the skin," or "Can kill            "Causes eye irritation," or "Causes eye burns,"
you by skin contact," combined with the statement             followed by a statement such as "Do not get in eyes."
"do not get on skin or clothing."
                                                              • Slightly Toxic
• Moderately Toxic
                                                                "May irritate eyes," combined with the statement
   "Harmful or fatal if absorbed through the skin," or        "Avoid contact with eyes."
"May be fatal by skin contact," followed by a
statement such as "Do not get on skin or clothing."           Delayed Effects



                                                         44
Delayed effects are illnesses or injuries that do not         pesticides have been shown to have this effect when
appear immediately (within 24 hours) after exposure           they are combined.
to a pesticide or combination of pesticides. Often the
term "chronic effects" is used to describe delayed            In some cases, a single exposure to a pesticide (or
effects, but this term is applicable only to certain          combination of pesticides) could adversely affect the
types of delayed effects.                                     exposed person's health later. For example, large
                                                              exposures to paraquat, a herbicide, may cause severe
Delayed effects may be caused by:                             or fatal lung injury that does not appear for 3 to 14
                                                              days after the initial exposure. After an exposure,
          repeated exposures to a pesticide, a                paraquat slowly builds up in the lungs and destroys
        pesticide group, or a combination of                  lung cells.
        pesticides over a long period of time, or
                                                              Some kinds of harmful effects may not occur unless a
          a single exposure to a pesticide (or                certain set of circumstances is present. These effects
        combination of pesticides) that causes a              can occur after the first exposure, but the likelihood
        harmful reaction that does not become                 is small. Continuous or frequent exposures over a
        apparent until much later.                            long period of time make it more likely that all the
                                                              necessary factors will be present. Some genetic
Some pesticides cause delayed effects only with               changes that result in the development of cancer or
repeated exposure over a period of days, months, or           other delayed effects are in this category.
even years. For example, if a rat eats a large amount
of the pesticide cryolite at one time, the pesticide          Types of delayed effects include:
passes through the rat's system quickly and is
eliminated without harmful effects. However, if the                      chronic effects,
rat regularly eats small amounts of cryolite, it soon
becomes ill and dies. Cryolite does not readily                         developmental and reproductive effects,
dissolve in water. The small amount of pesticide that                 and
is absorbed into the rat's system from a one-time
exposure is not enough to cause illness. But if that                     systemic effects.
same small amount is absorbed day after day, enough
poison will be absorbed into the rat's system to cause        Chronic effects -- Chronic effects are illnesses or
illness and death.                                            injuries that appear a long time, usually several years,
                                                              after exposure to a pesticide. Some delayed effects
Sometimes repeated exposures to a pesticide or                that are suspected to result from pesticides' chronic
family of pesticides will result in a delayed effect, but     toxicity include:
a larger exposure will cause an acute effect.
Organophosphate and carbamate pesticides inhibit a                       production of tumors (oncogenic effect),
chemical, called cholinesterase, in the nervous
system of humans. A large exposure causes
                                                                        production of malignancy or cancer
immediate acute illness. Smaller exposures cause no
                                                                      (carcinogenic effect),
apparent problem at first. They inhibit the
cholinesterase, but not enough to cause immediate
illness. Small, repeated exposures to these pesticides                  changes in the genes or chromosomes
over several days or weeks may greatly reduce                         (mutagenic effect).
cholinesterase levels in the body. At that point, even
a small exposure to a pesticide with relatively low           Typical precautionary statements on pesticide
cholinesterase-inhibiting properties may trigger              labeling include:
severe illness.
                                                                        "Cancer Hazard Warning Statement: This
A person who is repeatedly exposed to two or more                     product contains an ingredient which has
specific chemicals may become ill even though any                     been determined to cause tumors in
one of the chemicals alone would have had no                          laboratory animals."
harmful health impact. Some organophosphate



                                                         45
          "NOTE: This product has been shown to                          blood disorders (hemotoxic effects), such
        cause cancer in laboratory animals."                           as anemia or an inability to coagulate,

           "The use of this product may be hazardous                     nerve or brain disorders (neurotoxic
        to your health. This                                           effects), such as paralysis, nervous excitation,
                                                                       behavioral changes, tremor, blindness, and
product contains an ingredient which has been                          brain damage,
determined to cause tumors in laboratory animals."
                                                                         skin disorders, such as rash, irritation,
Developmental and reproductive effects -- A                            discoloration, and ulceration,
developmental effect is an injury or illness that
occurs to a fetus in the womb of a woman who has                         lung and respiratory disorders, such as
been exposed to a pesticide(s). These effects include:                 emphysema and asthma,

          birth defects (teratogenic effect), and                         liver and kidney disorders, such as
                                                                       jaundice and kidney failure.
          illness or death (miscarriage or stillbirth)
        of a fetus (fetotoxic effect).                         Typical precautionary statements on pesticide
                                                               labeling include:
A reproductive effect is an injury to the
reproductive system of exposed men or women.                             "May produce kidney and liver damage
These effects include:                                                 upon prolonged exposure."

          infertility or sterility in men or women,                      "Inhalation may cause delayed lung, nerve,
        and                                                            or brain injury."

          impotence in men.                                              "Liquid or vapor may cause serious skin or
                                                                       eye injury which may have a delayed onset."
Some developmental or reproductive effects are
thought to occur immediately after exposure to a               Determining delayed effects -- Because of the time
pesticide or combination of pesticides, but they may           delay between the exposure and the observable
not be apparent for some time after the exposure. For          effect, and because many other types of exposures
example, a birth defect may be seen only after the             may have occurred during the delay, it is sometimes
birth of a child, which may be several months after            hard to identify the cause of a delayed effect.
the exposure. Other developmental or reproductive              Although some pesticides may cause delayed effects
effects are thought to result from repeated exposures          in laboratory animals, further studies are needed to
to a pesticide or combination of pesticides over a             determine whether these pesticides will affect
period of time.                                                humans the same way.

A typical precautionary statement on pesticide                 When there is clear evidence that a pesticide may
labeling is:                                                   cause chronic, developmental, reproductive, or
                                                               systemic effects in humans, the Environmental
          "This product may be hazardous to your               Protection Agency will determine what steps are
        health. This product has been determined to            appropriate to reduce or eliminate the risk. Such
        cause birth defects in laboratory animals."            actions include:

Systemic effects -- A delayed systemic effect is an                      removing the pesticide from use,
illness or injury to a system in the body that does not
appear immediately (within 24 hours) after exposure                      requiring label warning statements about
to a pesticide or combination of pesticides. Such                      the possible effects,
effects include:




                                                          46
          requiring specific personal protective                         eye and nose irritation, such as itchy,
        equipment or safety systems during handling                     watery eyes and sneezing.
        of the pesticide,
                                                                Unfortunately, there is no way to tell which people
           requiring changes in dosages, method or              may develop allergies to which pesticides. However,
        frequency of application, and waiting times             certain people seem to be more chemically sensitive
        before entry or harvest/slaughter/grazing,              than others. They develop an allergic response to
                                                                many types of chemicals in their environment. These
           restricting the use to certified applicators.        persons may be more likely to develop allergies to
                                                                pesticides.
Avoiding delayed effects -- Scientists, pesticide
manufacturers, and the Environmental Protection                 Typical precautionary statements on pesticide
Agency cannot yet be sure what the delayed effects              labeling include:
of too much exposure to individual pesticides or
combinations of pesticides may be. It may be years                         "This product may produce temporary
before there are clear answers on the effects of all the                allergic side effects characterized by redness
pesticides and combinations of pesticides used today.                   of the eyes, mild bronchial irritation, and
Meanwhile, it makes good sense to reduce your                           redness or rash on exposed skin areas.
exposure to all pesticides as much as possible.                         Persons having allergic reactions should
                                                                        contact a physician."
Allergic Effects
                                                                          "May be a skin sensitizer."
Allergic effects are harmful effects that some people
develop in reaction to substances that do not cause                       "The active ingredient may cause skin
the same reaction in most other people. Allergic                        sensitization reactions in certain individuals."
reactions are not thought to occur during a person's
first exposure to a substance. The first exposure               Avoiding allergic effects -- Depending on how
causes the body to develop repelling response                   severe the allergic reaction is, persons with allergies
chemicals to that substance. A later (the second,               to certain pesticides may have to stop handling or
third, or more) exposure results in the allergic                working around those pesticides. They may be unable
response. This process is called sensitization, and             to tolerate even slight exposures. Sometimes persons
substances that cause people to become allergic to              with allergies to certain pesticides can continue to
them are known as sensitizers .                                 work in situations where those pesticides are present
                                                                by reducing their exposure to them.
Certain substances cause many people to develop an
allergic reaction. Poison ivy, for example, causes a
severe skin rash in many people. Other substances
cause allergic reactions in only a few people.
Turfgrass, for example, causes a severe skin rash in
                                                                Know the Law
relatively few people.
                                                                The Hazard Communication Standard (HCS), a
                                                                regulation under the Occupational Safety and Health
Types of allergic effects -- Some people are
                                                                Act (OSHA), requires employers to provide
sensitized to certain pesticides. After being exposed
                                                                protections to workers who may be exposed to
once or a few times without effect, they develop a
                                                                hazardous chemicals under normal operating
severe allergy-like response upon later exposures.
                                                                conditions or in foreseeable emergencies. The HCS,
These allergic effects include:
                                                                which is administered by the U.S. Department of
                                                                Labor, requires employers to:
           systemic effects, such as asthma or even
        life-threatening shock,
                                                                          make a list of the hazardous chemicals in
                                                                        the workplace,
          skin irritation, such as rash, blisters, or
        open sores, and



                                                           47
          obtain material safety data sheets (MSDS)                   nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and/or stomach
        for all hazardous substances on their list,                 cramps,

           ensure that all containers of                              headache, dizziness, weakness, and/or
                                                                    confusion,
          hazardous materials are labeled at all
        times,                                                         excessive sweating, chills, and/or thirst,

         train all workers about the hazardous                         chest pains,
        materials in their workplace, and
                                                                       difficult breathing,
           keep a file (including the MSDS's) on the
        hazardous chemicals, and make it available                    cramps in your muscles or aches all over
        to workers.                                                 your body.

                                                            Telltale signs or symptoms -- Poisoning by some
                                                            pesticide chemical families results in distinctive signs
Signs and Symptoms of Harmful Effects                       that help others to recognize the cause of the
                                                            poisoning. Organophosphate and n-methyl carbamate
Watch for two kinds of clues to pesticide-related           poisoning, for example, is often identified by the
illness or injury. Some clues are feelings that only the    presence of very small (pinpoint) pupils in the
person who has been poisoned can notice, such as            victim's eyes. Poisoning by pesticides containing
nausea or headache. These are symptoms . Other              arsenic or phosphorus is often identified by a garlic
clues, like vomiting or fainting, can be noticed by         odor on the victim's breath.
someone else. These are signs .
                                                            Ask your physician or poison control center to obtain
You should know:                                            the latest edition of "Recognition and Management of
                                                            Pesticide Poisonings" by Donald P. Morgan, M.D.,
                                                            Ph.D. It is available through the U.S. Environmental
           what your own symptoms might mean, and
                                                            Protection Agency or from the U.S. Government
                                                            Printing Office. Many physicians have not been
          what signs of poisoning to look for in your       trained to recognize and treat pesticide poisonings or
        coworkers and others who may have been              injury and may rarely see such cases.
        exposed.
                                                            Be informed -- You should know the kinds of
Many of the signs and symptoms of pesticide                 harmful effects most likely to be caused by the
poisoning are similar to signs and symptoms of other        pesticides you use. The appendix, Effects of
illnesses you might experience, such as the flu or          Pesticides on the Human Body, contains a guide to
even a hangover. If you have been working with              help you judge how the products you use might affect
pesticides and then develop suspicious signs and            you. The chart lists the major groups of pesticides.
symptoms, call your physician or poison control             For each group, it tells:
center. Only a physician can diagnose pesticide
poisoning injuries.
                                                                      the action of the poison on the human
                                                                    system,
External irritants cause:
                                                                       acute poisoning (systemic) effects,
          redness, blisters, rash, and/or burns on
        skin, and
                                                                       acute irritation effects,
           swelling, a stinging sensation, and/or burns
                                                                       delayed or allergic effects, and
        in eyes, nose, mouth, and throat.
                                                                       type of pesticide.
           Pesticide poisoning may cause:


                                                       48
Responding to a Poisoning Emergency                                      Dry victim and wrap in blanket or any
                                                                      clean clothing at hand. Do not allow to
Get medical advice quickly if you or any of your                      become chilled or overheated.
fellow workers have unusual or unexplained
symptoms starting at work or later the same day. Do                     If skin is burned or otherwise injured,
not let yourself or anyone else get dangerously sick                  cover immediately with loose, clean, dry, soft
before calling your physician or going to a hospital. It              cloth or bandage.
is better to be too cautious than too late. Take the
pesticide container (or the labeling) to the physician.                 Do not apply ointments, greases, powders,
Do not carry the pestic ide container in the passenger                or other drugs in first aid treatment of burns
space of a car or truck.                                              or injured skin.

First Aid for Pesticide Poisoning                             Pesticide in eye:

First aid is the initial effort to help a victim while                  Wash eye quickly but gently.
medical help is on the way. If you are alone with the
victim, make sure the victim is breathing and is not                     Use an eyewash dispenser, if available.
being further exposed to the pesticide before you call                Otherwise, hold eyelid open and wash with a
for emergency help. Apply artificial respiration if the               gentle drip of clean running water positioned
victim is not breathing. Do not become exposed to                     so that it flows across the eye rather than
the pesticide yourself while you are trying to help.                  directly into the eye.

In an emergency, look at the pesticide labelin g, if                    Rinse eye for 15 minutes or more.
possible. If it gives specific first aid instructions,
follow those instructions carefully. If labeling                        Do not use chemicals or drugs in the rinse
instructions are not available, follow these general                  water. They may increase the injury.
guidelines for first aid:
                                                              Inhaled pesticide:
The best first aid in pesticide emergencies is to
stop the source of pesticide exposure as quickly as                     Get victim to fresh air immediately.
possible.
                                                                        If other people are in or near the area, warn
Pesticide on skin:                                                    them of the danger.

           Drench skin and clothing with plenty of                      Loosen tight clothing on victim that would
        water. Any source of relatively clean water                   constrict breathing.
        will work. If possible, immerse the person in
        a pond, creek, or other body of water. Even
                                                                         Apply artificial respiration if breathing has
        water in ditches or irrigation sys- tems will                 stopped or if the victim's skin is blue. If
        do, unless you think they may have
                                                                      pesticide or vomit is on the victim's mouth or
        pesticides in them.
                                                                      face, avoid direct contact and use a shaped
                                                                      airway tube, if available, for mouth-to-mouth
          Remove personal protective equipment                        resuscitation.
        and contaminated clothing.
                                                              Pesticide in mouth or swallowed:
           Wash skin and hair thoroughly with a mild
        liquid detergent and water. If one is                           Rinse mouth with plenty of water.
        available, a shower is the best way to
        completely and thoroughly wash and rinse
        the entire body surface.                                        Give victim large amounts (up to 1 quart)
                                                                      of milk or water to drink.




                                                         49
         Induce vomiting only if instructions to do                   OSHA will investigate employee
       so are on the labeling.                                      complaints related to exposure to hazardous
                                                                    materials, such as pesticides.
Procedure for inducing vomiting:

         Position victim face down or kneeling
       forward. Do not allow victim to lie on his           Heat Stress
       back, because the vomit could enter the lungs
       and do additional damage.                            Heat stress is the illness that occurs when your body
                                                            is subjected to more heat than it can cope with. Heat
         Put finger or the blunt end of a spoon at          stress is not caused by exposure to pesticides, but
       the back of victim's throat or give syrup of         may affect pesticide handlers who are working in hot
       ipecac.                                              conditions. Personal protective equipment worn
                                                            during pesticide handling activities can increase the
         Do not use salt solutions to induce                risk of heat stress by limiting your body's ability to
       vomiting.                                            cool down. If you are under a physician's care, you
                                                            should consult your physician before working in hot
Do not induce vomiting:                                     conditions.

         If the victim is unconscious or is having          Signs and Symptoms of Heat Stress
       convulsions.
                                                            Mild forms of heat stress will make you feel ill and
         If the victim has swallowed a corrosive            impair your ability to do a good job. You may get
       poison. A corrosive poison is a strong acid or       tired sooner, feel weak, be less alert, and be less able
       alkali. It will burn the throat and mouth as         to use good judgment. Severe heat stress is a serious
       severely coming up as it did going down. It          illness. Unless victims are cooled down quickly, they
       may get into the lungs and burn there also.          can die. Severe heat stress is fatal to more than 10
                                                            percent of its victims, even young, healthy adults.
         If the victim has swallowed an                     Many who survive suffer permanent damage.
       emulsifiable concentrate or oil solution.            Sometimes the victims remain highly sensitive to
       Emulsifiable concentrates and oil solutions          heat for months and are unable to return to the same
       may cause death if inhaled during vomiting.          work.

                                                            Learn the signs and symptoms of heat stress and take
                                                            immediate action to cool down if you suspect you
                                                            may be suffering from even mild heat stress. Signs
Know the Law                                                and symptoms may include:
The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA),
                                                                       fatigue (exhaustion, muscle weakness),
administered by the U.S. Department of Labor,
contains some requirements that could affect you if
you or one of your employees is involved in a                          headache, nausea, and chills,
pesticide-related injury or illness.
                                                                       dizziness and fainting,
          Employers must keep records of all work-
       related deaths, injuries, and illnesses and                     severe thirst and dry mouth,
       make periodic reports. Minor injuries
       needing only first aid treatment need not be                    clammy skin or hot, dry skin,
       reported. You must keep records if the injury
       involved medical treatment, loss of                            heavy sweating or complete lack of
       consciousness, restriction of work or motion,                sweating,
       or transfer to another job.




                                                       50
          altered behavior (confusion, slurred                • A. Hazard is the risk of harmful effects from
        speech, quarrelsome or irrational attitude).          pesticides. Toxicity is a measure of the ability of
                                                              a pesticide to cause harmful effects. Exposure is
First Aid for Heat Stress                                     the total amount of pesticide that gets on or in
                                                              the body.
It is not always easy to tell the difference between
heat stress illness and pesticide poisoning. The signs        Hazard = Toxicity x Exposure
and symptoms are similar. Don't waste time trying to
decide what is causing the illness. Get medical help.
                                                              Q-2. What are the four routes through which
                                                              pesticides can contact your body and cause you to
First aid measures for heat stress victims are similar        be exposed?
to those for persons who are overexposed to
pesticides:
                                                              • A. 1. Oral exposure (when you swallow a
           Get the victim into a shaded or cool area.         pesticide)

                                                              2. Inhalation exposure (when you inhale a pesticide)
           Cool victim as rapidly as possible by
        sponging or splashing skin, especially face,
        neck, hands, and forearms, with cool water            3. Ocular exposure (when you get a pesticide in your
        or, when possible, immersing in cool water.           eyes) and

                                                              4. Dermal exposure (when you get a pesticide on
          Carefully remove all personal protective
        equipment and any other clothing that may             your skin).
        be making the victim too warm.
                                                              Q-3. Which route of exposure should you, as a
         Have the victim, if conscious, drink as              pesticide handler, be most concerned about?
        much cool water as possible.
                                                              • A. Exposure to the skin is the most common
           Keep the victim quiet until help arrives.          route of exposure for pesticide handlers.

Severe heat stress or heat stroke is a medical                Q-4. What three factors determine how much
emergency! Brain damage and death may result if               pesticide will be absorbed through your skin and
treatment is delayed.                                         into your body?

Heat Cramps                                                   • A. The amount of pesticide that is absorbed
                                                              through your skin (and eyes) and into your body
Heat cramps can be quite painful. These muscle                depends on:
spasms in the legs, arms, or stomach are caused by
loss of body salt through heavy sweating. To relieve          1. The pesticide itself and the material used to dilute
cramps, have the victim drink lightly salted water or         the pesticide.
"sports drinks." Stretching or kneading the muscles
may temporarily relieve the cramps. However, if you           2. Which area of the body is exposed.
suspect that stomach cramps are being caused by
pesticides rather than heavy sweating, get medical            3. The condition of the skin that is exposed.
help right away.
                                                              Q-5. Explain acute effects, delayed effects, and
                                                              allergic effects.

Test Your Knowledge                                           • A. Acute effects are illnesses or injuries that
                                                              may appear immediately after exposure to a
Q-1. Explain the terms hazard, toxicity, and                  pesticide (usually within 24 hours). Delayed
exposure, and tell how they relate to one another.            effects are illnesses or injuries that do not appear


                                                         51
immediately (within 24 hours) after exposure to              • A. The best first aid in pesticide emergencies
a pesticide or combination of pesticides. Allergic           is to stop the source of pesticide exposure as
effects are harmful effects that some people                 quickly as possible. If pesticide is on the skin or
develop in reaction to pesticides that do not                in the eyes, flood with water; if the pesticide has
cause the same reaction in most other people.                been swallowed, drink large amounts of water; if
                                                             the pesticide has been inhaled, get to fresh air.
Q-6. How can you avoid harmful effects from
pesticides?                                                  Q-9. What is heat stress?

• A. Avoiding and reducing exposures to                      • A. Heat stress is the illness that occurs when
pesticides will reduce the harmful effects from              your body is subjected to more heat than it can
pesticides. You can avoid exposures by using                 cope with.
safety systems, such as closed systems and
enclosed cabs, and you can reduce exposures by               Q-10. What are some common signs and
wearing appropriate personal protective                      symptoms of heat stress?
equipment, washing exposed areas often, and
keeping your personal protective equipment                   • A. Heat stress may cause fatigue (exhaustion,
clean and in good operating condition.                       muscle weakness); headache, nausea, and chills;
                                                             dizziness and fainting; severe thirst and dry
Q-7. Name four signs or symptoms of pesticide                mouth; clammy skin or hot, dry skin; heavy
poisoning and two signs or symptoms of irritation            sweating or complete lack of sweating; altered
effects from pesticides.                                     behavior (confusion, slurred speech, and
                                                             quarrelsome or irrational behavior).
• A. Pesticide poisoning may cause nausea,
vomiting, diarrhea, and/or stomach cramps;                   Q-11. If you are not sure whether a person is
headache, dizziness, weakness, and/or confusion;             suffering from heat stress or pesticide poisoning,
excessive sweating, chills, and/or thirst; chest             what should you do?
pains; difficult breathing; cramps in your
muscles or aches all over yo ur body.                        • A. Because so many signs and symptoms
                                                             could be from either heat stress or pesticide
External irritants may cause redness, blisters, rash,        poisoning, do not waste time trying to diagnose
and/or burns on skin, and swelling, a stinging               the problem -- get medical help. In the
sensation, and/or burns in eyes, nose, mouth, and            meantime, get the person to a cooler place away
throat.
                                                             from pesticides. Remove personal protective
                                                             equipment or other clothing that could be
Q-8. What is the first thing you should do when
                                                             contaminating the skin or making the person too
you or someone else is overexposed to pesticides?
                                                             warm, use water to clean and cool the skin, and
                                                             give the person plenty of water to drink.




                                                        52
                                                             suits, footwear, gloves, aprons, respirators, eyewear,
Unit 7 - Personal Protective Equipment                       and headgear.

                                                             Ordinary shirts, pants, shoes and other regular work
                                                             clothing usually are not considered personal
                                                             protective equipment, although the pesticide labeling
Learning Objectives                                          may require you to wear specific items of work
                                                             clothing during some activities.
After you study this unit, you should be able to:
                                                             Exposure to pesticides can cause harmful effects. To
          Describe your legal responsibility for             prevent or reduce exposure to pesticides, you need to
        following personal protective equipment              wear personal protective equipment. You are legally
        requirements in pesticide labeling.                  required to follow all personal protective
                                                             equipment instructions on the label or with the
          Define the term "chemical resistant," and          labeling.
        explain how to tell when a material is not
        chemical resistant to a particular pesticide.        Remember, the lack of any requirement for personal
                                                             protective equipment or the mention of only one
          Identify factors that determine how well a         piece of equipment does not rule out the need for
        coverall will protect your body.                     more protection. No pesticide labeling instructions
                                                             can cover all situations. Your common sense, the
         Explain the importance of wearing gloves            information on the labeling about precautions for
        when you handle pesticides.                          humans, and the task you will be performing will
                                                             help you to assess your potential hazard and to select
         Give reasons why gloves and footwear                the amount and kind of personal protective
        may fail to protect you.                             equipment you need for each handling job.

          Explain when you should wear protective            Pesticide labeling lists the minimum personal
        headgear, and describe appropriate headgear.         protective equipment you must wear while handling
                                                             the pesticide. Sometimes the labeling lists different
                                                             requirements for different activities. For example,
          Explain the term "protective eyewear."
                                                             more personal protective equipment may be required
                                                             for mixing and loading than for application.
           Distinguish among dust/mist filtering
        respirators, vapor-removing respirators, and
        air-supplying respirators.                           Chemical -Resistant Personal Protective
                                                             Equipment
          Describe the special hazards that fumigants
        pose.                                                Some pesticide labeling requires you to wear
                                                             chemical-resistant personal protective equipment.
          Explain some basic guidelines for cleaning         You must select a material that will be resistant for
        and maintaining personal protective                  the period of time that you will be exposed to the
        equipment items.                                     pesticide. Most chemical-resistant personal protective
                                                             equipment items are made of plastic or rubber, but
                                                             these materials are not equally resistant to all
                                                             pesticides and in all circumstances.

Personal Protective Equipment                                Factors Affecting Chemical Resistance
Personal protective equipment (PPE) are clothing             How chemical-resistant a material will he in your
and devices worn to protect the human body from              pesticide handling situation depends on the length of
contact with pesticides or pesticide residues. Personal      exposure, the exposure situation, and the chemical to
protective equipment includes coveralls or protective        which the material is exposed.



                                                        53
Length of exposure -- Not all types of materials that        may remain in the fibers even after three launderings.
are resistant to a particular pesticide will protect you     Do not use hats that have a cloth or leather
for the same amount of time. Some materials will             sweatband, and do not use cloth or cloth-lined gloves,
keep the pesticide out for a fairly long time. Others        footwear, and aprons. These materials are difficult or
will allow the pesticide to go through the material to       impossible to clean after pesticide gets on them, and
your skin fairly quickly. Thin materials, such as            they are too expensive to be disposed of after each
disposable plastic gloves, shoe covers, or aprons,           use.
may be as much protection as you need for tasks that
can be done in a few minutes. Longer jobs usually            Chemical-resistant suits and hoods --The best
require items made of a heavier material.                    choice of materials for chemical-resistant suits and
                                                             hoods is generally:
Chemical resistance is often stated in terms of
exposure time. For example, neoprene is resistant to                   rubber or plastic, such as butyl, neoprene,
acetone for 30 minutes or less and to diesel fuel for                or polyvinyl chloride (PVC), or
more than 4 hours. If you wear neoprene gloves
while handling pesticides with an acetone solvent,                     nonwoven fabric coated with plastic or
you must change the gloves at least every 30 minutes;                another barrier material. Read the packaging
otherwise, the pesticide and the acetone will get                    for the suits carefully to be sure that they are
through the gloves and onto your hands.                              "chemical resistant," "chemic al protective,"
                                                                     or "liquidproof."
Exposure situation -- Even a chemical-resistant
material will not continue to protect you if it becomes      Other chemical-resistant items -- For other
damaged during pesticide handling. For tasks                 chemical-resistant items, such as gloves, footwear,
involving sharp or pointed objects or walking through        aprons, and hats, you can choose from many types of
rough terrain, for example, a heavy-duty or sturdy           materials. Barrier-laminate materials such as 4Hr or
material probably would be necessary to ensure               Silver Shieldr are resistant to most pesticides, but
chemical resistance.                                         many pesticide handlers consider them
                                                             uncomfortable to wear and difficult to use while
Type of chemical -- Few materials will protect you           performing many tasks.
from all pesticide products. The level of chemical
resistance may depend not only on what the active            Any plastic or rubber material is resistant to dry
ingredient is, but also on whether the pesticide is          pesticides and to water-based pesticides. Dry
liquid or dry and what diluents or solvents are used.        pesticides include dusts, granules, pellets, and some
                                                             baits. Water-based pesticides include wettable
Choosing Chemical Resistant Materials                        powders, soluble powders, some solutions, dry
                                                             flowables (water-dispersible granules), and
Always read the pesticide labeling to see if it tells        microencapsulated pesticides.
you what materials are resistant to the pesticide
product. If it does not, look for another source of          The type of material that is resistant to non-water-
information. The Environmental Protection Agency,            based liquid pesticides depends on the type of
the United States Department of Agriculture                  solvent used. Pesticides that do not dissolve in water
Cooperative Extension Service, pesticide producers,          are often mixed with other solvents to form liquid
or personal protective equipment manufacturers may           formulations. Liquid pesticides that are not water
offer guidance about which materials are resistant to        based include emulsifiable concentrates, ultra-low-
particular pesticides. When no outside advice is             volume and low-volume concentrates, low-
available, use your best judgment to select a material.      concentrate solutions, flowables, aerosols, and invert
                                                             emulsions.
When selecting a chemical-resistant material, there
are some general guidelines to follow. Cotton,               Common solvents are xylene, fuel oil, other
leather, canvas, and other absorbent materials are not       petroleum distillates, and alcohol. When xylene is in
chemical resistant, even to dry formulations. Powders        a formulation, it must be listed in the ingredient
and dusts sometimes move through cotton and other            statement on the front panel of the pesticide label. If
woven materials as quickly as wet formulations and



                                                        54
xylene is listed as an ingredient, these are the             Long-sleeved shirt and long -legged pants -- Long-
materials you should choose:                                 sleeved shirt and long-legged pants should be made
                                                             of sturdy material. Fasten the shirt collar completely
Some solvents do not have to be listed in the                to protect the lower part of your neck.
ingredient statement, so you may not be able to
choose a chemical-resistant material on the basis of         Coveralls -- Coveralls should be made of sturdy
what is in the formulation. For these pesticides, select     material such as cotton, polyester, a cotton-synthetic
sturdy barrier-laminate, butyl, or nitrile materials.        blend, denim, or a non-woven fabric. One-piece
Then watch for signs that the material is not chemical       coveralls look like jump suits or flight suits. Two-
resistant. Sometimes it is easy to see when a plastic        piece coveralls look like surgeons' suits. When
or rubber is not resistant to a pesticide. The material      wearing a coverall, close the opening securely so the
may:                                                         entire body except the feet, hands, neck, and head are
                                                             covered. If you wear a two-piece coverall, do not
           change color,                                     tuck it in at the waist; the shirt should extend well
                                                             below the waist of the pants and fit loosely around
           become soft or spongy,                            the hips.

           swell or bubble up,                               Interpreting Labeling PPE Statements
           dissolve or become like jelly,                    Labeling Statement
                                                             Long-sleeved shirt and long-legged pants nonwoven
           crack or get holes,                               coverall;
                                                             Acceptable PPE
           become stiff or brittle.                          Long-sleeved shirt and long-legged pants; woven or
                                                             plastic - or other barrier-coated coverall; or rubber or
If any of these cha nges occur, discard the item and         plastic suit
choose another material.
                                                             Labeling Statement
                                                             Coverall worn over short-sleeved shirt and short
Protecting Your Skin                                         pants
                                                             Acceptable PPE
The skin is the part of your body that usually gets the      Coverall over short-sleeved shirt and short pants;
most exposure when you handle pesticides. Pay                coverall worn over long-sleeved shirt and long-
particular attention to covering as much of your skin        legged pants; coverall worn over another coverall;
as possible. Remember that personal protective               plastic - or other barrier-coated coverall; or rubber or
equipment protects you only if the pesticide remains         plastic suit
on the outside of the material. Once the pesticide gets
on the inside and next to your skin, the material
                                                             Labeling Statement
works against you. It holds the pesticide tightly next
                                                             Coverall worn over long-sleeved shirt and long-
to your skin for as long as it is worn. When this
                                                             legged pants
happens, more pesticide will get on your skin and
                                                             Acceptable PPE
cause irritation or will go through your skin and into       Coverall worn over long-sleeved shirt and long-
your body.                                                   legged pants; coverall worn over another coverall;
                                                             plastic - or other barrier-coated coverall; or rubber or
Body Protection                                              plastic suit

Any time you handle pesticides, wear at least a long-        Labeling Statement
sleeved shirt and long-legged pants. In many                 Chemical-resistant apron worn over coverall or over
instances the pesticide labeling will require you to         long-sleeved shirt and long-legged pants
wear a coverall, a chemical-resistant suit, or a             Acceptable PPE
chemical-resistant apron.                                    Chemical-resistant apron worn over coverall or long-
                                                             sleeved shirt and long-legged pants; plastic - or other
                                                             barrier-coated coverall; or rubber or plastic suit


                                                        55
Labeling Statement                                               those circumstances, even pesticides that are applied
Chemical-resistant protective suit or rubber or plastic          dry, such as dusts or granules, can get through
suit                                                             ordinary fabric and harm you.
Acceptable PPE
Plastic - or other barrier-coated coveralls;                     Chemical-resistant suits made of rubber or plastic
                                                                 often are referred to as "rainsuits." They may be sold
Labeling Statement                                               as one-piece coveralls or as two-piece outfits
Waterproof suit or liquidproof suit                              consisting of a jacket worn over overalls. Chemical  -
Acceptable PPE                                                   resistant suits made of coated nonwoven fabric
Plastic - or other barrier-coated coveralls; or rubber or        usually are sold as one-piece coveralls.
plastic suit
                                                                 The biggest drawback to chemical-resistant suits is
When handling pesticides that are highly or                      that they may make you uncomfortably warm. Unless
moderately toxic dermally or are skin irritants,                 you are handling pesticides in cool or climate-
consider wearing a coverall over another set of                  controlled environments, heat stress becomes a major
clothing. An entire set of clothing such as a long-              concern. Wearing a chemical-resistant suit in even
sleeved shirt and long-legged pants worn under the               moderate temperature and humidity conditions can
coverall is ideal. The pesticide label sometimes                 cause you to become overheated very quickly. Take
specifies a particular type of clothing to be worn               extra precautions to avoid heat stress by drinking
under the coverall. Always read the pesticide label              plenty of water and taking frequent rest breaks to
before making decisions about the use of coveralls or            cool down.
any other protective equipment. If the pesticide label
states specific protective clothing requirements, you            Chemical-resis tant apron -- The pesticide labeling
must follow them.                                                may require you to wear a chemical-resistant apron
                                                                 while you are mixing and loading the pesticide and
Several factors determine how well a coverall will               while you are cleaning pesticide equipment. Consider
protect you. Each layer of clothing and each layer of            wearing an apron whenever you are handling
air between the pesticide and your skin provides                 pesticide concentrates. It will protect you from
added protection. That is why the coverall should fit            splashes, spills, and billowing dusts and will protect
loosely. If it fits tightly, there will not be a layer of        your coverall or other clothing. Wear an apron over
air between it and your skin, and any pesticide                  the coverall or long-sleeved shirt and long-legged
getting through the coverall will be in direct contact           pants required for application or other handling
with your skin.                                                  activities.

The design and structure of coveralls also affect how            Choose an apron that extends from your neck to at
well they will protect you. Well-designed coveralls              least your knees. Some aprons have attached sleeves
have tightly constructed seams and snug, overlapping             and gloves. This style is especially protective because
closures that do not gap or become unfastened                    it protects your arms, hands, and front and eliminates
readily. This construction makes it harder for                   the potential gap where the sleeve and glove or sleeve
pesticides to get through these areas and onto your              and apron meet.
inner clothing or your skin.
                                                                 Sometimes an apron can be a safety hazard. It can get
Chemical-resistant suit -- Some pesticide labeling               caught in machinery or get in your way. At those
requires handlers to wear a chemical-resistant suit.             times, consider wearing a chemical-resistant suit.
This usually indicates that the pesticide is very
hazardous, either for acute effects or for delayed               Hand and Foot Protection
effects, and that extra precaution is necessary to
prevent the pesticide from getting on you.                       Pesticide handlers get by far the most pesticide
                                                                 exposure on their hands and forearms. As a result,
If you expect to be in a situation where a large                 most pesticide labeling will require you to wear
amount of pesticide could be deposited on your                   chemical-resistant gloves at all times while handling
clothing, and if you will be in that situation for a long        the pesticide. Wear chemical-resistant gloves any
time, consider wearing a chemical-resistant suit even            time you may get pesticides on your hands.
if the pesticide labeling does not require it. Under


                                                            56
Interpreting Labeling PPE Statement                           consider wearing chemical-resistant boots. The boots
                                                              should extend past the ankle and at least halfway up
                                                              the knee.
Labeling Statement
Waterproof gloves
Acceptable PPE                                                One situation where you should not wear chemical-
Any rubber or plastic gloves sturdy enough to remain          resistant gloves and footwear is when handling some
intact throughout the task being performed.                   fumigants, such as methyl bromide, because the
                                                              gloves and footwear can trap the gas near the skin
Labeling Statement                                            and cause bums. The labeling on these fumigants will
Chemical-resistant gloves                                     instruct you not to wear chemical-resistant gloves and
Acceptable PPE                                                footwear or other chemical-resistant clothing.
Barrier-laminate gloves; or other gloves that glove
selection charts or guidance documents indicate are           Wear gloves and footwear correctly -- Always start
chemical-resistant to the pesticide for the period of         out with gloves and footwear that you know are new
time required to perform the task                             or freshly cleaned. Don't choose a pair just because
                                                              they are close by. They may already have pesticides
Labeling Statement                                            on the inside and will not protect your hands or feet.
Chemical-resistant gloves such as butyl or nitrile
Acceptable PPE                                                If pesticides get inside your gloves or footwear, take
Butyl-gloves; nitrile gloves; or other gloves that            them off immediately, wash your hands or feet, and
glove selection charts or guidance documents                  put on a clean pair. Keep several pairs of gloves and
indicate are chemical-resistant to the pesticide for the      footwear available and change to a clean set
period of time required to perform the task                   whenever you suspect the inside has become
                                                              contaminated.
Labeling Statement
Shoes                                                         Avoid contaminating the inside of gloves and
Acceptable PPE                                                footwear -- Even when you are wearing gloves and
Leather, canvas or fabric shoes; chemical-resistant           footwear, you can get pesticides on your hands and
shoes; chemical-resistant boots; or chemical-resistant        feet unless the gloves and footwear are:
shoe coverings (booties)
                                                                        chemical-resistant to the pesticide being
Labeling Statement                                                    handled,
Chemical-resistant footwear
Acceptable PPE                                                           worn correctly,
Chemical-resistant shoes; chemical-resistant boots; or
chemical-resistant shoe coverings (booties)                              in good condition,

Labeling Statement                                                       cleaned and cared for, and
Chemical-resistant boots
Acceptable PPE                                                           replaced often.
Chemical-resistant boots
                                                              Contamination often happens when handlers remove
Pesticide handlers also often get pesticides on their         their gloves briefly to adjust their equipment, open a
feet. Sturdy shoes and socks are sufficient to protect        pesticide container, wipe their face, etc., and then put
your feet during a few pesticide handling activities.         the gloves on again over their contaminated hands. If
Canvas, cloth, and leather are difficult or impossible        you must remove your gloves during a handling
to clean adequately, however. Consider using                  activity, wash your gloves thoroughly before
chemical-resistant materials when pesticides or               taking them off, and wash your hands thoroughly
pesticide residues, especially concentrates, may get          and dry them before you put the gloves on again.
on your footwear. Some pesticide labeling requires
you to wear chemical-resistant footwear. Such                 Handlers also sometimes make the mistake of putting
footwear can be shoes, shoe covers, or boots. If a            on footwear with contaminated hands. This may
pesticide is likely to get on your lower legs or feet,


                                                         57
transfer the pesticide from your hands to your socks          Interpreting Labeling PPE Statements
and feet.
                                                              Labeling Statement
Keep pesticides from running down your sleeves or             Chemical-resistant hood or wide-brimmed hat
pant legs and into your gloves and footwear. For              Acceptable PPE
many jobs, you must be working with your arms                 Rubber- or plastic-coated safari-style hat; rubber- or
raised and some of the time with them lowered. Close          plastic -coated fire-fighter-style hat; plastic - or other
the glove cuff tightly outside the sleeve and put             barrier-coated hood; rubber or plastic hood; or full
heavy-duty tape or an elastic band around the end of          hood or helmet that is part of some respirators
the glove where it meets the sleeve. Some gloves
have a method of tightening the cuff to your sleeve so        Labeling Statement
the pesticide cannot run down into the glove.                 Protective eyewear
                                                              Acceptable PPE
For jobs where your arms are mostly lowered, place            Shielded safety glasses; face shield; goggles; or full-
sleeves outside the gloves to keep pesticides from            face style respirator
running down the sleeves and into the gloves. Use
gloves that go up over your wrist and at least half           Labeling Statement
way to your elbow. If you will be raising your arms           Goggles
most of the time, you may leave your gloves outside
                                                              Acceptable PPE
your sleeves. Fold the cuff of your gloves up toward          Goggles; or full-face style respirator
your fingers an inch or two to catch the pesticide
before it runs down your arm.
                                                              Labeling Statement
                                                              Dust/mist filtering respirator
For jobs when you will be exposed to pesticides on            Acceptable PPE
your legs, put your pant legs outside the boots so the        Dust/mist respirator; respirator with dust/mist
pesticide will not travel down your leg and collect in        filtering cartridges; respirator with organic vapor-
the hoots or shoe covers.                                     removing cartridge and pesticide prefilter; or
                                                              respirator with canister approved for pesticides; or
Head and Neck Protection                                      air-supplying respirator

If you will be exposed to pesticides from above,              Labeling Statement
protect your head and neck. A chemical-resistant              Cartridge respirator
hood or wide-brimmed hat will help keep pesticides            Acceptable PPE
off your head, neck, eyes, mouth, and face. Plastic           Respirator with organic vapor-removing cartridge
"safari" hats with plastic sweatbands are a good              and pesticide prefilter; or respirator with canister
choice. They are relatively cool in hot weather. Other        approved for pesticides; or air-supplying respirator
more flexible hats and hoods are also available in
chemical-resistant materials. Many chemical-resistant         Labeling Statement
jackets or coveralls can be purchased with attached           Canister respirator (gas mask)
protective hoods.                                             Acceptable PPE
                                                              Respirator with canister approved for pesticides, or
Protecting Your Eyes                                          air-supplying respirator

When the pesticide labeling requires you to wear              Labeling Statement
protective eyewear, wear goggles, a face shield, or           Air-supplying respirator or Self-contained breathing
safety glasses with shields at both the brow and sides.       apparatus (SCBA)
Eyes are very sensitive to the chemicals in some              Acceptable PPE
pesticide formulations, especially concentrates, and          Air-supplying respirator or self-contained breathing
temporary blindness caused by an accident may delay           apparatus (SCBA)
or prevent self-treatment. Eyes also readily absorb
some pesticides.                                              Shielded safety glasses or full-face shields are a good
                                                              choice in many handling situations because they are
                                                              comfortable, do not cause fogging or sweating, and


                                                         58
give good eye protection for many exposure                     types of uses. When the pesticide labeling requires
situations. Face shields that are cupped inward                you to use a respirator, you must wear one that is
toward your throat give better protection from                 approved by NIOSH and MSHA. If the respirator has
splashes than straight face shields. However, if you           more than one part, all parts must be approved.
will be in an open cab during an airblast application,
flagging directly under an aerial application, applying        Studies have shown that many pesticide handlers do
mists, fogs, or aerosols indoors, or in any other              not use respirators correctly and are not well
situation where you will be enveloped in a spray,              protected. Before you use a respirator, learn the
mist, or dust, wear goggles that fit tightly against           correct procedures for selecting, fitting, cleaning and
your face.                                                     sanitizing, inspecting, and maintaining respiratory
                                                               protective equipment.
Either goggles or shielded safety glasses can be worn
with a half-face respirator. Full-face respirators are         There are two basic types of respirators:
supplied with their own face shield, so additional eye
protection is not required.                                              air-supplying respirators , which supply
                                                                       you with clean, uncontaminated air from an
Protecting Your Respiratory Tract                                      independent source, and

The respiratory tract -- the lungs and other parts of                    air-purifying respirators , which remove
the breathing system -- is much more absorbent than                    contaminants from the air around you.
the skin. You must wear a respirator when the
pesticide labeling directs you to do so. Even if the           Air-Supplying Respirators
labeling does not require it, you should consider
wearing a respiratory protective device:                       Air-supplying respirators are used in a few
                                                               specialized situations where other types of respirators
           if you are in an enclosed area and the              do not provide adequate protection. Use an air-
        pesticide you are handling has a labeling              supplying respirator when it is specified on the
        precautionary statement such as "do not                pesticide labeling. In addition, you should use one
        breathe vapors or spray mist," or "harmful or          when handling pesticides:
        fatal if inhaled," or
                                                                          when the oxygen supply is low, or
          if you will be exposed for a long time to
        pesticides that are in or near your breathing                    during fumigation in enclosed areas, such
        zone.                                                          as greenhouses or other buildings, railcars,
                                                                       ship holds, or grain bins.
Some fumigants and a few other pesticide
formulations contain an additive that will warn you if         Supplied-air respirators -- These respirators pump
you begin to inhale the pesticide. Such warning                clean air through a hose to the face mask. You are
agents often are used when the active ingredients in           limited to working within the distance the hose can
the pesticide are highly toxic ones that you would             reach from the supply of clean air.
otherwise not be able to detect. The additive may
have a characteristic odor or be a mild irritant to alert      Self-contained breathing apparatus -- This type of
you that you should put on a respirator or that your           respirator supplies clean air from cylinders that you
respirator is no longer protecting you. The warning            carry with you, usually on your back. This lets you
agent can help you determine when you should use a             move more freely and over a wider area than you can
respirator for products whose labeling does not                with a supplied-air respirator. Get training from
require respiratory protection in all situations.              competent instructors before using self-contained
                                                               breathing equipment. These devices contain a limited
Some pesticide labels list the type of respirator you          air supply (usually about 30 to 45 minutes), which
should wear when handling the product. Other                   may be used up even more quickly in high
labeling requires the use of a respirator, but does not        temperatures or with excessive exertion.
specify the type or model to be used. NIOSH and
MSHA approve respirators as adequate for certain
                                                               Air-Purifying Respirators


                                                          59
In most situations where pesticide handlers need to            Some cartridge-type respirators are one-piece units
use a respirator, some type of air-purifying respirator        with cartridges permanently attached to the facepiece.
provides enough protection. Air-purifying respirators          After use, the entire unit is discarded. Other cartridge
will not protect you from fumigants, from extremely            respirators are two-piece units with removable
high concentrations of vapor, or when the oxygen               cartridges and a body that can be cleaned and reused.
supply is low.                                                 The dust/mist filtering or vapor-removing cartridges
                                                               and the prefilters can be replaced when they lose their
Functions of air-purifying respirators -- Air-                 effectiveness.
purifying respirators remove contaminants from the
air in two ways:                                               A canister contains both dust/mist filtering and
                                                               vapor-removing material. Canisters contain more air-
           filtering dusts and mists, and                      purifying material than cartridges. They last much
                                                               longer and may protect you better in situations where
           removing gases and vapors.                          the concentration of gas or vapor in the air is high.
                                                               They are also much heavier and more uncomfortable
Sometimes you will need only a respirator that filters         to wear.
dusts and mists from the air: at other times, will need
one that removes gases and vapors as well.                     Canister-type respirators are often called gas masks.
                                                               They usually have the canister connected directly to
Wear a dust/mist-filtering respirator if the pesticide         the facepiece or worn on a belt and connected to the
labeling specifies it or if you will be exposed to             facepiece by a flexible hose. The body is designed to
pesticide dusts, powders, mists, or sprays in your             be cleaned and reused. The canisters can be replaced
breathing zone. Wear a respirator that also removes            when necessary.
vapors if the pesticide labeling specifies it or if you
will be exposed to gases or vapors in your breathing           Selecting and using dust/mist-filtering devices --
zone.                                                          Dust/mist filtering masks and cartridges are approved
                                                               by NIOSH and MSHA. You must wear one that has
Styles of air-purifying respirators -- Air-purifying           their stamp of approval. Nonapproved filters are not
respirators are of three basic styles:                         as protective and are not acceptable.

           dust/mist masks, which usually are shaped           Pesticide handlers must wear dust/mist filtering
        filters that cover the nose and mouth to filter        masks or cartridges with NIOSH/MSHA approval
        out dusts, mists, and particles,                       number prefix TC 21C.

         devices consisting of a body and one or               Look for a dust/mist mask that is held in place by two
        more cartridges that contains air-purifying            straps. One-strap styles are not approved by NIOSH
        materials, and                                         and MSHA because they do not keep the respirator
                                                               adequately sealed against the face.
          devices consisting of a body and a canister
        that contains air-purifying materials.                 When you wear a dust/mist-filter -- either a mask,
                                                               cartridge, or prefilter -- you will have more trouble
                                                               breathing as more dusts, mists, and other particles
Cartridges may contain either dust/mist-filtering
                                                               become trapped in the filter material. When breathing
material or vapor-removing material. For pesticide
                                                               becomes too difficult, replace the filter. Eight hours
handling tasks where vapor removal is needed, a
                                                               of use is usually the limit for these filters. During
prefilter must be used with the vapor-removing
                                                               continual use, you may need to change filters twice a
cartridge. The prefilter removes dusts, mists, and
                                                               day, or more often in dusty or dirty conditions. Do
other particles before the air passes through the
                                                               not use a dust/mist mask when the pesticide will
vapor-removing cartridges. A few vapor-removing
                                                               completely soak the mask and be held close to the
cartridges have an attached prefilter, but most are
                                                               skin and breathing passages. Replace the mask if it
sold separately. Separate prefilters are preferred for
                                                               gets soaked or loses its shape.
use with pesticides, because they often need to be
replaced before the vapor-removing cartridge is used
up.


                                                          60
Selecting and using vapor-removing devices --                assist the wearer by pulling the air through
Vapor-removing devices are rated by NIOSH for the            mechanically. Dust/mist masks and most cartridge
types of gases and vapors they will remove. For              and canister respirators are nonpowered air-purifying
pesticide handling tasks where vapor protection is           respirators.
needed, NIOSH requires that an organic -vapor-
removing material and a pesticide prefilter be used.         If you have a respiratory problem, even a temporary
                                                             problem such as a cold or allergy, you cannot wear
Pesticide handlers must use either:                          nonpowered cartridge and canister respirators. You
                                                             need strong lung pressure to draw the air through the
          a cartridge approved for organic vapor             purifiers into your lungs. Even persons with normal
        removal plus a prefilter approved for                lung capacity cannot wear these respirators for long
        pesticides (NIOSH/MSHA approval                      periods of time because they tend to be hot,
        number prefix for both is TC 23C), or                uncomfortable, and exhausting.

          a canister approved for pesticides                 Before you use these respirators, have a medical
        (NIOSH/MSHA approval number prefix is                examination to make sure that you do not have a
        14G).                                                medical condition that would prevent you from using
                                                             such devices. If you have trouble breathing while you
When you wear a vapor-removing respirator,                   are wearing your respirator even though you have
remember that vapor-removing materials gradually             used and cared for it correctly, see your physician to
lose their ability to hold more gases and vapors. Their      find out whether you have a health problem.
useful life can vary greatly depending on:
                                                             Powered air-purifying respirators use a blower to
           the amount of particles in the air,               draw air to the user. PAPR's should not be confused
                                                             with air-supplying respirators because they do not
           the concentration of vapor being filtered,        supply clean air. The air is cleaned by cartridges or
                                                             canisters, as it is with other air-purifying respirators.
                                                             These respirators are available as lightweight
          the amount of absorbent material they
                                                             backpacks, or they may be mounted on or in
        contain,
                                                             application equipment where the power is supplied
                                                             by the vehicle's electrical systems.
           the breathing rate of the wearer,
                                                             Fitting air-purifying respirators -- Respirators fit
          the temperature and humidity, and stored           wearers in one of two ways. Most must seal tightly to
        before use and between uses.                         the face; others are loose-fitting.

           the length of time they have been                 Face -sealing respirators must form a tight seal
                                                             against your face to be effective. Otherwise,
If you notice an odor, taste, irritation, or dizziness,      pesticides can leak in around the edges. People with
that is a signal that you are no longer being protected.     beards cannot wear this style of respirator because a
Some vapor-removing materials have a "service life           tight seal cannot be formed through the hair. These
indicator" to tell you when the material is nearly used      respirators must be fitted to each wearer and are not
up. Other materials will have instructions telling you       interchangeable among handlers.
to replace them after a specific number of hours of
use. If there are no instructions about replacement,         Dust/mist masks are face-sealing respirators. They fit
change the cartridge or canister after about eight           over your nose and mouth and have a clip that you
hours of use.                                                press around the bridge of your nose to help form a
                                                             seal. Most cartridge and canister respirators are also
Air-delivery systems -- Air-purifying respirators            face-sealing respirators. Full-face styles form and
draw air through the filters and vapor-removing              keep a tight seal better than half-face styles.
materials in one of two ways. Ordinary air-purifying
respirators depend on the wearer's lung power to             Many pesticide handlers are not being adequately
draw air through the purifying material with each            protected while wearing face-sealing cartridge and
breath. Powered air-purifying respirators (PAPR's)


                                                        61
canister respirators because they often break the seal          fits tightly enough and will work correctly. This
by pulling the respirator away from their face to get           method does not work for dust/mist masks.
temporary relief from the heat, sweat, itching, or
difficult breathing. Once the seal is broken in the             The second method for testing the facepiece seal is to
exposure area, the respirator's ability to protect you is       close the exhalation valve with your palm and exhale
greatly reduced. Face-sealing cartridge and canister            gently into the facepiece. If slight pressure builds up
respirators are most useful for short-term tasks.               inside the facepiece without any evidence of outward
                                                                leakage, the respirator probably fits tightly enough
Your face-sealing respirator should be tested before            and will work correctly. This method is not
you wear it in a situation where you may inhale                 appropriate for respirators with an exhalation valve
pesticides. There are two types of tests: fit tests and         cover that would have to be removed first.
fit checks . They ensure that the respirator is
operating correctly and that you are being protected.           Another on-the-spot fit check is the use of a test
                                                                substance to determine whether you can detect an
Have a fit test before you use your cartridge or                odor, taste, or irritant. This fit check tests both the
canister respirator the first time, and then be retested        facepiece seal and whether a vapor-removing
periodically. Get the fit test through a program                cartridge or canister is still working.
approved by NIOSH and OSHA, the agencies that
regulate respirator fit testing. Public health                  Most test agents are gases or vapors and will not test
departments, fire departments, and Cooperative                  a dust/mist filtering mask or cartridge. Test agents are
Extension may be able to tell you where to find an              available from catalogs and dealers that sell a variety
approved fit testing program.                                   of respirators. If you cannot detect the test agent
                                                                while you are wearing the respirator, it probably is
The two main types of fit tests are:                            working correctly.

          testing whether the wearer can detect a test          Loose-fitting respirators are powered air-purifying
        substance by irritation, odor, or taste, and            respirators that constantly pump air through a
                                                                cartridge or canister into a loose-fitting helmetlike or
          measuring the actual amount of a test                 hoodlike head covering. The positive outward
        substance that gets inside the facepiece.               pressure caused by the steady outflow of air prevents
                                                                contaminants from entering the headpiece. The
A fit check is an on-the-spot check that you should             purified air circulates over the user's head, face, and
do to make sure the respirator is still working                 neck and provides some cooling.
correctly. Do a fit check each time you wear a face-
sealing respirator.                                             Not all loose-fitting respirators move the air at the
                                                                same rate. Most pesticide handling tasks require a
There are two methods for checking the seal of the              minimum airflow rate of 4 cubic feet per minute. If
facepiece against your face. To check by the first              you are doing physically strenuous work, use a
method:                                                         respirator with an airflow rate of at least 6 cubic feet
                                                                per minute.
          close off the inlet of the canister or
        cartridge (cover it with your palm, replace             Loose-fitting respirators do not have to form a seal on
        the caps, or squeeze the breathing tube so              your face, so people with facial hair can use them
        that it does not allow air through),                    safely. They do not require extra lung power and are
                                                                not nearly as tiring or as hot as face-sealing
          inhale gently so that the facepiece                   respirators.
        collapses slightly, and
                                                                Loose-fitting respirators are much more expensive
           hold your breath for about 10 seconds.               than face-sealing respirators. In some situations,
                                                                however, they are the only safe option. For example,
                                                                you might have to use one if you have facial hair that
If the facepiece remains slightly collapsed and no
                                                                prevents an adequate seal with the respirator
inward leakage is detected, the respirator probably
                                                                facepiece.



                                                           62
In many situatio ns, loose-fitting respirators are a        clothes and "breathable" footwear such as canvas or
good choice. For example, you might choose to use           other fabric. The labeling may tell you not to wear
one:                                                        any gloves or to wear cotton or other absorbent
                                                            gloves.
          to avoid the need for fit tests and fit
        checks,                                             Disposables and Reusables

          if you will be exposed to pesticides for          Personal protective equipment items either should be
        several hours at a time, or                         disposable or should be easy to clean and sturdy
                                                            enough for repeated use.
           if you are working in situations where heat
        stress is a concern.                                Disposables

Personal Protecti ve Equipment for                          Disposable personal protective equipment items are
Handling Fumigants                                          not designed to be cleaned and reused. Discard them
                                                            when they become contaminated with pesticides.
Fumigants are pesticides applied as a gas or that
readily form a gas when they are applied. Their             Chemical-resistant gloves, footwear, and aprons
pesticidal action is in the gaseous form. Fumigants         that are labeled as disposable are designed to be worn
are very highly toxic to plants and animals, including      only once and then thrown away. These items often
humans. Use extreme caution and wear appropriate            are made of thin vinyl, latex, or polyethylene. These
personal protective equipment whenever you handle           inexpensive disposables may be a good choice for
fumigants. The requirements for personal protective         brief pesticide handling activities that require
equipment when using fumigants are different from           flexibility and will not tear the thin plastic. For
the requirements for other types of pesticides. Follow      example, you might use disposable gloves, shoe
labeling directions for each fumigant exactly.              covers, and an apron while pouring pesticides into a
                                                            hopper or tank, cleaning or adjusting a nozzle, or
Inhaling even small amounts of some fumigant gases          making minor equipment adjustments.
can be fatal or cause severe injury. Wear the
respirator listed on the fumigant labeling during any       Nonwoven (including coated nonwoven) coveralls
handling activity, including removing tarps or other        and hoods usually are designed to be disposed of
coverings, when exposure to the gas is likely.              after use. Most are intended to be worn for only one
                                                            workday's exposure period. The instructions with
Never work alone with fumigants, especially in              some coated nonwoven suits and hoods may permit
enclosed areas. Arrange to be monitored at all times        you to wear them more than once if each period of
by another handler who has immediate access to an           use is short and they do not get much pesticide on
appropriate respirator, in case rescue is needed.           them. Be especially alert when reusing these items,
                                                            and be ready to change them whenever there are
While handling a fumigant indoors or in any enclosed        signs that pesticides could be getting through the
area, use an air-supplying respirator. In enclosed          material or that the inside surface is contaminated.
areas such as greenhouses, ship holds, railcars, bins,
vaults, and chambers there may not be enough                Dust/mist masks, prefilters, canisters, filtering and
oxygen for you to breathe. Cartridge and canister           vapor-removing cartridges, and a few cartridge
respirators will not protect you in these situations.       respirators are disposable. They cannot be cleaned
                                                            and should be replaced often.
Some fumigants readily penetrate plastic, rubber, and
leather. These fumigants may be trapped inside              Reusables
gloves, boots, or tight-fitting coveralls and cause
severe skin irritation or lead to poisoning through         Some personal protective equipment may be cleaned
skin absorption. The labeling on these fumigants will       and reused several times; however, do not make the
tell you the appropriate personal protective                mistake of reusing these items when they are no
equipment to wear while handling them. Such                 longer protecting you.
labeling often will tell you to wear loose-fitting


                                                       63
Rubber and plastic suits, gloves, boots, aprons,               Maintaining Personal Protective
capes, and headgear often are designed to be                   Equipment
cleaned and reused, but even these reusables should
be replaced often. Wash them thoroughly between
                                                               When you finish an activity where you are handling
uses. Before you put them on, inspect reused items
                                                               pesticides or are exposed to them, remove your
carefully for signs of wear or abrasion. If they show          personal protective equipment right away. Wash the
any sign of wear, throw them out. Even tiny holes or
                                                               outside of your gloves with detergent and water
thin places can allow large quantities of pesticides to
                                                               before you remove them. Consider washing the
move to the inside surface and transfer onto your
                                                               outside of other chemical-resistant items before you
skin. Check for rips and leaks during cleaning by
                                                               remove them also. This helps you avoid contacting
using the rinse water to form a "balloon" or by
                                                               the contaminated part of the items while you are
holding the items up to the light.
                                                               removing them and helps keep the inside surface
                                                               uncontaminated. If any other clothes have pesticides
Even if you can't see signs of wear, replace reusable          on them, change them also. Determine whether the
chemical-resistant items regularly. The ability of a           items should be disposed of or cleaned for reuse.
chemical-resistant material to resist the pesticide
decreases each time it is worn, and after repeated
                                                               Place reusable items in a plastic bag or hamper away
exposure to pesticides. Even though the material may
                                                               from your other personal clothes and away from the
not visibly change, the pesticide may be moving
                                                               family laundry. Place disposables in a separate plastic
through the material and getting on your skin. The
                                                               bag or container. The pesticides remaining on your
pesticide moves through the material in the same way
                                                               personal protective equipment, work clothing, and
air leaks through the surface of a balloon -- slowly,
                                                               other work items could injure persons who touch
but steadily.
                                                               them. Do not allow children or pets near them. Do
                                                               not allow contaminated gloves, boots, respirators, or
A good rule of thumb is to throw out gloves that have          other equipment to be washed in streams, ponds, or
been worn for about five to seven work days. Extra-            other bodies of water.
heavy-duty gloves, such as those made of butyl or
nitrile rubber, may last 10 to 14 days. Because hand
                                                               Clean all reusable personal protective equipment
protection is the most important concern for pesticide
                                                               items between uses. Even if they were worn for only
handlers, make glove replacement a high priority.
                                                               a brief period of exposure to pesticides during that
The cost of frequently replacing your gloves is a
                                                               day, wash them before you wear them again.
prudent investment. Footwear, aprons, headgear, and
                                                               Pesticide residues that remain on the personal
protective suits may last longer than gloves, because
                                                               protective equipment are likely to continue to move
they generally receive less exposure to the pesticides
                                                               slowly through the personal protective equipment
and less abrasion from rough surfaces. However, they
                                                               material, even chemical-resistant material. If you
should be replaced regularly and at any sign of wear.
                                                               wear that personal protective equipment again,
                                                               pesticide may already be on the inside next to your
Fabric coveralls are designed to be cleaned after              skin. Also, personal protective equipment that is
each day's use and reused. However, absorbent                  worn several times between launderings may build up
materials such as cotton, polyester, cotton blends,            pesticide residues. The residues can reach a level that
denim, and canvas cannot be cleaned adequately after           can harm you, even if you are handling pesticides
they are drenched or thoroughly contaminated with              that are not highly toxic.
concentrated pesticides labeled with the signal word
"DANGER" or "WARNING". Always discard any
such clothing or footwear. They cannot be safely               Washing Personal Protective Equipment
reused.
                                                               Wash pesticide-contaminated items separately from
Most protective eyewear and respirator bodies,                 uncontaminated clothing and laundry. Otherwise, the
facepieces and helmets are designed to be cleaned              pesticide residues can be transferred onto the other
and reused. These items may last many years if they            clothing or laundry and can harm you or your family.
are good quality and are maintained correctly.
                                                               Alert the persons who do the washing -- Be sure
                                                               that the people who clean and maintain your personal
                                                               protective equipment and other work clothes know


                                                          64
that they can be harmed by touching the pesticide that        Drying procedure -- Hang the items to dry, if
remains on the contaminated items. Tell them that             possible. It is best to let them hang for at least 24
they should:                                                  hours in an area with plenty of fresh air. Even after
                                                              thorough washing, some items still may contain
          wear gloves and an apron, especially if             pesticides. When the items are exposed to clean air,
        handling contaminated items regularly or              remaining pesticide residues move to the surface and
        handling items contaminated with highly               evaporate. You may wish to buy two or more sets of
        toxic pesticides.                                     equipment at a time so you can leave one set airing in
                                                              a clean place while you are using the other set. Do
          work in a well-ventilated area, if possible,        not hang items in enclosed living areas, because
        and avoid inhaling steam from the washer or           pesticides that remain in the items may evaporate and
        dryer.                                                expose people or animals in the area.

Washing procedure -- Follow the manufacturer's                Using a clothes dryer is acceptable for fabric items,
instructions for cleaning chemical-resistant items. If        if it is not possible to hang them to dry. However,
the manufacturer instructs you to wash the item but           over a period of time, the dryer may become
gives no detailed instructions, or offers no cleaning         contaminated with pesticide residues.
instructions at all, follow the procedure below. Some
chemical-resistant items that are not flat, such as           Maintaining Eyewear and Respirators
gloves, footwear, and coveralls, must be washed
twice -- once to thoroughly clean the outside of the          Wash goggles, face shields, shielded safety glasses,
item and a second time after turning the item inside          and respirator bodies and facepieces after each day of
out. Some chemical-resistant items, such as heavy-            use. Use a detergent and hot water to wash them
duty boots and rigid hats or helmets, can be washed           thoroughly. Sanitize them by soaking for at least two
by hand using hot water and a heavy-duty liquid               minutes in a mixture of 2 tablespoons of chlorine
detergent. They should be dried and aired as directed         bleach in a gallon of hot water. Rinse thoroughly to
below.                                                        remove the detergent and bleach. Dry thoroughly or
                                                              hang them in a clean area to dry.
The best procedure for washing non-chemical-
resistant items, such as cotton, cotton/polyester,            Pay particular attention to the headbands. Replace
denim, canvas, and other absorbent materials, and             headbands made of absorbent materials with
most chemical-resistant items is:                             chemical-resistant headbands. After each day of use,
                                                              inspect all headbands for signs of wear or
1. Rinse in a washing machine or by hand.                     deterioration and replace as needed.

2. Wash only a few items at a time so there will be           Store respirators and eyewear in an area where they
plenty of agitation and water for dilution.                   are protected from dust, sunlight, extreme
                                                              temperatures, excessive moisture, and pesticides or
3. Wash in a washing machine, using a heavy-duty              other chemicals. A zip-closable sturdy plastic bag
liquid detergent and hot water for the wash cycle.            works well for storage.

4. Rinse twice using two entire rinse cycles and              Respirator maintenance is especially important.
warm water.                                                   Inspect your respirator before each use. Repair or
                                                              replace it whenever any part shows sign of wear or
5. Use two entire machine cycles to wash items that           deterioration. Maintain an inventory of replacement
are moderately to heavily contaminated.                       parts for the

6. Run the washer through at least one additional             respirators you own, and do not try to use makeshift
entire cycle without clothing, using detergent and hot        substitutes or in-compatible brands. If you keep a
water, to clean the machine after each batch of               respirator for standby or emergency use, inspect it at
pesticide-contaminated items, and before any other            least monthly and before use.
laundry is washed.



                                                         65
If you remove your respirator between handling                Q-2. Define the term "chemical resistant".
activities:
                                                              • A. Chemical resistant: Able to prevent
         Wipe the respirator body and facepiece               movement of the pesticide through the material
       with a clean cloth.                                    during the period of use.
         Replace caps, if available, over cartridges,         Q-3. How can you tell when a material is not
       canisters, and prefilters.                             chemical-resistant to the pesticide you are
                                                              handling?
          Seal the entire respirator in a sturdy,
       airtight container, such as a zip-closable
                                                              • A. The material may change color, become
       plastic bag. If you do not seal the respirator
       immediately after each use, the disposable             soft or spongy, swell or bubble up, dissolve or
       parts will have to be replaced more often.             become like jelly, crack or get holes, or become
       Cartridges, canisters, prefilters, and filters         stiff or brittle.
       will continue to collect impurities as long as
       they are exposed to the air.                           Q-4. What factors determine how well your
                                                              coverall will protect your body?
At the end of any work day when you wore a
reusable respirator:                                          • A. 1. A coverall is most protective if it fits
                                                              loosely so there is a layer of air between it and
         Remove the filter or prefilter. Most filters         the skin or inner clothing.
       should be discarded. A few are designed to
       be washed and reused.                                  2. A coverall is most protective if it is worn over
                                                              another layer of clothing because each layer of
         Take off the cartridges or canisters.                clothing adds a protective layer of air as well as a
       Discard them or, if still usable, replace their        layer of fabric.
       caps and seal them in an airtight container,
       such as a zip-closable plastic bag.                    3. Coveralls are most protective if they have tightly
                                                              constructed seams and snug, overlapping closures
         Clean and store respirator as directed               that do not gap or come unfastened readily.
       above.
                                                              Q-5. When should you wear chemical-resistant
          Discard disposable respirators according to         gloves? Why are gloves so important to a pesticide
       manufacturer's instructions. Do not try to             handler?
       clean them.
                                                              • A. Wear chemical-resistant gloves any time
                                                              you may get pesticides on your hands, except for
                                                              some fumigants whose labeling may direct you
Test Your Knowledge                                           to not wear gloves. The hands are by far the most
                                                              likely route of exposure for a pesticide handler.
Q-1. What legal responsibility do you have for
wearing the personal protective equipment that                Q-6. If you need to remove your gloves during
the pesticide labeling lists for your handling                pesticide handling, what steps should you take to
situation?                                                    remove them and put them back on?

• A. By law, you must wear at least the personal              • A. 1. Wash gloves thoroughly before taking
protective equipme nt listed on the labeling for              them off.
the handling task you will be performing. You
are allowed to wear additional or more protective             2. Wash hands thoroughly and dry them before
personal protective equipment.                                putting the gloves on again.



                                                         66
Q-7. Why do pesticides sometimes get on your                 Q-12. If the chemical-resis tant gloves you have
skin even when you are wearing gloves and                    selected are reusable, how often should you
protective footwear?                                         routinely replace them? Under what conditions
                                                             should you replace chemical-resistant items
• A. The items may not be chemical-resistant to              immediately?
the pesticide being handled; they may not be
worn correctly; they may not be in good                      • A. Throw out most reusable gloves that have
condition; or they may not have been cleaned                 been worn for about five to seven work days.
correctly or replaced soon enough.                           Extra-heavy-duty gloves, such as those made of
                                                             butyl or nitrile rubber, may last 10 to 14 days.
Q-8. When should you wear protective headgear?               Replace chemical-resistant items immediately if
What type of headgear should you use?                        they show any sign of wear or have holes, tears,
                                                             or leaks.
• A. Whenever you may be exposed to
pesticides from above, wear protective headgear              Q-13. What should you do with a coverall that has
to help keep pesticides off your head, neck, eyes,           highly toxic pesticide concentrate spilled on it?
mouth, and face. Wear a chemical-resistant hood
or wide-brimmed hat. Plastic "safari" hats with              • A. Dispose of the coverall. It cannot be
plastic sweatbands are a good choice.                        adequately cleaned.

Q-9. When the pesticide labeling calls for                   Q-14. What should you tell the people who will be
"protective eyewear," what should you wear?                  laundering your clothing about how to protect
                                                             themselves from pesticides?
• A. Wear goggles, a face shield, or safety
glasses with brow and side shields.                          • A. Tell them to:

Q-10. What are the differences among dust/mist-              1. Wear chemical-resistant gloves and apron,
filtering respirators, vapor-removing respirators,           especially if handling contaminated items regularly
and air-supplying respirators?                               or handling items contaminated with highly toxic
                                                             pesticides.
• A. Dust/mist- filtering respirators are masks or
                                                             2. Work in a well-ventilated area and do not inhale
cartridges that filter dust, mists, and particles out        steam from the washer and dryer.
of the air around you. Vapor-removing
respirators use a cartridge or canister to remove            Q-15. What should you do with your respirator
pesticide gases and vapors from the air around               between handling tasks?
you. Air-supplying respirators provide you with
clean air either from an air tank or from a                  • A. Seal the respirator in a clean, airtight
location where the air is not contaminated with              container, such as a sturdy zip-closable plastic
pesticides.                                                  bag. If possible, put caps over the opening on the
                                                             cartridges or canisters.
Q-11. What special hazards do fumigants pose for
pesticide handlers?
                                                             Q-16. What should you do when you are finished
                                                             using your respirator for the day?
• A. Fumigants pose a serious inhalation hazard
to pesticide handlers. Some fumigants also can               • A. 1. Discard any masks, filters, or respirators
cause severe skin burns if they are trapped next             that cannot be reused.
to the skin by tight clothing or chemical-resistant
personal protective equipment.                               2. Take off the prefilters and cartridges or canisters.
                                                             Discard them or, if still usable, replace their caps and



                                                        67
seal them in an airtight container, such as a zip-             Q-17. How will you know when to replace
closable plastic bag.                                          dust/mist masks, prefilters, and dust/mist-filtering
                                                               and vapor-removing canisters and cartridges?
3. Wash the respirator body, facepiece, and any
reusable filters. Soak them for at least 2 minutes in a        • A. 1. Change dust/mist masks, cartridges, and
mixture of 2 tablespoons of chlorine bleach in a               prefilters immediately if you have trouble
gallon of hot water. Rinse thoroughly. Dry                     breathing. They usually need to be changed at
thoroughly or hang them in a clean area to dry.
                                                               least every eight hours.
4. Store the respirator and any reusable cartridges,
canisters, filters, and prefilters in an airtight container    2. Change vapor-removing canisters or cartridges
in an area where they are protected from dust,                 immediately if you smell, taste, or feel irritation
sunlight, extreme temperatures, excessive moisture,            from pesticide vapors. Change them whenever
and pesticides or other chemicals.                             any "service life indicator" tells you that you
                                                               should, or after the time limit set by the
                                                               manufacturer. Otherwise, replace them after
                                                               about eight hours of use.




                                                          68
Unit 8 - Pesticide Handling Decisions                         labeling contains precautions and instructions that
                                                              you must follow to use the product safely and
                                                              appropriately. It may contain very specific
                                                              information that concerns the task you plan to do. Be
                                                              sure you understand everything you need to know
Learning Objectives                                           about the pesticide product before you are exposed to
                                                              it.
After you study this unit, you should be able to:
                                                              How Can I Avoid Exposure to Pesticides?
          List basic safety questions you should ask
        yourself whenever you or those you                    The key to personal safety when handling pesticides
        supervise will be handling pesticides.                is to avoid exposure to them. Always keep personal
                                                              clothing, food, drinks, chewing gum, tobacco
          Explain some consequences of incorrect              products, and other belongings away from where
        pesticide use.                                        pesticides are stored or handled. They could become
                                                              contaminated and poison or injure you when you use
          List factors to consider when choosing              them.
        among different formulations.
                                                              When you take a break, wash your gloves on the
          Name conditions at the application site that        outside, remove your gloves, and wash your hands
        may influence decisions about the                     and face thoroughly. Then you can safely chew gum,
        application.                                          eat, drink, or smoke.

          Describe adjustments you might need to              Avoid getting pesticide on yourself when you use the
        make in the task itself or in the workplace           toilet. The skin in the genital area has been shown to
        conditions if heat stress is a concern.               absorb more pesticides than any other skin area.
                                                              Wash your hands thoroughly before using the toilet,
                                                              and be careful not to contaminate yourself from
                                                              pesticides that may be on the outside of your
                                                              clothing.
Pesticide Handling Decisions
                                                              Be aware of other situations where you might be
Before performing a pesticide handlin g task, you             exposed to pesticides on the job. Protect yourself not
need to make some important decisions. For any                only during mixing, loading, and application, but also
pesticide handling activity, decide how to ensure the         during spill cleanup, repairing or maintaining
safety of yourself, others, and the environment.              equipment, and when transporting, storing, or
Before applying a pesticide, decide how to fit the            disposing of pesticide containers that are open or
application to your pest control situation.                   have pesticides on their outer surface. Use personal
                                                              protective equipment when necessary to keep
Personal Safety Considerations                                pesticides from getting on your skin and in your
                                                              mouth, eyes, or lungs.
Make safety one of your first concerns every time
you handle pesticides or allow someone else to                What Personal Protective Equipment Is
handle them under your supervision. By making a               Needed?
few simple safety decisions, you can prevent many
pesticide accidents and reduce the severity of others.        Decide what personal protective equipment you and
Ask yourself the following basic safety questions.            the people you supervise will need. You must use
                                                              what the labeling requires, and you may decide that
Have I Read the Labeling?                                     you need additional equipment. Make sure that the
                                                              personal protective equipment is clean and in good
Always read the applicable sections of the pesticide          operating condition.
labeling before you open a pesticide container or
begin any pesticide handling activity. Pesticide


                                                         69
Be sure that you know how to use the personal                  If you supervise other people who handle pesticides,
protective equipment correctly. Put on and remove              be sure that they are instructed about the personal and
the equipment carefully so as not to contact any               environmental hazards of pesticide use. They should
pesticides on the outside of it. Do not "cheat" on the         know the ways they may be exposed, how to limit
personal protective equipment by taking off your               pesticide exposure and reduce the risk of heat stress,
gloves to make an equipment adjustment or by                   and how to respond in an emergency. They also
pulling your respirator away to scratch your face,             should know how to use the pesticide labeling and
wipe off sweat, or take a deep breath while you are            other sources of information to learn about the
still being exposed to the pesticide. Do not wipe your         pesticide they are using.
gloves on your clothing; this will contaminate your
clothing, and pesticide may move through to your               Be sure to provide them with specific instructions
skin.                                                          about the pesticides they will be handling and about
                                                               the handling duties they will be performing. It is your
Is the Equipment Ready and Safe?                               legal responsibility to make sure that those you
                                                               supervise are well informed and that they take all the
Decide what equipment is necessary for your task.              precautions the pesticide labeling requires.
Check to make sure that you have all the equipment
you need and that it is clean and in good operating            Am I Prepared for Emergencies?
condition. Make sure that anyone who will use the
equipment knows how to operate it safely and                   Before you begin any pesticide handling activity, be
correctly. Do not allow children, livestock or pets, or        sure you are prepared to deal with emergencies such
unauthorized people to touch the equipment. If they            as spills, injuries, and poisonings. Your emergency
are injured or poisoned, you are responsible.                  supplies should include at least:

Am I Avoiding the Accidental Spread of                                    Personal decontamination equipment --
Pesticides?                                                            Keep plenty of clean water, detergent, and
                                                                       paper towels nearby in a protected container
Make it a habit to consider how you and those you                      to allow for fast decontamination in an
supervise may accidentally spread pesticides. You                      emergency. Have an extra coverall-type
may transfer pesticides to objects, people, and                        garment nearby in case clothing becomes
animals when you touch them wit h gloves that you                      soaked or saturated with pesticide and must
wore while handling pesticides. When you sit in your                   be removed.
car or on a chair while wearing your pesticide-
handling outfit, you may leave pesticides behind. If                      First aid equipment -- Have a well-
you step into your office or home to answer a                          stocked first aid kit on hand. It should
telephone call or use the toilet, you may leave                        include a plastic eyewash dispenser that has a
pesticides on surfaces there.                                          gentle flushing action.

Any time you take home or wear home your work                             Spill cleanup equipment -- Always keep
clothing, personal protective equipment, or other                      a spill cleanup kit on hand. The kit should
items that are contaminated with pesticides, the                       contain not only all the items needed for
pesticides can rub off on carpeting, furniture, and                    prompt and complete spill cleanup, but also
laundry items, and onto pets and people who come                       personal protective equipment to protect you
into contact with the contaminated materials. When                     while you are dealing with the spill.
you do not clean up a spill, no matter how small,
other people or animals may get pesticide on                              Know who to call in a medical emergency,
themselves without knowing they are being exposed.                     and be familiar with the signs and symptoms
Pesticides that you spread may harm whoever or                         of poisoning caused by the pesticides you
whatever touches them.                                                 handle. In a poisoning emergency, get the
                                                                       person out of the exposure at once, quickly
Have I Instructed the Handlers I Supervise?                            summon medical assistance, and provide first
                                                                       aid.



                                                          70
Are People and Animals Out of the Area?                     different advantages and disadvantages. Decide
                                                            which one best fits your needs and the special
Do not allow anyone but trained and equipped                requirements of your application site. When choosing
pesticide handlers to be present during any pesticide       among formulations, consider the following factors:
handling task. You have the legal responsibility to
make sure that no one is overexposed to pesticides          Application site -- Some formulations are more
that you or those you supervise are handling. Always        likely than others to cause unwanted harm to
warn workers, supervisors, and any other people who         surfaces, plants, and animals in the application site.
may be near the application site about which sites          Emulsifiable concentrates, for example, tend to pit or
you plan to treat and how long they must stay out of        stain some surfaces, are easily absorbed through the
those sites.                                                skin of some animals, and may injure some plants.
                                                            Dusts and powders are likely to leave a visible
Pre-Application Decisions                                   residue that may be unacceptable. Fumigant
                                                            formulations are very likely to injure or kill all plants
                                                            or animals in the application site.
Take the time to think carefully about every pesticide
application before you begin. The decisions you
make will determine whether you will be using the           When pesticides are to be broadcast over large areas,
pesticide safely and correctly. Making the wrong            such as in mosquito, biting fly, and forestry pest
decisions can cause problems.                               control, the formulation must be chosen with great
                                                            care to avoid poisoning nontarget plants and animals
                                                            in the area.
           Incorrect use can result in wasted material,
        failure to control the pest, and damage to the
        target site (the animal, plant, or place to         Typical pesticide labeling statements that alert you to
        which you were applying the pesticide).             these considerations include:

          Misused pesticides can cause immediate as                   "Spray droplets will permanently damage
        well as long-term harmful effects to humans,                automobile paint."
        other living things, property, and other parts
        of the environment.                                           "Do not apply directly to carpet, as
                                                                    discoloration may occur."
           Misused pesticides can result in fines as
        well as legal actions charging you with                       "Repeated applications may cause the
        liability for damages.                                      appearance of visible spray residues on
                                                                    foliage."
          Pesticides are expensive. Using them
        incorrectly can be costly.                                    "Do not allow spray to contact ferns,
                                                                    hickory, and maples, as injury may result."
Choice of Pesticide
                                                                      "Do not apply over areas containing
                                                                    exposed food crops."
One of the first things you must decide is which
pesticide to use. Your knowledge of the situation may
allow you to make that decision on your own. When                      "Birds feeding on treated areas may be
in doubt, ask for help in choosing the safest and most              killed. Cover or incorporate granules."
effective pesticide for the job. Your pesticide dealer,
a local Cooperative Extension office, trade                           "Beekeepers should be warned well in
association, or other experts may be able to help you               advance to remove hives a safe distance from
choose.                                                             areas to be treated."

Choice of Formulation                                       Equipment -- The type of equipment available and
                                                            in good working condition may limit your choice of
The pesticide you have chosen to apply may be               formulation. Check to be sure you have all the
available in several formulations. Each type has            equipment you need and that it is in good operating



                                                       71
condition before you select a particular pesticide            Surface characteristics -- Some pesticide
formulation.                                                  formulations are better suited for some types of
                                                              surfaces. Granules, for example, often provide good
Pesticide movement -- Consider whether runoff is              control on flat surfaces, but are less useful on
likely to carry the pesticide out of the application site.    surfaces where they are likely to slide or blow off. On
Granules, pellets, dusts, and other dry formulations          a porous surface, consider using a wettable powder
that do not require water as a diluent can reduce the         rather than an emulsifiable concentrate or oil-base
risk of runoff.                                               pesticide. The wettable powder formulation will
                                                              leave more pesticide on the surface.
Consider whether air currents are likely to carry the
pesticide away from the application site. If you must         Cost -- Pesticides that are sold as concentrates to be
apply pesticides when wind or air currents are                diluted by the user usually are the least expensive and
present, try to choose a formulation or application           most convenient to purchase and transport. However,
method that minimizes drift. Avoid dusts, high-               these pesticides often mean more risk during mixing
pressure sprays, aerosols, and ultra-low-volume               and loading than pesticides that are sold already
formulations. A granular or pellet formulation or a           diluted. It is important that the pesticide application
low-pressure spray with coarse droplets would be a            be as economical as possible, but other factors listed
good choice. For other types of formulations,                 above may be even more important than cost when
consider using an adjuvant designed to reduce drift,          choosing the most appropriate pesticide formulation.
such as a foaming agent, thickener, or sticker.
                                                              Choice of Application Procedures
Personal safety -- Some pesticide formulations are
more hazardous to people than others. Emulsifiable            The conditions at the application site will influence
concentrates and ultra-low-volume concentrates often          application decisions. Consider factors that affect:
contain solvents that are hazardous themselves or that
allow the pesticide to pass through the skin more                       the effectiveness of the pesticide
quickly. Fumigants and aerosols are easily inhaled.                   application,
Whenever you have a choice, select the formulation
that is least hazardous to the people (or animals) who                  the possible effects on you and those under
will be exposed.                                                      your supervision who are involved in the
                                                                      application, and
Some adjuvants that you mix with your pesticide may
increase your risk of exposure. Penetrants and                          the possible effects on other people and the
emulsifiers may allow the pesticide to travel through                 environment.
the skin more quickly than usual. Stickers may
increase your exposure by causing the pesticide to
                                                              Treated spaces -- Some fogging and aerosol
stick to personal protective equipment, other                 applications are used in unenclosed areas outdoors.
clothing, and skin. Spreaders and wetting agents may
                                                              However, most such pesticide applications are
allow the pesticide to spread out more easily, causing
                                                              applied to an enclosed space. The space may be a
the pesticide to contaminate larger areas of skin or
                                                              building, hold, or silo, or a smaller enclosure, such as
personal protective equipment.
                                                              a room or vault. Sometimes you must create the
                                                              enclosed space by using tarpaulins, sheets of plastic,
Target pest -- The type of formulation you select             or other chemical-resistant coverings. Consider
may depend on the pest you are trying to control.             whether these treated spaces are sealed well enough
Sometimes an entire area must be covered with a               to prevent the pesticide from escaping too quickly
pesticide to try to contact each pest. Other pests,           when it is applied. If the enclosed space is not sealed
however, can be controlled with baits or pesticides           well, consider using a different application method or
placed in a few locations, such as cracks and                 taking steps to improve the seal. You may need to
crevices, at the application site. Fog formulations are       tighten openings, cover air vents, or fasten the
useful only for controlling pests present at the time of      covering more securely at the base.
application. Systemic pesticides are useful for pests
that are sucking fluid from or biting into plants or
                                                              Soil surfaces -- If you are directing a pesticide
animals.
                                                              application at a soil surface, consider the


                                                         72
characteristics of the soil at the application site.          Other surfaces -- Porous surfaces such as wood,
Organic matter in soils may "tie up" pesticides,              concrete, and fabric may absorb pesticides (especially
limiting their activity. Some pesticide labeling will         liquid or gas applications) readily. If your objective is
allow you to use higher rates on soils with high              to saturate the material with pesticide, porous
organic matter. Soil texture also affects how                 surfaces are an advantage. However, if the pesticide
pesticides work. Soils with fine particles (silts and         must remain on the surface to be effective, porous
clays) have the most surface area. The labeling may           surfaces may require more pesticide to gain effective
direct you to use higher rates for total coverage.            control. Pesticides may bounce or run off nonporous
Coarser soils (sands) have less surface area and may          surfaces, making it difficult to achieve an even
allow you to use lower rates.                                 coverage.

Typical pesticide labeling statements that alert you to       Applying pesticides so that they remain on upright
these considerations include:                                 and slanted surfaces is also difficult. Consider using
                                                              adjuvants, such as stickers, that help the pesticide
          "In soils over 10 percent organic matter,           cling to the treated surface.
        use highest rate given."
                                                              Typical pesticide labeling statements that alert you to
           "Use the lowest rate for coarser textured          these considerations include:
        (light) soils or soils with lower organic
        matter. Use a medium rate on medium                             "Use the lower rate on nonporous surfaces
        textured soils or soils containing more than 5                and the higher rate on porous surfaces."
        percent organic matter. Use the highest rate
        for fine textured (heavy) soils or soils                         "Activity on porous surfaces may be
        containing more than 10 percent organic                       limited."
        matter."
                                                              The cleanliness of the surface also affect the
Plant surfaces -- Pesticides tend to bounce or run off        effectiveness of a pesticide application. Organic
narrow, upright leaves. Broad, flat leaves tend to hold       matter on the soil surface may absorb many
the pesticide longer. Foliar sprays may be prevented          pesticides and reduce the amount available to control
from entering the leaf by a thick wax and cuticle             the target pest. For applications to surfaces other than
layer. The waxy surface also tends to cause a spray           soil, excess dust and dirt may prevent some of the
solution to form droplets and run off the leaves.             pesticide from reaching the surface. Consider
                                                              removing these materials before you apply the
A dense layer of leaf hairs may hold the pesticide            pesticide.
droplets away from the leaf surface, causing uneven
distribution on the surface and allowing less chemical        Typical pesticide labeling statements that alert you to
to be absorbed into the plant. However, a thin layer          these considerations include:
of leaf hairs may allow more even distribution on the
surface and may cause the chemical to stay on the                       "Remove existing plant material from
leaf surface longer than normal, allowing more                        surface before application."
chemical to be absorbed into the plant.
                                                                        "Application should be made to clean
Typical pesticide labeling statements that alert you to               surfaces."
these considerations include:
                                                                       "Before application, clean up waste
          "Add spreader-sticker when applying to                      materials, dust, dirt, and all other debris."
        smooth or waxy surfaces."
                                                              Surface moisture -- Pesticides often work best with
          "For best results on emerged weeds, add a           moderate surface moisture. Too much wetness may
        surfactant and apply as a directed spray."            keep the pesticide from adequately contacting the
                                                              surface. Dryness may prevent the pesticide from
         "In difficult wetting situations, such as            spreading evenly over the surface and contacting the
        mature waxy foliage, use the higher rate."            target pest.


                                                         73
A typical pesticide labeling statement that alerts you        These statements provide important clues that the
to this consideration is:                                     pesticide is volatile and that you should take
                                                              precautions to keep it from vaporizing and moving
         "Most effective when good surface                    offsite. When the pesticide is applied as a spray,
        moisture conditions exist."                           consider reducing the volatility by decreasing the
                                                              pressure and increasing the droplet size.
        Temperature, sunlight, and humidity --
        Temperature may influence the effectiveness           Humidity also influences the effectiveness of some
        of some pesticide applications. Low                   pesticide applications. For example, herbicides often
        temperature slows down or stops the activity          work best when weeds are growing fast -- usually in
        of some pesticides. Low temperature also              high humidity and optimum temperature. However,
        affects some pests by making them move                these same conditions may make the protected plant
        about less, eat less, or change into another          more likely to be injured by herbicides. A typical
        form. These pests may be less susceptible to          pesticide labeling statement that alerts you to this
        some pesticide applications. A typical                consideration is:
        pesticide labeling statement that alerts you to
        this consideration is:                                         "Apply when conditions are favorable for
                                                                      weed growth."
          "Do not apply when temperatures are
        below 50oF."                                                  Rain or irrigation water -- In some pest
                                                                      control situations, you must consider whether
        High temperature and direct sunlight will                     rain or other watering will occur during or
        influence the effectiveness of some pesticide                 soon after a pesticide application. Sometimes
        applications. They cause some pesticides left                 such watering is helpful. Some pesticides that
        exposed on top of surfaces to break down                      are applied to porous surfaces, especially
        before there is adequate pest control. A                      soil, must be carried by water into the
        typical pesticide labeling statement that alerts              surface. Thorough watering also is needed to
        you to this consideration is:                                 start the pesticide action after the application
                                                                      of some granular pesticides. Some protectant
          "Do not apply when temperatures are                         fungicides are designed to be applied to
        above 95oF."                                                  plants during or just before an expected rain
                                                                      or watering.
        High temperature , especially combined
        with low humidity, increases the likelihood           Typical pesticide labeling statements that alert you to
        that some pesticides will vaporize. Once in           these considerations include:
        vapor form, pesticides can drift and settle
        onto nontarget areas. When applying                              "Apply just before a light rain or water
        pesticides that you know or suspect can                       lightly after application to wash chemical
        vaporize easily, consider the temperature.                    down to soil."
        Typical pesticide labeling statements that
        alert you to this consideration include:                        "Begin applications when dew or rain
                                                                      occur and disease threatens."
          "At high air or surface temperatures,
        vapors from this product may injure                   Most pesticide applications, however, should not be
        susceptible plants."                                  made during or just before rain or watering. Rain,
                                                              irrigation water, or other water that wets the surface
          "When applied to properly prepared soil,            soon after a surface application may interfere with
        the liquid is converted into a gaseous                pest control by washing off the pesticides or by
        fumigant."                                            causing them to leach downward. For outdoor
                                                              applications, check the forecast and make your own
          "Do not breathe vapors or fumes."                   weather observations. For applications to plants,
                                                              check for an irrigation or watering schedule.




                                                         74
Typical pesticide labeling statements that alert you to         be careful to apply the pesticides safely under the
these considerations include:                                   existing conditions. If you have a choice about timing
                                                                consider applying during off-hours. Applying
           "Application may have to be repeated if              pesticides during very early morning hours, in the
        rain occurs shortly after application."                 evening, or even at night -- both in outdoor situations
                                                                and indoors in greenhouses, malls, office buildings,
           "Following application, and during rainfall          and other nonresidential structures -- has several
        events that cause runoff, this chemical may             advantages:
        reach surface water bodies including streams,
        rivers, and reservoirs."                                          It is less likely that people other than
                                                                        pesticide handlers will be nearby.
          "Avoid wash-off of sprayed foliage within
        6 hours of application."                                          It is more likely to be cooler, reducing
                                                                        concerns about heat stress and pesticide
Air movement -- Air movement from wind or                               vaporization.
ventilation can greatly alter the effectiveness of a
pesticide application. Too much air movement can                          The wind is likely to be low, and indoor
blow the pesticide off target and result in inadequate                  ventilation systems may be off or reduced.
control. The amount of air movement that is
acceptable depends on the type of formulation and                         There will be no direct sun in outdoor and
application technique you will be using. The farther                    glass-roofed sites.
from the target surface a pesticide is applied, the less
air movement is acceptable.                                                When working during off-hours, have
                                                                        another person check on you often. Work
Typical pesticide labeling statements that alert you to                 only where there is enough light to allow you
these considerations are:                                               to apply the pesticide correctly and
                                                                        accurately.
          "Do not apply when weather conditions
        favor drift from treated areas."                        Avoid Heat Stress
          "Do not apply with aerial equipment when              Several factors work together to cause heat stress.
        wind speed is greater than 10 mph."                     Before you begin a pesticide handling task, think
                                                                about whether any of these factors are likely to
          "Coarse sprays are less likely to drift;              present a problem. Consider what adjustments you
        therefore, do not use nozzles or nozzle                 may need to make in the task itself or in the
        configurations which dispense spray as fine             workplace conditions, including:
        droplets."
                                                                         heat factors -- temperature, humidity, air
Sometimes you can offset air movement by allowing                       movement, and sunlight,
the air to blow the pesticide toward the area to be
protected. You may be able to arrange for the                              workload,
ventilation system to be turned off during indoor
applications.                                                              personal protective equipment,

Scheduling Pesticide Applications                                          water,

Each pesticide application involves a different set of                     scheduling adjustments.
conditions. Your responsibility is to assess the
conditions and decide when to apply the pesticide
                                                                Heat Factors and Workload
and whether to take any special precautions.
                                                                High temperatures, high humidity, and direct sunlight
Sometimes you have no choice about when to
                                                                increase the likelihood that heat stress will occur. Air
schedule a pesticide application. In those situations,


                                                           75
currents provide a cooling effect. Because hard work          sweat is replaced, the body can no longer regulate its
causes the body to produce heat, you are more likely          temperature correctly. Under conditions of high
to develop heat-related illness when you are working          temperature, strong air currents, heavy workload, or
on foot than when you are driving a vehicle or flying         direct sunlight, a body can lose as much as 1 gallon
an aircraft. You are even more likely to become               of water per hour.
overheated while lifting or carrying heavy containers
or equipment.                                                            Make a special effort to drink plenty of
                                                                      water or "sports drinks" during heat stress
          Use fans and ventilation systems and                        conditions. Do not rely on a feeling of thirst
        provide shade whenever possible to reduce                     to tell you whether your body has enough
        the heat. A work area or vehicle sometimes                    water. You can lose a dangerous amount of
        can be shaded by a tarp or canopy or                          water even before you begin to feel thirsty.
        provided with fans.                                           You also may stop feeling thirsty long before
                                                                      you drink enough fluids to replace what you
           Allow time to adjust to the heat and                       have lost.
        workload. People who have become used to
        working in the heat are less likely to be                      Drink plenty of water before and after
        affected by heat stress. To adjust to hot work                work.
        environments, do short periods of light work
        in the heat for several days in a row; then           Scheduling Adjustments
        gradually increase the work period and the
        workload for the next several days.                   By taking the above steps, you will prevent most heat
                                                              stress problems. But you must be ready for times
           Schedule frequent breaks when the heat             when, regardless of your efforts, you or the handlers
        stress risk is high.                                  you supervise get dangerously hot. When this
                                                              happens, you must:
Personal Protective Equipment
                                                                        Adjust work/rest cycles -- Decrease the
Pesticide handling tasks often require that you wear                  length of work periods and increase the
extra layers of clothing or chemical-resistant suits                  length of rest periods.
and other protective equipment. While this equipment
keeps pesticides from getting on the skin, it also                      Try to schedule tasks requiring the
interferes with the natural body cooling that happens                 heaviest workload or the most personal
when sweat evaporates from the skin. You can get                      protective equipment during the coolest part
overheated quickly when wearing personal protective                   of the work day.
equipment.
                                                                        Stop work -- Under extremely hot
           Choose personal protective equipment                       conditions when you cannot use cooling
        designed to be as cool as possible or to                      devices, you may need to stop work until
        provide a cooling effect, such as a powered                   conditions improve.
        air-purifying respirator or, when appropriate,
        back-vented coveralls.

          Increase the shade or cooling by using              Test Your Knowledge
        awnings, fans, air conditioners, and cooling
        vests.
                                                              Q-1. What eight basic safety questions should you
                                                              ask yourself whenever you or those you supervise
Water                                                         will be using pesticides?
Evaporation of sweat from the skin helps to cool the
body and maintain a constant core temperature.                • A. 1. Have I read the labeling?
Under hot conditions, the body produces a large
amount of sweat. Unless the water that is lost in             2. How can I avoid exposure to pesticides?


                                                         76
3. What personal protective equipment is needed?             • A. 1. Whether the formulation will cause
                                                             unwanted harm to plants, animals, or surfaces in
4. Is the equipment ready and safe?                          the application site.
5. Am I avoiding the accidental spread of pesticides?        2. The application equipment available, and whether
                                                             it's best suited for the job.
6. Have I instructed the handlers I supervise?
                                                             3. Hazard of drift or runoff (likelihood of air currents
7. Am I prepared for emergencies?                            or excess water).

8. Are people and animals out of the area?                   4. Risk to applicator, workers, and other people and
                                                             animals likely to be exposed.
Q-2. List some consequences of the incorrect use
of pesticides.                                               5. Habits or pests growth patterns.

• A. 1. Incorrect use can result in wasted                   6. Surface to which the pesticide is to be applied.
material, failure to control the pest, and damage
to the target site.                                          7. Cost.

2. Misused pesticides can cause immediate as well as         Q-4. Name four conditions at the application site
long-term harmful effects to humans, to other living         that may influence some of the decisions you make
things, to property, and to other parts of the               about the application.
environment.
                                                             • A. Type of space or surface to be treated;
3. Misused pesticides can result in fines as well as         surface cleanliness; surface moisture;
legal actions charging you with liability for damages.       temperature; humidity; presence of direct
                                                             sunlight; possibility of rain or watering; air
4. Pesticides are expensive. Using them incorrectly          movement.
can be costly.
                                                             Q-5. If heat stress is a concern, what five factors
Q-3. Name at least four factors to consider when             need to be adjusted  ?
choosing among different formulations.
                                                             • A. Heat factors, workload, personal protective
                                                             equipment, amount of water consumed, and the
                                                             work schedule.




                                                        77
                                                            Mixing, Loading and Application
Unit 9 - Mixing, Loading and
Application                                                 Mixing, loading, and application are the primary
                                                            pesticide handling tasks. They are also among the
                                                            most hazardous aspects of a handler's job. Never try
                                                            to cut corners where safety is concerned, and do not
                                                            assume that every job will be like every other. For
Learning Objectives                                         example, even though you are familiar with a
                                                            pesticide, take time to read the labeling every time
After completing this unit, you should be able to:          you buy the product -- new information may have
                                                            been added.
          Describe how to protect the water source at
        the mixing site.                                    Safe Mixing and Loading Practices
         Name types of protection you may need              Pesticide handlers are most often exposed to harmful
        while mixing or loading pesticides.                 amounts of pesticides when mixing or loading
                                                            concentrated pesticides. Handlers who mix and load
          Explain what to do with empty pesticide           concentrated pesticides with high acute toxicity have
        containers.                                         an especially high risk of accidental poisoning. By
                                                            observing some simple precautions, you can reduce
          Name types of empty containers that can           the risks involved in this part of your job.
        be rinsed, and describe rinsing methods.
                                                            Select an Appropriate Area
          Describe how to determine whether two
        pesticides can be safely mixed together for         Choose the pesticide mixing and loading area
        application.                                        carefully. It should be outdoors or in a well-ventilated
                                                            area away from unprotected people, animals, food,
          Name some pesticide application tasks for         other pesticides, and other items that might be
        which you may need to wear more personal            contaminated. Choose a place with good light,
        protective equipment than the minimum               especially if you are working at night. Be particularly
        required by the pesticide labeling.                 careful not to mix or load pesticides indoors unless
                                                            lighting and ventilation are adequate.
          Name what to do when mixing, loading,
        and application activities are over.                Protect Your Water Source

          Describe what to do with rinsates from            Protect your water source by keeping the water pipe
        equipment cleanup.                                  or hose well above the level of the pesticide mixture.
                                                            This prevents contamination of the hose and keeps
          Describe personal cleanup after pesticide         pesticides from back-siphoning into the water source.
        handling.                                           If you are pumping water directly from the source
                                                            into a mix tank, use a check valve, antisiphoning
          List some benefits of recordkeeping.              device, or backflow preventer to prevent back-
                                                            siphoning if the pump fails. Backflow prevention
          Explain "closed system mixing and                 devices are required by law in some areas.
        loading" and "enclosed application systems."
                                                            Avoid mixing or loading pesticides in areas where a
          Explain when pesticide collection systems         spill, leak, or overflow could allow pesticides to get
        are appropriate, and list advantages of such        into water systems. When mixing situations require
        systems.                                            you to use water from a faucet, well, stream, pond, or
                                                            other water system, take special precautions. Place
                                                            your mixing equipment where spills, leaks, and
                                                            overflows will not flow toward a drain or into the
                                                            water supply. If necessary, install dikes or other


                                                       78
barriers, or grade the soil to divert the flow. If you         goggles or shielded safety glasses will fit better than
will be mixing or loading at the site often, consider          a face shield.
installing a collection pad or tray.
                                                               Protection from dusts -- When you will be pouring
Typical pesticide labeling statements that alert you to        dusts for long periods of time or working under
these concerns include:                                        conditions where dusts might swirl up into your face,
                                                               consider wearing a dust/mist filtering respirator to
          "Care must be taken when using this                  keep from inhaling the dusts. Choose a dust/mist
        product to prevent back-siphoning into wells.          respirator with NIOSH/ MSHA approval. Also wear
        Check valves or antisiphoning devices must             eye protection, such as shielded safety glasses,
        be used on all mixing and/or irrigation                goggles, or a face shield, to keep the dusts out of your
        equipment."                                            eyes.

          "Do not spill or empty into streams, ponds,          Protection from vapors -- If you will be handling
        or any other body of water."                           pesticides that produce vapors that may cause your
                                                               eyes, nose, or throat to sting or that may cause you
          "Equipment should be equipped with                   other discomfort, wear eye protection and a vapor-
        automatic shutoff devices and valves to                removing respirator with NIOSH/MSHA approval.
        prevent backflow into the water source."
                                                               Opening Containers
Personal Protective Equipment
                                                               Do not tear paper or cardboard containers to open
Before opening a pesticide container, you and those            them. Use a sharp knife. Clean the knife afterward
you supervise must put on the appropriate personal             and do not use it for other purposes. Open pesticide
protective equipment. By law, you must use all of the          containers only when they are sitting on a flat, stable
personal protective equipment that the pesticide               surface. If they are tipped on an angle or are in an
labeling requires for mixers and loaders. Consider             unstable position, they can easily spill over or leak
using additional personal protective equipment in              out when the seal is broken.
certain mixing and loading situations.
                                                               Transferring Pesticides
Front protection -- If you may be splashed during
mixing or loading tasks, or if you will need to lean           When pouring any pesticide from its container, keep
against contaminated equipment during mixing or                the container and pesticide below face level. This will
loading, consider wearing a bib-top apron made of              avoid a splash, spill, or dust from getting on your
butyl, nitrile, or foil-laminate material. The style of        face or into your eyes and mouth. If there is a wind
apron that includes built-in gloves and sleeves is             outdoors or a strong air current indoors, stand so the
especially protective. An apron:                               pesticide cannot blow back on you.

          keeps pesticides off the front of your               If you are siphoning the pesticide from the container
        clothing,                                              to the tank, never use your mouth to get the siphon
                                                               started. You could easily get a mouthful of pesticide.
          is cooler than a chemical-resistant
        protective suit, and                                   Spills

           is easily removed at the end of the activity.       To prevent spills, close containers after each use.
                                                               Even if you plan to mix more pesticide soon, close
Face protection -- If you will be pouring liquid               the container tightly each time. Never leave a tank
pesticide or adding dry pesticide to a liquid, consider        unattended while it is being filled. It may overflow
wearing a face shield to keep splashes and wafting             and contaminate the area.
dusts off your face and out of your nose and mouth.
A face shield is easy to put on, take off, and clean at        If you splash or spill a pesticide on yourself while
the end of the day. If you need to wear a respirator,          mixing or loading, stop right away and remove your
                                                               contaminated clothing. Wash thoroughly with a mild


                                                          79
liquid detergent (or soap) and water as quickly as             difficult to remove. Such rinsing often saves money
possible. Put on clean personal protective equipment.          because each rinse removes pesticide from the sides
Then clean up the spill.                                       and bottom of the container and allows you to add it
                                                               to the pesticide mixture.
Empty Pesticide Containers
                                                               If you rinse empty pesticide containers thoroughly,
Even after it appears that all the pesticide product has       you usually can dispose of them as nonhazardous
been removed from a container, it usually is not truly         waste. Rinsed containers that are to be stored for later
empty. The pesticide that clings to the inside of the          disposal should be clearly marked to indicate that
container can be dangerous to you, other people, and           they have been rinsed. Stickers are available for this
the environment. Take care of empty containers at              purpose.
once.
                                                               Glass, metal, and plastic containers, plastic -lined
If containers are rinsable, rinse them as soon as they         paper or cardboard containers, and even unlined
are empty. Return rinsed pesticide containers to the           paper or cardboard containers that can withstand the
pesticide storage area or the container holding area.          rinsing process should be triple rinsed or pressure
Do not leave them unattended at the mixing, loading,           rinsed. The liquid you use for rinsing should be the
or application site. Never give pesticide containers to        diluent (water, kerosene, high-grade oil, or another
children to play with or to adults to use.                     liquid) listed on the pesticide labeling for diluting the
                                                               pesticide for application. After rinsing, add the
If you have empty pesticide containers that cannot be          rinsate to your pesticide mixture.
refilled, reconditioned, recycled, or returned to the
manufacturer, crush, break, or puncture them. This             Pressure rins ing is an alternative to triple rinsing.
will make the containers unusable and may also save            Some pesticide equipment, including some closed
storage space. Dispose of containers in accordance             system mixing and loading equipment, is equipped
with label directions and with federal, state, tribal,         with a mechanism to pressure rinse pesticide
and local laws and regulations. For more specific              containers when they are emptied. The system
information on how to dispose of containers, see the           usually operates by:
chapter on "Transportation, Storage, Disposal, and
Spill Cleanup."                                                           inserting a high-pressure nozzle and hose
                                                                       into the container,
Nonrinsable containers
                                                                         rotating the nozzle and rinsing for at least
You may not be able to rinse bags, boxes, and other                    30 seconds, and
containers of dry pesticides because the container
will not hold up to the rinsing. You also may not be                     draining the container thoroughly into the
able to rinse containers of ready-to-use pesticides                    mix tank.
because there is no place to put the rinsate. The
pesticide labeling may tell you not to rinse certain           Some systems puncture the base or side of the
types of containers. These containers may be                   container to insert the nozzle. Other systems insert
designed to be returned to the pesticide dealer or             the nozzle into the container's regular opening.
                                  n
manufacturer for rinsing. Contai ers that cannot or
should not be rinsed must be emptied as completely             Typical pesticide labeling instructions about
as possible. Shake or tap the container to remove as           emptying containers include:
much of the pesticide product as you can. Drain
containers of liquid pesticides for at least an                           "Triple rinse containers and dispose of
additional 30 seconds.                                                 rinsate in area just treated."

Rinsable containers -- When you are diluting                              "Triple rinse (or equivalent)."
pesticides, you should rinse the empty pesticide
containers, unless the labeling directs you not to.                      "Completely empty bag into application
Rinse containers as soon as they are empty because                     equipment."
the remaining residues can dry quickly and become


                                                          80
Combining Pesticides                                          gloves and apron, both preferably made of foil
                                                              laminate. Get a large, clean, clear glass container,
Pesticide handlers often like to combine two or more          such as a quart jar. Use the same water (or other
pesticides and apply them at the same time. Such              diluent) that you will use when making up the larger
mixtures can save time, labor, and fuel.                      mixture. Add the water and each of the products in
Manufacturers sometimes combine pesticides for sale           the same proportions as you will mix them. Unless
as a pre-mix. Sometimes pesticide handlers combine            the pesticide labeling states otherwise, add pesticides
pesticides at application.                                    to the diluent (usually water) using the "W-A-L-E"
                                                              plan:
Under federal law, combining pesticides is legal
unless the pesticide labeling of any of the pesticides        1. Add some of the diluent first.
involved instructs you not to combine them.
However, not all pesticides work well when mixed              2. Add Wettable and other powders and Water-
together. They must be compatible -- that is, mixing          dispersible granules.
them together must not reduce their safety or
effectiveness. The more pesticides you mix together,          3. Agitate thoroughly and add the remaining diluent.
the greater the chance of undesirable effects.
                                                              4. Add the Liquid products, such as solutions,
Some pesticide mixtures that are physically                   surfactants, and flowables.
incompatible make the mixture difficult or
impossible to apply and may clog equipment, pumps,            5. Add Emulsifiable concentrates last.
and tanks. These reactions sometimes cause the
pesticide to form lumps or gels, to become solids that        Shake the jar vigorously. Feel the sides of the jar to
fall to the bottom of the mix tank, or to separate into       determine if the mixture is giving off heat. If so, the
layers that cannot be remixed.                                mixture may be undergoing a chemical reaction and
                                                              the pesticides should not be combined. Let the
Sometimes the combined pesticides create a chemical           mixture stand for about 15 minutes and feel again for
reaction that cannot be seen by looking at the                unusual heat.
mixture. However, the chemical change can result in:
                                                              If scum forms on the surface, if the mixture clumps,
          loss of effectiveness against the target            or if any solids settle to the bottom (except for
        pests,                                                wettable powders), the mixture probably is not
                                                              compatible. Finally, if no signs of incompatibility
          increased toxicity to the pesticide handler,        appear, test the mixture on a small area of the surface
        and                                                   where it is to be applied.

          injury to the treated surface.                      Applying Pesticides Safely
Some pesticide labeling lists pesticides (and other           Every time you apply pesticides, you have two major
chemicals) known to be compatible with that                   responsibilities:
formulation. Compatibility charts are available in
some pest management recommendations, pesticide                         protecting yourself, others, and the
trade publications, and Cooperative Extension or                      environment, and
industry recommendations. If you cannot find a chart
that lists the compatibility of the two pesticides (or                  making sure that the pesticide is applied
the pesticide and other chemical) that you wish to                    correctly.
mix, test a small amount of the mixture before you
mix large quantities.
                                                              Personal Protective Equipment
Compatibility testing -- First, put on personal
protective equipment. Wear at least the equipment             By law, you must wear the personal protective
required by the labeling of any of the pesticides to be       equipment and other clothing that the pesticide
combined; protective eyewear; and chemical-resistant          labeling requires for applicators. Consider using



                                                         81
additional protection for some types of pesticide             however, you may have to use a vehicle that causes
application tasks. You may need to weigh several              you to drive into the path of the pesticide.
factors before you can make good decisions about the
personal protective equipment you should wear.                Whether you are walking or riding, if the pesticide is
                                                              not directed downward or if it remains suspended in
Hand-carried application equipment -- When you                the air long enough to cause exposure to the front of
carry the application equipment, such as hand-held            your body, wear an apron or chemical-resistant suit.
sprayers or shake cans, you risk being directly               If the pesticide mist or dust reaches as high as your
exposed to the pesticide. A dripping or partially             face, consider a dust/mist respirator and eye
clogged nozzle, an unfastened cap, a leaky hose, or a         protection.
loose connection are extremely likely to cause
exposure. Consider wearing extra personal protective          Walking into a just-treated area -- Even when you
equipment to protect the area of your body that is in         apply a pesticide from a vehicle, you may need to
contact with the equipment.                                   walk into an area that was just treated. For example,
                                                              you may need to repair or adjust the equipment or
If the application equipment is carried in front,             check the pesticide dispersal. You probably will be
consider wearing a sleeved apron, an apron with               climbing over a contaminated rig and walking
built-in gloves and sleeves, or an apron plus arm-            through an area that was treated only moments
covering gloves to protect your front from leaks,             before. Consider putting on additional personal
drift, and splashes.                                          protective equipment while you are out of the
                                                              vehicle.
If the application equipment is a type that is carried
on your back, such as backpack, knapsack, or                  If the vegetation in the treated area is covered with
trombone-style sprayers or dusters, consider wearing          pesticide spray or dust and is fairly short, consider
a cape to protect your back and shoulders from                shin-high or knee-high boots, or protective footwear
leaking equipment.                                            with chemical-resistant pants. In this situation, as
                                                              with walking into the path of the released pesticide,
If you carry only the nozzle, consider wearing arm-           consider applying spray starch or fabric stain
covering gloves or elbow-length gloves with the cuffs         protector to pant legs.
taped or otherwise sealed to the coverall sleeve.
                                                              If the plants in the treated area are tall, consider
Entering the path of the released pesticide -- Many           wearing a chemical-resistant suit in addition to the
applications performed while on foot cause you to             footwear. If you cannot wear a chemical-resistant suit
walk into the path of the pesticide you are releasing.        because of the heat, try a cape or an apron.
Whenever possible, apply pesticides so that you are
backing into the untreated area, away from where the          If spray is dripping or dust is falling from overhead,
pesticide is being released. However, under many              consider a hood or wide-brimmed hat in addition to
conditions, it is unsafe to walk backward in an               the body protection and footwear. A dust/mist
application site.                                             respirator and protective eyewear may be necessary,
                                                              too.
If you must walk into the path of the released
pesticide, consider wearing shin-high or knee-high            High-exposure applications -- Certain types of
boots, or protective footwear with chemical-resistant         pesticide applications pose a special exposure risk,
pants. Spraying a thick coating of fabric starch or           because they engulf you in pesticide fallout. They
fabric stain protectant on the lower legs of your             include:
coveralls can provide a temporary barrier for low-
toxicity pesticides and also makes the coveralls easier                 mist blower or airblast applications,
to clean.
                                                                        aerosol and fog applications, especially
When applying pesticides from a vehicle, use                          indoors,
equipment that releases the pesticide to the rear so
that you are located in front of and above the area of                  some applications using high-pressure
release and are moving away from it. Sometimes,                       sprayers and power dusters,


                                                         82
           applications directed upward over your             protection, protective eyewear, and a dust/mist
        head, such as to tree canopies or roof eaves,         filtering respirator may be appropriate.
        or
                                                              Applying concentrates -- You may be exposed to
           aerial applications that use human flaggers        highly concentrated pesticides during some
        to mark the swath.                                    applications. Ultra-low-volume concentrates and
                                                              fumigant formulations may be close to 100-percent
Whenever you work in these situations, large                  active ingredient and often are highly toxic. Consider
amounts of pesticide fallout are likely to be deposited       using extra personal protective equipment when
on your skin and clothing, often to the point of              applying concentrates, such as that required for
completely drenching or covering you. Unless you              mixing and loading of those formulations.
are in an enclosed cab, you cannot avoid this
exposure, even if you perform the application during          Application Procedures
times of little or no air currents.
                                                              Every time you apply a pesticide, follow these basic
In these situations, you should wear more personal            procedures to make sure that you are using the
protective equipment than the pesticide labeling              pesticide safely and effectively:
requires for other types of applications. Only a
chemical-resistant suit with a hood, gloves and               Deliver the pesticide to the target -- Take the time
footwear with sealed cuffs, and a full-face respirator        to be sure that the pesticide is reaching the surface or
or half-face respirator with sealed goggles can               space to which you are directing it. Pesticide
provide enough protection for these high-exposure             deposited elsewhere is a waste of time and money
applications.                                                 and may harm nontarget areas.

Applications in enclosed spaces -- Pesticides                 Check the delivery rate -- Check to be sure that you
sometimes are applied in enclosed spaces such as              are applying the pesticide evenly and in
warehouses, factories, homes, and other buildings;            approximately the right amounts. No puddles of
railcar, ship, and truck cargo areas; silos, elevators,       liquid pesticide or mounds of dry pesticide should be
and other grain storage areas; and greenhouses. When          deposited in the application area. Be especially
you use pesticides in enclosed spaces, you increase           careful in areas where you turn or pause. Many types
the risk of inhaling the pesticide. You may need to           of application equipment continue to release pesticide
use a respirator even if you would not need one for           even when not in motion.
the same application outdoors.
                                                              When you have applied the pesticide to the first part
Adjusting pesticide -coated equipment -- You may              of the area or space that is to be treated, check to be
need to wear a protective apron while doing some              sure that approximately the correct proportion of
types of equipment adjustments and repairs. Consider          pesticide has been used. If too little is being released,
wearing a vapor-removing respirator, even outdoors,           check the equipment openings for clogging or
if you must adjust fumigation equipment.                      obstructions. If too much is being released, check for
                                                              worn or stuck openings.
Immersing hands and forearms -- Some
application techniques, such as animal, plant, or seed        Check for appearance -- As you apply, notice
dipping vats and spray-dip machines, require you to           whether the pesticide you are releasing looks the way
place your hands and forearms into the pesticide              it should. Applications of wettable powders usually
liquid or dust. With this exposure, consider a sleeved        have a whitish color. If the liquid is clear, check to be
apron for full front and arm protection, and protective       sure that you are agitating the mixture enough to keep
footwear. A face shield will protect against splashes         the wettable powder mixed with the water. Granules
or drifting dusts.                                            and dusts should appear dry and should not form
                                                              clumps. Emulsifiable concentrates usually look
Applying in air currents -- If you will be applying           milky. If the pesticide does not look right, be sure
pesticides into or across wind or air currents, consider      you have the right mixture and that it is blended
wearing extra personal protective equipment because           evenly.
pesticide may be blown onto you. More body



                                                         83
Check the appearance of the target area where you           hoses, or hopper openings. Carry a small nylon brush
have just released the pesticide. If the surface is         for such jobs. Be sure that any tool used for this kind
changing colors or is stained unexpectedly, stop and        of job is never used for any other purpose.
check whether you are harming the surface.
                                                            After Mixing, Loading, and Application
Avoid nontarget organisms -- Before you apply a
pesticide, clear all unprotected people from the area.      As soon as you finish mixing, loading, or applying a
It is illegal to allow them to be exposed to a pesticide    pesticide, you should do a few important followup
application -- either directly or through drift. Also       tasks. Take the time to clean up properly. Wash your
remove any pets or livestock not being treated with         pesticide equipment and then wash yourself. Return
the pesticide. Even when the pesticide application is       equipment to its designated place and safely store or
narrowly directed such as a crack and crevice               dispose of all pesticide materials and other chemicals.
treatment, keep people and animals out of the               Be sure that your work site presents no hazards to
immediate area during application.                          people or the environment. Never leave the site
                                                            unattended until everything has been cleaned up and
Check the pesticide labeling to find out when people        put away. While you can still remember the facts,
and nontarget animals can re-enter the treated area.        make a record of what you have applied and the
The labeling of some pesticides may restrict entry          conditions at the application site.
into treated areas for periods ranging from several
hours to several days. In general, if the pesticide         Equipment Cleaning
labeling has no such instructions, it may be best to
restrict the entry of unauthorized people into the
                                                            Always clean mixing, loading, and application
treated areas at least until any dusts or mists have
                                                            equipment as soon as you finish using it -- do not
settled or sprays have dried. If necessary, provide
                                                            leave equipment with pesticides on it or in it at the
ventilation to disperse vapors.
                                                            mixing and loading site or at the application site.
                                                            When the job is completed and the tank or hopper is
Avoid nontarget surfaces -- When possible, clean            empty, return the equipment to the designated
the application site of any items that should not be        equipment cleanup area. Avoid washing equipment
contaminated. Cover or protect any items that cannot        repeatedly in the same location unless you use a
be removed from the area and that are not involved in       containment pad or tray. Over time, the flooring or
the handling activity, including such things as food        soil in a frequently used area can become
and food utensils; bedding; toys; seed; pet or              contaminated with large amounts of pesticides. This
livestock feed, water, or supplies; and other items         contamination increases the likelihood of harmful
that could transfer pesticides to people, pets, or          effects to people and animals and increases the
livestock.                                                  likelihood of runoff or leaching into water systems.
                                                            Also avoid keeping pesticide-contaminated
Operate equipment s afely -- Turn off equipment             equipment in one location all the time. Pesticides
whenever you pause or need to make any adjustments          may move off the outside of the equipment and onto
or repairs. When you stop application to take a break,      the floor or soil.
to move to another site, or for repairs, depressurize
any pressurized tanks. Turn off the main pressure           Do not assign a worker to clean pesticide-
valve on the tank and release any pressure remaining        contaminated equipment unless that person has been
at the nozzles.                                             instructed in the basic rules of pesticide safety.
                                                            Remember that equipment cleaning presents as great
When applying pesticides at a distance from your            a risk of exposure to pesticides as do many other
equipment -- at the end of a long hose, for example --      pesticide handling tasks and that all parts of the
be sure that unprotected people and pets stay away          equipment are likely to have pesticides or pesticide
from the equipment. You may need to post a helper           residues on them. When you clean pesticide-
near it.                                                    contaminated equipment, wear the personal
                                                            protective equipment that the labeling requires for
Check hoses, valves, nozzles, hoppers, and other            handling jobs, plus a chemical-resistant apron.
equipment parts occasionally while you are applying.
If you notice a problem, stop immediately and fix it.
Do not use bare hands or your mouth to clear nozzles,


                                                       84
Benefits of correct cleaning -- Sloppy cleanup                children, other unprotected persons, or animals could
practices are one of the main causes of equipment             get into.
failure or malfunction. Never keep excess pesticides
in your equipment for more than a short time. Even            You may use equipment rinsate as a diluent for future
small amounts can damage equipment.                           pesticide mixtures, if:

Liquid pesticides left in the equipment may quickly                      the pesticide in the rinsate is labeled for
corrode the equipment and clog or corrode the nozzle                  use on the target site where the new mixture
openings. They may cause the equipment to leak or                     is to be applied,
cause the nozzles to release too little or too much
pesticide when the equipment is operated. Some                          the amount of pesticide in the rinsate plus
liquid pesticides change if they are stored after being               the amount of pesticide product in the
diluted and will not be suitable for application later.               mixture does not exceed the labeling rate for
Some will settle out and form a solid clump at the                    the target site,
bottom of the tank that even mechanical agitation
cannot remix. Others will separate into two or more                     the rinsate is used to dilute a mixture
liquids that cannot be remixed easily. Liquid                         containing the same pesticide or a compatible
pesticides that are allowed to stay in the equipment                  pesticide,
until they are totally dry may be impossible to
remove completely.
                                                                        you comply with other application
                                                                      instructions specified on the labeling,
Dry pesticides that become wet through humidity,                      including any specific labeling instructions
rain, dew, or other moisture tend to clump and stick                  for application as an excess pesticide.
to the sides and hopper openings. They cannot be
applied later, and cannot be easily removed from the
equipment.                                                              The rinsate cannot be added to a pesticide
                                                                      mixture if:
Cleaning procedures -- After the equipment is
empty, clean both the inside and outside thoroughly,                     the pesticide labeling does not list the
                                                                      rinsate as an acceptable diluent; for example,
including nozzles or hopper openings. Sometimes
                                                                      if the rinsate contains a strongly acidic or
you may need to use the diluent used in the pesticide
mixture (kerosene or high-grade oil), special cleaning                alkaline neutralizing agent,
agents, or water under pressure. In other cases,
ordinary water may be enough.                                           the rinsate contains strong cleaning agents,
                                                                      such as bleach or ammonia, that might harm
                                                                      the plant, animal, or surface to which the
Collect the rinsate -- the liquid that results from the
                                                                      pesticide will be applied,
washing process. If you do not have a way to reuse or
dispose of the rinsate, limit the amount of material
you use, so you will create less waste.                                 the rinsate would alter the pesticide
                                                                      mixture and make it unusable; for example, if
Carefully wash any vehicles, such as vans and trucks,                 the pesticides are physically or chemically
                                                                      incompatible.
that may be used for transporting unprotected
workers or for family use. People have been poisoned
by riding in vehicles that had been used to apply             If you have any rinsates that you cannot use, dispose
pesticides or to perform flagging for aerial                  of them as you would excess pesticides.
applications.
                                                              Pesticide labeling instructions -- Typical pesticide
Rinsates -- Remember that the rinsates you create             labeling statements that alert you to these concerns
when you cle an your equipment contain pesticides             include:
and can harm people and the environment. Do not
allow rinsates to flow into water systems, including                    "Do not store spray solution in tank
sink or floor drains, rainwater culverts, wells,                      overnight."
streams, lakes, and rivers. Do not create puddles that



                                                         85
           "Clean application equipment thoroughly          equipment, and from applying under various site
        after use by flushing with water in a safe          conditions. You can improve your pest-control
        place."                                             practices and your efficie ncy.

          "Do not contaminate water by cleaning of          Records can help you reduce pesticide mistakes or
        equipment."                                         misuse. If a pest is not controlled, if damage has
                                                            occurred in the target area, or if a pesticide has
           "Flush all application equipment with fuel       moved off the target area and caused problems, you
        oil, kerosene or a similar type of petroleum        may be able to determine what went wrong. Records
        solvent immediately after use. Fill pumps and       may help you to determine that a particular pesticide,
        meters with new motor oil or a 505 motor            a particular formulation, a type of application
        oil/fuel oil mixture before storing. Do not use     equipment, or some condition in the treatment area
        water. Dispose of rinsate by incorporation          caused the problem. Then you can take steps to avoid
        into area just treated or by other approved         such a situation in future pesticide applicatio ns.
        means."
                                                            Good records can help you better determine the exact
Personal Cleanup                                            amount of pesticide you'll need. Some pesticides do
                                                            not store well for long periods of time, and disposal
When you finish working with pesticides or                  of excess pesticide can be expensive.
pesticide-contaminated equipment, take time for
personal cleanup. Wash the outside of your gloves           Necessary information -- The more information you
first, before taking them off. Then carefully peel back     record, the more useful the records will be. Devise a
your personal protective equipment to avoid getting         standard form to be sure you write down all the
pesticides on your skin. Remove any other clothing          necessary facts each time. Keep the forms handy so
that has pesticide on it.                                   you will fill them out promptly.

If you cannot take a shower right away, use a mild          Record:
liquid detergent and warm water to wash your face,
hands, forearms, and any other area that may have                       names of any handlers involved in the
pesticides on it. As soon as you can -- no later than                 activity;
the end of the work day -- wash your whole body and
hair thoroughly with a mild liquid detergent and                        time of day and date of application;
plenty of warm water.
                                                                        location and description of treated area,
When you remove your personal protective                              including climatic conditions at the site;
equipment and work clothing, put it in a plastic box
or bag until it can be laundered. Do not allow                           treated surface (plant, animal, soil, water,
children or pets to play with these items. Do not wash                structure, or other surface at which the
work clothing and personal protective equipment in                    pesticide was directed);
the same wash water with the family laundry.
                                                                        target pest;
Recordkeeping
                                                                        equipment used;
Keeping records of pesticide use and application is a
good idea. Records can establish proof of proper use.                   pesticide used -- brand name, common
If an error has been made, records are helpful in                     name, formulation type, percentage of active
finding the cause. They also can provide you with                     ingredient, and EPA registration number;
information to use in response to claims of excess
residues or damages.                                                    amount of formulation used (and amount
                                                                      of diluent or other adjuvants added, if any);
Good records can save you money. They allow you
to compare the results obtained from using different
pesticides, different formulations, and different


                                                       86
           total amount of pesticide applied and the          Typical statements on the labeling of such products
        rate of application (pounds per acre, ounces          include:
        per 100 square feet, etc.), if applicable; and
                                                                        "Must be transferred and mixed using
          size of treated area (total square feet, acres,             closed-system equipment. Do not use open
        or linear feet; room or structure size; number                mixing vats or tanks, or open pouring."
        of animals, etc.).
                                                                         "Must be transferred into the spray tank
Additional information -- Every record form should                    through the use of a mechanical transferring
have a space for additional comments. Use this space                  device."
to jot down information for your own personal use or
to record anything that was unique about the                  Some states may require use of closed mixing and
treatment. Record information about scouting or               loading systems for pesticides with high acute
monitoring that may have been done. Write down                toxicity. Closed systems have both advantages and
what other pest management methods are being used             disadvantages.
and how successful the overall pest management
strategy is. You can use this information to improve          Advantages:
your pest management operations, either through
better customer or worker relations or by saving                        Increased handler safety
money.
                                                                        Less need for personal protective
Required records -- Many states, tribes, and local                    equipment
authorities require you to keep records of pesticide
applications. Be sure you know what records you
                                                                        Reduction of spills
must keep and how long you must keep them. Many
enforcement inspections look closely at
recordkeeping because records indicate how an                           More accurate measurement, which
operation is being managed. Keep your records in a                    reduces overdosing and underdosing and may
safe place where you can find them when you need                      save you money
them.
                                                              Disadvantages:
Safety Systems
                                                                        Some systems are expensive or scarce
Closed mixing and loading systems, enclosed
application systems, and pesticide containment                          Some systems are cumbersome
systems are excellent investments for pesticide
handlers who handle large quantities of pesticides or                  Some systems are not appropriate for
who handle pesticides that are very hazardous to                      many pesticides and many handling activities
humans or to the environment. In some cases these
systems may be required for handling certain                  There are two primary types of closed mixing and
pesticides or when pesticides are used in or near             loading systems. One type uses mechanical devices
sensitive areas.                                              to deliver the pesticide from the container to the
                                                              equipment; the other type uses soluble packaging.
Closed Mixing and Loading Systems
                                                              Mechanical systems -- Mechanical systems are often
A closed mixing and loading system is a system                a series of interconnected equipment that allows you
designed to prevent pesticide from coming in contact          to remove a pesticide from its original container,
with handlers or other persons during mixing and              rinse the empty container, and transfer the pesticide
loading. The labeling of some pesticides requires you         and rinse solution to the application equipment
to use a closed mixing and loading system when                without being exposed to the pesticide. The most
handling the product. This requirement usually                common mechanical closed systems are used only
appears on products that have a high risk of causing          with liquid formulations.
acute effects or that may cause delayed effects.


                                                         87
Closed mixing and loading systems are often custom-          container dissolves in the solvent (usually water) in
made, using components from several commercial               the tank.
sources. Because pesticide container openings,
shapes, and sizes vary, no single closed system can          Disadvantages of soluble packaging include the risk
be used with all containers. The mechanical systems          of accidentally releasing the concentrate if the
now available remove the pesticide concentrate from          packaging is exposed to water or other solvents
the original container by gravity or by suction.             during shipping or storage, and the high risk of
                                                             splashing as containers are added to the tank.
Gravity systems are sometimes called "punch and
drain" systems. The unopened pesticide container is          Personal protective equipment requirements --
inserted into a chamber, which is then sealed. A             The personal protective equipment requirements for
punch cuts a large opening in the container, allowing        many pesticides may be reduced if you use a closed
all the material to drain into the mixing tank. A water      system.
nozzle attached to the punch sprays the inside of the
container to rinse it thoroughly. The rinse water also                  You may be allowed to substitute a long-
drains into the mixing tank. The rinsed container is                 sleeved shirt, long-legged pants, shoes, and
then removed for disposal.                                           socks for the personal protective equipment
                                                                     listed on the pesticide labeling.
A limitation of this system is that only full container
quantities can be used. It is not possible to use part of              If the closed system is for the mixing or
the pesticide in a container and store the rest.                     loading of concentrated pesticides, you may
                                                                     be required to wear a chemical-resistant
Gravity systems are available for use with both liquid               apron and chemical-resistant gloves.
and dry concentrates.
                                                                      If the system operates under pressure, you
Suction systems use a pump to remove the pesticide                   may be required to wear protective eyewear.
through a probe inserted into the container. Some
containers are equipped with built-in probes. The            Even if you wear less personal protective equipment
pesticide is transferred to the mixing tank by hose          while using a closed system, you should keep a set of
and pipe. When the container is empty, it and the            the personal protective equipment required by the
transfer system are rinsed with water. The rinse water       labeling at the mixing and loading sites. Then you
is added to the mixing tank.                                 will be prepared in case the closed system equipment
                                                             breaks down or there is an accidental spill.
To allow the use of only part of the pesticide in the
container, the system must have a way to measure the         Enclosed Application Systems
amount of pesticide suctioned into the mixing tank
and must allow the probe to remain in the container
                                                             You can reduce your potential pesticide exposure by
until all the pesticide is used and the container and
                                                             using enclosed systems for some applications. An
probe can be rinsed. Some probes have a breakaway
                                                             enclosed application system is an enclosure, such as a
head that allows the head to stay and the probe to be
                                                             cab or cockpit, that surrounds the occupants and
withdrawn and reused.
                                                             prevents them from contacting with pesticides
                                                             outside of the enclosure.
Some suction systems do not permit the resealing of
partially emptied containers. Another disadvantage of
                                                             Enclosed application systems include:
suction systems is that highly viscous pesticides
(those that pour like molasses) are difficult to move
by suction.                                                            enclosed cab -- provides skin and eye
                                                                     protection,
Soluble packaging -- Soluble bags or containers are
a much less complex type of closed-system mixing                       enclosed cab with an air-filtering
and loading. The pesticide package is designed to be                 ventilation system -- protects against
placed, unopened, into the mixing tank. The                          inhalation of dusts and mists, and protects
                                                                     skin and eyes,



                                                        88
          enclosed cab with a vapor-removing                 place outdoors or in a large, open space in a building
        ventilation system -- provides inhalation            such as a warehouse or barn.
        protection plus skin and eye protection,
                                                             The collection pad should be made of a waterproof
          enclosed cockpit -- provides skin, eye, and        material, such as sealed, smooth concrete; glazed
        inhalation protection.                               ceramic tile; or no-wax sheet flooring. Porous
                                                             surfaces, such as wood, asphalt, soil, or carpeting, are
When you will be working in an enclosed application          not acceptable. The pad must be concave or must
system, pesticide labeling directions and current            have curbs or walls high enough to hold the largest
pesticide regulations may allow you to wear less             amount of spill, leak, or equipment wash water likely
personal protective equipment than is required for           to be created at the site. It also must be equipped with
ordinary application. However, you must keep the             a system for removing and recovering spilled, leaked,
required personal protective equipment inside the cab        or released material -- either an automatic sump
and wear it any time you get out of the cab in the           system or a manually operated pump.
treated area. Remove it before you get back into the
cab. Either store the contaminated personal protective       Locate the collection pad where rainwater, irrigation
equipment outside the cab or place it in a chemical-         water, and flood water cannot flow over it. Wash the
resistant container, such as a plastic canister or trash     pad at the end of each day's use to prevent possible
bag, that can be closed tightly and taken inside the         harm to the environment and to animals and
cab.                                                         unprotected people.

Pesticide Containment Systems

If you often mix and load pesticides in one place, or        Test Your Knowledge
if you often clean equipment at one location, you
may find a pesticide collection pad or tray a good           Q-1. What two precautions should you take to
investment. These pads and trays are designed to             avoid getting pesticides into your water source at
catch spills, leaks, overflows, and wash water and           a mix-load site?
allow them to be recovered for reuse or disposal.
Larger pads may be permanently installed, but
smaller pads and trays can be portable.                      • A. 1. Keep the water pipe or hose well above
                                                             the level of the pesticide mixture, and use a
These systems can save you time and money. They              device to prevent back-siphoning, if necessary.
make spill cleanup easier, and they reduce pesticide
waste by allowing you to reuse the rinse water and           2. Avoid mixing or loading pesticides in areas where
spill cleanup water. They also help prevent the harm         a spill, leak, or overflow could allow pesticides to get
that spills and runoff can cause to the environment or       into water systems.
to people.
                                                             Q-2. What four types of personal protection,
Collection trays -- A collection tray can be used at         beyond what you need during application, should
mixing, loading, and equipment cleaning sites where          you consider wearing while mixing or loading
only small amounts of pesticide are handled at a time        pesticides?
and portable equipment is used. Such tasks often
occur on a counter or bench. The tray can be made of         • A. Front protection, face protection, protection
sturdy chemical-resistant rubber or plastic, such as a       from dusts, and protection from vapors.
boot or shoe mat. The tray must have a rim around it
to collect spills and leaks and should have a spout          Q-3. What should you do with an empty pesticide
where the contents can be poured off.                        container?

Collection pads -- A collection pad is suitable for
                                                             • A. 1. If containers are rinsable, rinse them as
mixing, loading, and equipment cleaning sites where
                                                             soon as they are empty.
large quantities of pesticides are handled and large
equipment is cleaned. Such operations often take


                                                        89
2. Return all empty pesticide containers to the              4. Using high-exposure application methods where
pesticide storage area or the container holding area         the pesticide may engulf you.
when you finish your task.
                                                             5. Applying pesticides in enclosed spaces.
3. Crush, break, or puncture empty containers that
cannot be refilled, reconditioned, recycled, or              6. Adjusting pesticide application equipment.
returned to the manufacturer.
                                                             7. Immersing hands and forearms in pesticides.
4. Dispose of containers in accordance with labeling
directions and with any laws or regulations that             8. Applying into or across air currents.
apply.
                                                             9. Applying concentrated pesticides.
Q-4. What types of empty pesticide containers can
be rinsed?                                                   Q-8. What safety procedures should you follow
                                                             each time you apply a pesticide?
• A. 1. Glass, metal, and plastic containers
                                                             • A. 1. Deliver the pesticide to the target site.
2. Plastic -lined paper or cardboard containers
                                                             2. Check the delivery rate.
3. Unlined paper or cardboard containers that can
withstand the rinsing process.                               3. Check for appearance.

Q-5. What two methods of rinsing can you use?                4. Avoid nontarget organisms.

• A. Triple rinsing and pressure rinsing.                    5. Avoid nontarget surfaces.

Q-6. What are three ways to help you decide                  6. Operate equipment safely.
whether you can safely mix two pesticides together
for application?                                             Q-9. When you are finished with a mixing,
                                                             loading, or application task, what should you do
• A. 1. Check the pesticide labeling. It may list            right away?
the pesticides (and other chemicals) known to be
compatible with the formulation.                             • A. 1. Wash your pesticide equipment and then
                                                             wash yourself.
2. Get a compatibility chart, which is available from
several sources.                                             2. Return equipment to its designated place.

3. Test a small amount of the mixture before mixing          3. Safely store or dispose of all pesticide materials
large quantities of the pesticides together.                 and other chemicals that you have used.

Q-7. Name four types of pesticide application that           4. Be sure that your work site presents no hazards to
might require more personal protective                       people or to the environment.
equipment than that specified on the pesticide
labeling.                                                    5. Record what you have applied and the conditions
                                                             at the application site.
• A. 1. Hand-carrying application equipment.
                                                             Q-10. What should you do with rinsate that you
2. Entering the path of the released pesticide.              create when you clean your pesticide equipment?

3. Walking into a just-treated area.                         • A. Collect the rinsate. Reuse it, if possible, or
                                                             dispose of it as excess pesticide.


                                                        90
Q-11. When you are finished with pesticide                  Q-14. What are enclosed application syste ms?
handling tasks, what steps should you take for
personal cleanup?                                           • A. An enclosure, such as a cab or cockpit, that
                                                            surrounds the occupants and prevents them from
• A. Wash the outside of your gloves before                 contacting pesticides outside of the enclosure.
taking them off. Then carefully peel back your
personal protective equipment to avoid getting              Q-15. When should you consider installing a
pesticides on your skin. Remove any other                   pesticide containment systems?
clothing that has pesticide on it. If you cannot
take a shower right away, use a mild liquid                 • A. If you often mix and load pesticides in one
detergent and warm water to wash your face,                 place, or if you often clean equipment at one
hands, forearms, and any other area that may                location.
have pesticides on it. As soon as you can -- no
later than the end of the work day -- wash your             Q-16. What are the advantages of pesticide
whole body and hair thoroughly with a mild                  containment systems?
liquid detergent and plenty of warm water.
                                                            • A. They can save time and money. They make
Q-12. Why should you keep records of pesticide              spill cleanup easier, and they reduce pesticide
applications?                                               waste by allowing reuse of rinse water and spill
                                                            cleanup water. They also help prevent the harm
• A. 1. Records can establish proof of proper               that spills and runoff can cause to the
use.                                                        environment or to people.

2. Good records can save you money by improving             To triple rinse a container:
your pest-control practices and your efficiency.
                                                            1. Empty the container into the tank. Let it drain an
3. Records can help you reduce pesticide mistakes or        extra 30 seconds.
misuse.
                                                            2. Fill the empty container 10-20 percent full of
4. Good records can help you reduce carryover by            water.
showing exactly how much was needed last time.
                                                            3. Replace the closure and rotate the container for
Q-13. What are closed mixing and loading                    about 30 seconds. Invert the container so the rinse
systems?                                                    reaches all the inside surfaces.

• A. Systems designed to prevent pesticide from             4. Drain the rinse water from the container into the
contacting handlers or other persons during                 tank. Let the container drain for 30 seconds.
mixing and loading.
                                                            5. Repeat steps 2 through 4 two more times for a total
                                                            of three rinses.




                                                       91
Unit 10 - Applying the Correct Amount                         For each pesticide application, take the time to
                                                              determine how much you need to apply. Then be
                                                              sure that you apply the correct amount.

                                                              Underdosing is expensive. If you apply too little
Learning Objectives                                           pesticide, you may not fully control the pest.
                                                              Sometimes you can repeat the entire application, but
After studying this unit, you should be able to:              that can be very costly in both time and money. In
                                                              other cases, a repeat application may not be possible
          Explain why it is important to apply the            because it would result in an overdose.
        correct amount of pesticide.
                                                              Overdosing is expensive because of the high cost of
          Describe how to determine how much                  pesticides. Do not use any more than the amounts
        pesticide to apply.                                   listed in the Directions for Use section of the
                                                              pesticide labeling. Using more product than the
          Identify how the application rate is                labeling recommends will not do a better job of
        expressed.                                            controlling pests, and it is illegal. Overdosing may
                                                              cause damage or injuries, leave illegal residues, and
          Explain why it is important to calibrate            cause you to be fined or to be liable for damages.
        some equipment.
                                                              Deciding How Much To Apply
          Describe how to figure application rate.
                                                              Study the Directions for Use section of the pesticide
          Explain the importance of checking                  labeling to find out how much pesticide you should
        calibration often.                                    apply. If the labeling lists a range of possible
                                                              amounts, use the least amount that will achieve good
           Explain which types of pesticides must be          control. Sometimes consultants, industry
        diluted before application.                           organizations, pest or pesticide specialists,
                                                              Cooperative Extension agents, university specialists,
          Explain what information you must find in           or pesticide dealers will recommend appropriate
        the pesticide labeling or in other                    amounts.
        recommendations before you can dilute the
        pesticide correctly.                                  The amount of pesticide to use is expressed in
                                                              various ways. Application rates may be expressed in
          Explain what information you must know              terms of how much pesticide formulation should be
        about your own situation before you can               applied. The instructions may tell you how much
        calculate how much of the dilute pesticide            pesticide formulation should be applied to each unit
        mixture to prepare.                                   of area or volume in the target site -- 5 gallons of
                                                              formulation per acre, or 1 pound of formulation per
                                                              100 cubic feet of space, for example. Application
                                                              rates also may be expressed in terms of how much
                                                              pesticide formulation should be used per volume of
Applying the Correct Amount                                   mixture. Labeling might call for 3 tablespoons of
                                                              product per 5 gallons of water or 1 pint of product per
One of the most important tasks for a pesticide               100 gallons of water.
applicator is making sure that the correct amount of
pesticide is being applied to the target site. Studies        Sometimes pesticide labeling and other sources
indicate that only one out of four pesticide                  express application rates in terms of how much
applications is applied within an acceptable range of         active ingredient should be applied per unit of area
the intended rate. Applying either too little or too          or per volume of mixture -- 1 pint active ingredient
much pesticide can cause problems.                            per 1,000 square feet, or 1/2 pound active ingredient
                                                              per 500 gallons of water, for example. When the
                                                              application rate is expressed in this way, you can


                                                         92
select different formulations and be able to figure           Some pesticide formulations are sold at application
how much to dilute each one. However, figuring the            strength and are already in the equipment needed for
correct dilution for active ingredient                        application. These include aerosol cans; squeeze-
recommendations is more complicated.                          trigger sprayers; delayed-trigger foggers; baits;
                                                              shaker-can dusters; impregnated collars, bars, strips,
Occasionally the application rate is expressed in             and rollers; and wiper bags. The pesticide may be
terms of a percentage of the final dilution -- 1/2            applied to the point of runoff, directed at a specific
percent by volume or 1 percent by weight, for                 target, placed so the target contacts it, or released to
example. Products that are adjuvants often express            fill an enclosed space. Most of these pesticides are
the application rate in this way. Expressing                  available for use in only a few specialized pest
application rate as a percentage allows the user to           control situations.
calculate the dilution correctly for whatever dilution
method is being used for the formulation.                     Loading Needed, No Mixing or Calibration

Mixi ng, Loading, and Calibration                             Some ready-to-use pesticides are not sold in the
Alternatives                                                  pesticide application equipment. The user must load
                                                              them into the equipment. If the application equipment
Knowing what amount of the pesticide you must                 to be used is a squeeze-trigger sprayer, shaker-can
apply is only the first step. Next, you must determine        duster, a vat for dipping animals or plants, a spray-
how you will deliver the correct amount to the target         dip vat, a wiper applicator, or some fumigant
site. Depending on the type of formulation you                applicators, no calibration is necessary.
choose and the type of application equipment you
will use, you may have to do some combination of              Calibration and Loading Needed, No Mixing
three basic tasks -- mixing the pesticide, loading it
into your equipment, and calibrating the equipment            Ready-to-use formulations sometimes must be loaded
so you will know exactly how much pesticide it is             into equipment that does require calibration. These
delivering.                                                   include most granular and dust formulations, some
                                                              liquid formulations (especially solutions), and some
           Mixing -- Unless the pesticide is a ready-         fumigant formulations. The pesticide is loaded
        to-use formulation or is designed to be               directly into application equipment without any
        applied full strength, you must carefully             further dilution. The equipment must be calibrated so
        combine the right amounts of concentrated             that the correct amount of pesticide will be released
        pesticide formulation and diluent to make the         per unit area.
        needed application-strength pesticide
        mixture.                                              Mixing and Loading Needed, No Calibration

          Loading -- You may need to transfer the             Some concentrated pesticides are diluted and then
        pesticide into the equipment before it can be         loaded into equipment that does not require
        applied.                                              calibration. Many plant and animal dips or spray-
                                                              dips, tree-canopy sprays, and crack and crevice
          Calibrating -- For many kinds of                    treatments are applied by equipment that does not
        applications, you must measure and adjust             need calibration. The applicator is instructed to
        the amount of pesticide your equipment will           "cover the plant, animal, or surface thoroughly" or
        apply to the target site.                             "apply to the point of runoff."

Each different combination of formulation and                 Calibration, Mixing, and Loading Needed
equipment type requires you to do a different
combination of these tasks to prepare for applying a          Many concentrated pesticides are applied with
measured amount of pesticide.                                 equipment that must be calibrated. For many certified
                                                              applicators, this is the option most commonly
No Calibration, Mixing, or Loading Needed                     encountered. The concentrate must be diluted
                                                              correctly and the equipment must be calibrated
                                                              correctly. Both steps are crucial to applying the


                                                         93
correct amount of pesticide to a target site. If there is        often contain suggestions on such things as the
an error either in dilution or in calibration, the wrong         appropriate rate of travel, the range of most efficient
amount of pesticide will be applied.                             pump pressures, approximate settings for achieving
                                                                 various delivery rates, and types of nozzles that can
Calibrating Your Equipment                                       be used.

Most pesticide applications involve equipment that               Speed
must be measured and adjusted to release the correct
amount of pesticide to the target site. Proper                   For some application equipment, the speed at which
calibration is an essential but often neglected task. To         the equipment moves (or is carried) through the
be sure your equipment is releasing the right amount             target site is one of the main factors determining
of pesticide, take time to calibrate it carefully and            application rate. For other equipment, speed is not a
correctly. Recheck it regularly to detect changes                factor.
caused by wear, corrosion, and aging.
                                                                 Equipment with gravity-flow dispersal. If the
Calibration often requires some simple arithmetic.               equipment you have chosen uses gravity to maintain
Usually the equipment manufacturer, the pesticide                the flow of pesticide, calibration may be fairly
dealer, your industry organization, or the Cooperative           simple. Some equipment, such as some granule
Extension Service will provide some standard                     spreaders, needs to be calibrated only to adjust the
formulas to help you. The easiest and most accurate              rate of flow or delivery. This equipment releases
way to do the calculations is with a calculator.                 pesticide only when the wheels are in motion. If the
                                                                 equipment speed is kept at an even, moderate pace,
Choose equipment that you know how to use and that               the amount of pesticide being released per unit area
is:                                                              will be uniform.

          designed for the type of chemical being                Equipment with powered dispersal. If your
        applied, and                                             equipment has a pump or other mechanism to
                                                                 disperse the pesticide, you will need to determine the
          appropriate for the size and type of                   rate of speed best suited for the type of equipment
        application job.                                         and for the particular requirements of your
                                                                 application job. Such equipment may be either hand-
Equipment will not deliver the right amount of                   carried or mounted on a vehicle. In either case, the
pesticide to the target site if it is not working                speed at which the equipment moves through the
                                                                 target site determines the amount of pesticide applied
correctly. Before you begin to calibrate the
                                                                 in a given area. Keep the speed as constant as
equipment, check it carefully to be sure that all
                                                                 possible during the calibration process and during the
components are clean and in good working order. Pay
                                                                 actual application. For the most accurate calibration,
particular attention to the parts that regulate the
                                                                 operate the equipment at the target site or on ground
amount of pesticide being released, such as nozzles
and hopper openings. If they become clogged, not                 (or other surface) similar to that at the target site.
enough pesticide will be released. If they become                Whether the equipment is hand-carried or mounted
worn, too much pesticide will be released.                       on a vehicle, the condition of the ground (surface)
                                                                 that must be crossed is important. A rough and
                                                                 uneven surface will cause the equipment to be
Equipment that must be calibrated includes                       operated at a slower speed.
mechanical dusters; granule spreaders; hand,
backpack, boom, hand-gun, high-pressure, airblast,
and most other sprayers; and fumigant applicators.               The equipment manufacturer's directions may offer a
The many types of application equipment differ in                range of appropriate speeds. Your knowledge of
                                                                 conditions in the target site (including the drift
the details of their operation, but if you understand
                                                                 hazard), plus your experience with the equipment,
the basic principles of calibration, you can apply
                                                                 will help you determine an appropriate speed.
them in any situation.

Study the manufacturer's instructions carefully -- they          Uniform Release
explain exactly how to adjust the equipment. They


                                                            94
If your application equipment has more than one                              accurately measuring the amount in the
nozzle (or more than one cluster of nozzles) or                           tank or hopper;
hopper, part of the calibration process is to measure
the output from each to be sure that they are releasing                      operating the equipment over the pre-
a uniform amount of pesticide. First, check for                           measured distance while maintaining your
clogging or obstructions, leaks, or worn nozzles.                         chosen speed (if speed affects the delivery
Then, measure the pesticide output for each nozzle                        rate of the equipment you are using); and
(or cluster of nozzles) or hopper for a specific period
of time. The output must be within 10 percent of the                         accurately measuring the amount needed to
average of the nozzles (or cluster of nozzles) or                         fill the tank or hopper back up to the pre-
hoppers. Finally, replace worn or damaged nozzles or                      application level.
hoppers if the output is beyond 10 percent of the
average.                                                          If multiple nozzles or hoppers are used, add the
                                                                  output of all the collection jars.
You can check for uniform output in two ways.
Either method requires that you attach containers to
                                                                  Figure the Application Rate
collect the output from each nozzle, nozzle cluster, or
hopper. The first method is to operate the equipment
                                                                  The amount of pesticide dispersed, divided by the
for a set period of time and compare the amount of
output in each container to the amount desired. The               distance covered, is the application rate. Sometimes
second option is to operate the equipment over a                  no calculations are needed. If, for example, the label
measured area while calibrating the equipment and,                lists the application rate as "per acre" or "per 1,000
at the end of the calibration run, compare the amount             linear feet" and you measure the output for exactly 1
of output in each container to the amount desired. If             acre or exactly 1,000 linear feet, no calculations are
all the nozzles or hoppers are intended to release an             necessary because the amount of output you
                                                                  measured is the amount required.
equal amount of pesticide, just check to see whether
all the containers contain the same amount.
                                                                  However, you may not have time to test your
                                                                  equipment over such a large site. Or, if you are using
Calibration Methods                                               the actual pesticide in the test, you may not want to
                                                                  risk applying it over a large site without knowing the
No matter what calibration method you use, you will               application rate. Under these conditions, test smaller
be measuring how much pesticide is being applied in               sites and then calculate the application rate.
a specific area. Calibration usually requires you to
operate the equipment over a pre-measured distance.               Small equipment, small target sites. If your
                                                                  application equipment carries a relatively small load
The rate of application depends partly on the particle            (up to a few gallons of liquid or
or droplet size, texture, and other properties of the
pesticide being applied, so you will need to decide               a few pounds of dry pesticide) or if the target site is
what material to use in the test. If the pesticide is a           relatively small (less than an acre or 1,000 linear
liquid with water as the major diluent, use water                 feet), you can choose a small test site.
alone in the test. If the pesticide is a dust, granule, or
fumigant, or a liquid diluted with a liquid other than
                                                                  If the use directions are for 100 linear feet, choose a
water, you must use the actual pesticide in the test.
                                                                  test site of 25 linear feet. If the directions are for
                                                                  1,000 square feet or for an acre, you might choose a
The rate of application sometimes depends also on                 test site of 250 square feet (a 10- by 25-foot
the pressure and on the nozzle size or hopper                     rectangle). Measure the amount applied in this
opening. The equipment manufacturer's directions are              smaller site and then multiply to find the rate:
the best guide to these selections.
                                                                            The amount applied to 25 linear feet,
Do a Test Application                                                     multiplied by 4, equals the rate per 100 linear
                                                                          feet.
Calibrate your application equipment by:



                                                             95
          The amount applied to 250 square feet,              left in the tank, or a tankload of the wrong strength of
        multiplied by 4, equals the rate per 1,000            pesticide mixture.
        square feet.
                                                              Use graduated utensils. If you are measuring a dry
         The amount applied to 250 square feet,               formulation, use a scale to weigh out the exact
        multiplied by 175, equals the rate per acre.          number of pounds or ounces you need. If you are
                                                              measuring a liquid formulation or diluent:
Larger equipment, larger target sites. If your
application equipment carries a larger load (more                        use measuring spoons or a "tip and pour"
than a few gallons of liquid or a few pounds of dry                   to measure teaspoons or tablespoons,
pesticide) or if the target site is relatively large
(greater than an acre or 1,000 linear feet), choose a                   use a graduated measuring cup or a "tip
larger test site. If the test site for these types of                 and pour" to measure from 1/4 cup to 1 pint,
equipment or sites is too small, measurements are
likely to be inaccurate. Operating a boom or other                       use a graduated jug or pail to measure
multi-nozzle or multi-hopper equipment over a site as                 from 1 pint to 5 gallons,
small as 10 feet by 25 feet, for example, would not
allow you to carry or drive the equipment far enough                    use a flow meter to measure more than 5
to gauge average speed accurately.                                    gallons at a time.

If label directions are for 1,000 square feet or for an       Carefully measure the amount of pesticide to add. Do
acre, use a test site of at least 1,000 square feet (a 20-    not guess how much you are adding and do not add a
by 50-foot rectangle). The output you measure during          little extra "just to be sure." Also measure the amount
the test will be the actual application rate for the          of diluent carefully. Adding the correct amount of
1,000 square feet. To find the rate per acre, multiply        concentrate to an approximated amount of diluent can
the test output by 43.56, which is the number of              result in a whole tankful of the wrong strength of
square feet in an acre (43,560) divided by 1,000.             pesticide mixture. Mix only the amount you have
                                                              calculated is needed for the application.
Check Calibration Often
                                                              Do not assume that the tank is exactly the size of its
Once you have calibrated your equipment, do not               claimed capacity. A "5 gallon" tank may hold more
assume that it will continue to deliver the same rate         or less than 5 gallons. A "100 gallon" tank often
during all future applications. Clogging, corrosion,          holds quite a bit more than 100 gallons when totally
and wear may change the delivery rate, or the settings        filled. Measure the tank yourself to be sure. Even the
may gradually get out of adjustment. Take time to             graduated marks on some tanks or hoppers that
check the calibration regularly.                              indicate levels of partial fill are often inaccurate.

Be alert for possible calibration problems each time          You can measure the capacity of your tank and check
you use application equipment. During the                     (or make) gauges indicating partial fill levels in two
application, notice whether you are treating the same         ways. You can fill the tank by hand using a container
amount of area per load that you figured. If you find         of known capacity, such as a measuring cup for small
that you are covering more or less area, stop the             tanks and a 5-gallon pail for larger tanks. Or you can
application and check your figures and your                   attach a flow meter to a hose and measure the
equipment. If you have figured wrong or if your               quantity of water as it flows into the tank. For either
application equipment changes its delivery rate, you          method, as you fill the tank, you should check or
will be able to catch the mistake before you have a           mark measured volumes on a dip stick or sight gauge.
major problem.
                                                              If water or another liquid is being used to dilute the
Measure Accurately                                            concentrate, rinse the measuring utensils with the
                                                              diluent and put the rinsate into the mix tank. Repeat
When you measure pesticides or diluents, measure              this three times to be sure all of the pesticide is
accurately. Inaccurate measurements can lead to               removed from the measuring utensil. Measure the
underdosing, overdosing, too much pesticide mixture           amount of a ready-to-use formulation carefully, too.


                                                         96
Trying to put pesticide back into the container when         of dilute pesticide mixture in your application
you have too much left over after the application is         equipment. Depending on the situation, you may
often difficult. Add only the amount you have                need to know:
calculated is needed to complete the application job.
                                                                        how much your equipment holds when full
Measuring utensils, such as spoons, cups, jugs, pails                 or how much mixture you will need to
and scales, that you use with pesticides should never                 complete the job,
be used for other purposes. Clean them thoroughly
after each use and store them with other pesticide                      how much mixture your equipment applies
equipment.                                                            per unit of area,

Diluting Pesticides Correctly                                           the size of the site you need to treat.

Some pesticides are dilute formulations sold at              Guides from many sources contain formulas and
application strength. These often are labeled "Ready-        examples to help you make necessary calculations.
To-Use" or "RTU." Many of the pesticide
formulations are concentrates sold at strengths many         Pesticide labels express the desired dilution for the
times those needed for application. These                    pesticide mixture in a variety of ways, depending on
formulations, which are usually powders or liquids           the type of product and the primary intended uses. If
must be diluted before use. Granules and dusts are           your application situation is not the same as those on
rarely sold as concentrates; fumigants and ultra-low-        which the labeling directions were based, you may
volume formulations are concentrates that are applied        have to use some simple arithmetic to convert the
full strength.                                               quantities to different units of measure.

The person who prepares the pesticide mixture for            Determining Size of Target Site
application must figure carefully how much
concentrated pesticide to use and how much diluent           If the target site is a rectangle, circle, or triangle, you
to add to the concentrate. Unless the pesticide is           can use simple measurements and formulas to
diluted correctly, the wrong amount of pesticide may         determine its size. Irregularly shaped sites often can
be applied.                                                  be reduced to a combination of rectangles, circles,
                                                             and triangles. Calculate the area of each and add
Water is the most common diluent in pesticide                them together to obtain the total area.
mixtures. Others include other liquids, such as
kerosene and oil, and dry ingredients, such as corn          To apply fumigants and a few other pesticides to fill
husks and powders. Concentrated pesticides are               the entire inside of a structure or other enclosed
either diluted in a "mix tank" and then loaded into the      space, you must calculate the volume (cubic feet) of
application equipment or loaded directly into the            the building, greenhouse, truck, railroad car, or ship
application equipment and diluted there.                     hold. To apply pesticides to bodies of water (not just
                                                             the surface), you must calculate the volume of the
The pesticide labeling or other recommendations will         water in the pond or lake. Sometimes the structures
tell you:                                                    or bodies of water are regular in shape. The
                                                             calculations for these are fairly simple. If the
          what to use to dilute the formulation,             structure or body of water is irregular, you must
                                                             calculate parts of the structure separately and add
          how much to use to dilute the formulation,         them together to find the total volume.
        and

          how much of the dilute pesticide to apply
        per unit of area.                                    Test Your Knowledge
After determining how much you need to dilute the
pesticide concentrate, calculate how much pesticide          Q-1. Why is it so important to apply the correct
                                                             amount of pesticide to the target site?
and diluent to combine to achieve the correct amount


                                                        97
• A. If you apply too little pesticide, you may               Q-5. How do you calculate the application rate?
not fully control the pest. Overdosing may cause
damage or injuries, leave illegal residues, and               • A. The amount of pesticide dispersed, divided
cause you to be fined or be liable for damages.               by the dis tance covered, is the application rate.

Q-2. Where can you find out how much pesticide                Q-6. Why should you recheck equipment
to apply?                                                     calibration frequently?

• A. From the Directions for Use section of the               • A. Clogging, corrosion, and wear may change
pesticide labeling, and from other sources, such              the delivery rate, or the settings may gradually
as consultants, industry organizations, pest or               get out of adjustment.
pesticide specialists, Cooperative Extension
educators, university specialists, or pesticide               Q-7. What pesticide formulations must be diluted
dealers.                                                      before application?

Q-3. What are some ways that application rates                • A. You must dilute all formulations except
may be stated?                                                those that are sold as ready-to-use products or
                                                              those designed to be applied full strength.
• A. 1. Amount of formulation per unit of area
or per unit of volume, such as pounds or gallons              Q-8. What information do you need to get from
per acre, per square feet, or per cubic feet.                 the pesticide labeling or other sources before you
                                                              can dilute pesticides correctly?
2. Amount of formulation per volume of mixture,
such as 3 tablespoons of product per 5 gallons of             • A. Read the pesticide labeling or consult
kerosene or 1 pint of product per 100 gallons of              recommendations from other sources to find out
water.                                                        what to use to dilute the formulation; how much
                                                              to dilute the formulation; and how much of the
3. Amount of active ingredient per unit of area or per        dilute pesticide to apply per unit of area.
volume of mixture, such as 1 pint active ingredient
per 1,000 square feet, or 1/2 pound active ingredient         Q-9. What information do you need to know about
per 500 gallons of water.                                     your own situation before you can calculate how
                                                              much pesticide and diluent to combine to achieve
4. Percentage of the final dilution, such as 1/2 percent      the correct amount of dilute pesticide mixture in
by volume or 1 percent by weight.                             your application equipment?

Q-4. Why is it important to calibrate some types              • A. You must know how much your equipment
of pesticide application equipment?                           holds when full or how much mixture you will
                                                              need to complete the job; how much mixture
• A. Many types of pesticide application                      your equipment applies per unit of area; and the
equipment must be calibrated so that the correct              size of the site you need to treat.
amount of pesticide will be released to the target
site.




                                                         98
                                                           Transportation of Pesticides
Unit 11 - Transportation, Storage,
Disposal, and Spill Cleanup                                You are responsible for the safe transport of
                                                           pesticides in your possession. Carelessness in
                                                           transporting pesticides can result in broken
                                                           containers, spills, environmental contamination, and
                                                           harm to yourself and others. Accidents can occur
Learning Objectives                                        even when transporting materials a short distance. Do
                                                           all you can to prevent a mishap, but be prepared in
After studying this unit, you should be able to:           case of emergency. Before transporting pesticides,
                                                           know what to do if a spill occurs. If any pesticide is
          List safety precautions for transporting         spilled in or from the vehicle, take action right away
        pesticides in a vehicle.                           to make sure the spill is cleaned up correctly.

          Describe how to protect pesticide                Vehicle Safety
        containers during transport.
                                                           The safest way to transport pesticides is in the back
         Name actions needed to establish and              of a truck. Flatbed trucks should have side and tail
        maintain a safe storage site.                      racks. Steel or plastic -lined beds are best because
                                                           they can be more easily cleaned if a spill occurs.
          Describe what to do when a pesticide
        container leaks.                                   Never carry pesticides in the passenger section of
                                                           your car, van, or truck. Hazardous vapors may be
          Explain what to do with excess pesticides        released and make the driver and other passengers ill.
        that are still usable.                             Pesticides may cause illness or in jury if they spill on
                                                           you or your passengers. It is nearly impossible to
          List acceptable ways to dispose of               completely remove spills from the fabric of seats and
        pesticide wastes.                                  floor mats. They can cause future contamination if
                                                           they are not cleaned up correctly. If you must
                                                           transport pesticides in the back of a station wagon,
          List ways to avoid the need to dispose of
                                                           open the side windows and do not allow anyone to
        pestic ide containers.
                                                           ride in the back.
         Explain the "three C's" of spill                  Never allow children, other passengers, and pets to
        management and steps to take in each.
                                                           be exposed to pesticides during transportation.
          List sources of assistance for managing a        Never transport pesticides with food, clothing, or
        spill.
                                                           other things meant to be eaten by or come into
                                                           contact with people or animals. The risk of
          Explain when a spill kit should be on hand.      contamination is too high. Even small amounts of
                                                           pesticide could contaminate these highly sensitive
                                                           items. A spill could cause major injury.

Transportation, Storage, Disposal, and                     Never leave your vehicle unattended when
Spill Cleanup                                              transporting pesticides in an unlocked trunk
                                                           compartment or open-bed truck. You are responsible
                                                           and liable if curious children or careless adults are
When you transport, store, or dispose of pesticides
                                                           accidentally poisoned by the pesticides. Whenever
and their containers, you must take safety
                                                           possible, transport pesticides in a locked
precautions. You can prevent many pesticide
                                                           compartment.
accidents and reduce the severity of others, if you are
well prepared. Before beginning any pesticide
handling task, know what do to in case of spills and       Consider transporting highly volatile pesticides in
have the proper cleanup equipment on hand.                 separate trips from other chemicals. Spills, or even


                                                      99
fumes from opened containers, can make the other             A correctly designed and maintained pesticide
chemicals worthless.                                         storage site is essential. A suitable storage site:

Transporting Pesticide Containers                                      protects people and animals from
                                                                     accidental exposure,
Transport pesticides only in containers with intact,
undamaged, and readable labels. Inspect containers                     protects the environment from accidental
before loading to be sure that all caps, plugs, and                  contamination,
other openings are tightly closed and that there are no
pesticides on the outside of the containers. Handle                    prevents damage to pesticides from
containers carefully to avoid rips or punctures.                     temperature extremes and excess moisture,

Anchor all containers securely to keep them from                       protects the pesticides from theft,
rolling or sliding. Packing or shipping containers                   vandalism, and unauthorized use, and
provide extra cushioning. Protect paper and
cardboard containers from moisture, because they                        reduces the likelihood of liability.
become soggy and split easily when wet.
                                                             Secure the site -- Keeping out unauthorized people is
Protect pesticides from extreme temperatures during          an important function of the storage site. Whether the
transport. Extremely hot or cold temperatures can            storage site is as small as a cabinet or closet or as
damage pesticide containers by causing them to melt          large as an entire room or building, keep it securely
or become brittle. Such temperatures also may reduce         locked. Post signs on doors and windows to alert
the usefulness of the pesticides.                            people that pesticides are stored there. Post "No
                                                             smoking" warnings.
Labeling Statements About Transportation
                                                             Prevent water damage -- Choose a storage site
Typical pesticide labeling instructions about                where water damage is unlikely to occur. Water from
transportation include:                                      burst pipes, spills, overflows, excess rain or
                                                             irrigation, or flooding streams can damage pesticide
          "Do not ship with food, feeds, drugs, or           containers and pesticides. Water or excess moisture
        clothing."                                           can cause:

          "Do not transport damaged or leaking                          metal containers to rust,
        containers."
                                                                       paper and cardboard containers to split or
           "In case of a transportation emergency                    crumble,
        involving a spill, fire, or exposure, call
        [telephone number] 24 hours a day."                            pesticide labeling to peel, smear, run, or
                                                                     otherwise become unreadable,
          "Do not transport in or on vehicles
        containing foodstuffs or feeds."                               dry pesticides to clump, degrade, or
                                                                     dissolve,
Pesticide Storage
                                                                       slow-release products to release their
Many pesticide handlers use existing buildings or                    pesticide, and
areas within existing buildings for pesticide storage.
However, if large amounts of pesticides will be                         pesticides to move from the storage site
stored, build a special storage building for pesticides.             into other areas.

Establish a Storage Site                                     If the storage site is not protected from the weather or
                                                             if it tends to be damp, consider placing metal,
                                                             cardboard, and paper containers in sturdy plastic bags



                                                       100
or cans for protection. Large metal containers, which         water at least weekly to ensure that it remains safe for
may rust when damp, often can be placed on pallets            use on skin and eyes. Keep an eyewash dispenser
within the storage site.                                      immediately available for emergencies.

Control the temperature -- The storage site should            Maintain the Storage Site
be indoors, whenever possible. Choose a cool, well-
ventilated room or building that is insulated or              Prevent contamination -- Store only pesticides,
temperature-controlled to prevent freezing or                 pesticide containers, pesticide equipment, and a spill
overheating. The pesticide labeling may tell you at           cleanup kit at the storage site. Do not keep food,
what temperature the product should be stored.                drinks, tobacco, feed, medical or veterinary supplies
Freezing temperatures can cause glass, metal, and             or medication, seeds, clothing, or personal protective
plastic containers to break. Excessive heat can cause         equipment (other than personal protective equipment
plastic containers to melt, some glass containers to          necessary for emergency response) at the site. These
explode, and some pesticides to volatilize and drift          could be contaminated by vapors, dusts, or spills and
away from the storage site. Temperature extremes              cause accidental exposure to people or animals.
can destroy the potency of some pesticides.
                                                              Keep labels legible -- Store pesticide containers with
Provide adequate lighting -- The storage site should          the label in plain sight. Costly errors can result if the
be well lighted. Pesticide handlers using the facility        wrong pesticide is chosen by mistake. Labels should
must be able to see well enough to:                           always be legible. They may be damaged or
                                                              destroyed by exposure to moisture, dripping
          read pesticide container labeling,                  pesticide, diluents, or dirt. You can use transparent
                                                              tape or a coating of lacquer or polyurethane to protect
          notice whether containers are leaking,              the label. If the label is destroyed or damaged,
        corroding, or otherwise disintegrating, and           request a replacement from the pesticide dealer or the
                                                              pesticide formulator immediately.
          clean up spills or leaks completely.
                                                              Keep containers closed -- Keep pesticide containers
Use nonporous materials -- The floor of the storage           securely closed whenever they are being stored.
site should be made of sealed cement, glazed ceramic          Tightly closed containers help protect against:
tile, no-wax sheet flooring, or another easily cleaned
material. Carpeting, wood, soil, and other absorbent                     a spill,
floors are difficult or impossible to decontaminate in
case of a leak or spill. For ease of cleanup, shelving                  cross-contamination with other stored
and pallets should be made of nonabsorbent materials                  products,
such as plastic or metal. If wood or fiberboard
materials are used, they should be coated or covered                    evaporation of liquid pesticides or the
with plastic, polyurethane or epoxy paint.                            solvent,

Prevent runoff -- Inspect the storage site to                           clumping or caking of dry pesticides in
determine the likely path of pesticides in case of                    humid conditions, and
spills, leaks, drainage of equipment wash water, and
heavy pesticide runoff from firefighting or floods.                      dust, dirt, and other contaminants getting
Pesticide movement away from the storage site could                   into the pesticide, causing it to be unusable.
contaminate sensitive areas, including surface water
or ground water. If your storage site contains large          Use original containers -- Store pesticides in their
amounts of pesticides, you may need to use a                  original containers. Never put pesticides in containers
collection pad11 to contain pesticide runoff.
                                                              that might cause children and other people to mistake
                                                              them for food or drink. You are legally responsible if
Provide clean water -- Each storage site must have            someone or something is injured by pesticides you
an immediate supply of clean water. Potable running           have placed in unlabeled or unsuitable containers.
water is ideal. If running water is not practical, use a
large, sealable container with clean water. Change the


                                                        101
Watch for damage -- Inspect containers regularly               because they are more easily disposed of than
for tears, splits, breaks, leaks, rust, or corrosion.          unrinsed containers.
When a container is damaged, put on appropriate
personal protective equipment and take immediate               Know your inventory -- Keep an up-to-date
action. If the damaged container is an aerosol can or          inventory of stored pesticides. Each time a pesticide
fumigant tank that contains pesticides under pressure,         is added to or removed from the storage site, update
use special care to avoid accidentally releasing the           the inventory. The list will help you track your stock
pesticide into the air. When a container is damaged:           and will be essential in a fire or flood emergency.
                                                               The inventory list also will aid in insurance
           Use the pesticide immediately at a site and         settlements and in estimating future pesticide needs.
        rate allowed by the label, or
                                                               Do not store unnecessarily large quantities of
           Transfer the pesticide into another                 pesticides for a long time. Buy only as much as you
        pesticide container that originally held the           will need for a year. Pests, pesticides, or pesticide
        same pesticide and has the same label still            registrations may change by the next year and make
        intact, or                                             the pesticides useless. Some pesticides have a
                                                               relatively short shelf life and cannot be carried over
           Transfer the contents to a sturdy container         from year to year.
        that can be tightly closed. If possible, remove
        the label from the damaged container and use           Consider shelf life -- Mark each pesticide container
        it on the new container. Otherwise,                    with the date of purchase before it is stored. Use
        temporarily mark the new container with the            older materials first. If the product has a shelf life
        name and EPA registration number of the                listed in the labeling, the purchase date will indicate
        pesticide, and get a copy of the label from the        whether it is still usable. Excessive clumping, poor
        pesticide dealer or formulator (whose                  suspension, layering, or abnormal coloration may
        telephone number is usually on the label) as           indicate that the pesticide has broken down.
        soon as possible, or                                   However, sometimes pesticide deterioration from age
                                                               or poor storage conditions becomes obvious only
          Place the entire damaged container and its           after application. Poor pest control or damage to the
        contents into a suitable larger container.             treated surface can occur. If you have doubts about
        Consider this option carefully, however.               the shelf life of a pesticide, call the dealer or
        Many times the label on the leaking container          manufacturer for advice.
        becomes illegible. The pesticide is useless
        and becomes a disposal problem unless you              Prevent Pesticide Fires
        know the name and registration number and
        can get a copy of the label.                           Some pesticides are highly flammable; others do not
                                                               catch fire easily. The labeling of pesticides that
Store volatile products separately -- Volatile                 require extra precautions often will contain a warning
pesticides, such as some types of 2,4-D, should be             statement in either the Physical/Chemical Hazards
stored apart from other types of pesticides and other          section or the Storage and Disposal section.
chemicals. A separate room is ideal. Vapors from               Pesticides that contain oils or petroleum-based
opened containers of these pesticides can move into            solvents are most likely to contain these warning
other nearby pesticides and chemicals and make them            statements. Some dry products also present fire and
useless. The labeling of volatile herbicides usually           explosion hazards.
will direct you to store them separately from seeds,
fertilizers, and other types of pesticides.                    Store combustible pesticides away from open flames
                                                               and other heat sources, such as steam lines, heating
Isolate waste products -- If you have pesticides and           systems, kerosene heaters or other space heaters, gas-
pesticide containers that are being held for disposal,         powered equipment, or incinerators. Do not store
store them in a special section of the storage site.           glass containers in sunlight where they can focus the
Accidental use of pesticides meant for disposal can            heat rays and possibly explode or ignite. Install fire
be costly. Clearly mark containers that have been              detection systems in large storage sites, and equip
triple rinsed or cleaned by an equivalent method               each storage site with a working fire extinguisher



                                                         102
approved for all types of fires, including chemical                     Buy only the amount needed for a year or a
fires.                                                                season.

If you store highly toxic pesticides or large amounts                   Calculate carefully how much diluted
of any pesticide, inform your local fire department,                  pesticide is needed for a job and mix only
hospital, public health officials, and police of the                  that amount.
location of your pesticide storage building before a
fire emergency occurs. Tell fire department officials                   Use all the mixed pesticide in accordance
what types of pesticides are regularly stored at the                  with labeling instructions.
site, give them a floor plan, and work with them to
develop an emergency response plan.                           If you have excess usable pesticides, try to find a way
                                                              to use them as directed on the label. The best option
Labeling Statements About Storage                             is to apply the pesticide on a site listed in the use
                                                              directions on the pesticide labeling, under the
Typical pesticide labeling instructions about storage         following conditions:
include:
                                                                         The total amount of pesticide active
           "Store at temperatures above 32oF."                        ingredient applied to the site, including all
                                                                      previous applications, must not exceed the
          "Do not contaminate feed, foodstuffs, or                    rate and frequency allowed on the labeling.
        drinking water during storage."
                                                                        You must comply with other application
           "Store in original container only."                        instructions specified on the labeling.

           "In outside storage areas, store drums on          If you have pesticide products in their original
        sides to avoid accumulation of rain water in          containers that you cannot use, you may be able to
        top or bottom of recessed areas."                     find another pesticide handler who can. Or you may
                                                              be able to return them to a dealer, formulator, or
           "Do not store near ignition sources such as        manufacturer.
        electrical sparks, flames, or heated surfaces."
                                                              Most container rinsates should not become excess
           "Flammable. Do not use, pour, spill, or            pesticides because they can be added into the tank
        store near heat or open flame. Do not cut or          during mixing. You also may be able to add some
        weld container."                                      rinsates from equipment cleaning, spill cleanup, and
                                                              other activities to a tank mixture that contains the
                                                              same pesticide, as long as doing so will not violate
Disposal                                                      labeling instructions. However, some rinsates will
                                                              contain dirt, cleaning agents, or other substances that
Pesticide users are responsible for correctly dealing         will make them unusable.
with empty pesticide containers, excess usable
pesticides, and waste materials that contain pesticides
                                                              Pesticide Wastes
or their residues. There is growing concern about the
serious harm to humans and the environment that
incorrect disposal of pesticide wastes can cause. For         Excess pesticides and rinsates that cannot be used
information on disposal options in your area, contact         must be disposed of as wastes. Other pesticide wastes
your state or tribal pesticide authority.                     include such things as contaminated spill cleanup
                                                              material and personal protective equipment items that
                                                              cannot be cleaned and reused. Whenever possible,
Excess Pesticides                                             avoid creating pesticide wastes that require disposal.
The best solution to the problem of what to do with           Sometimes pesticide wastes can be disposed of in a
excess pesticides is to avoid having them:                    landfill operating under EPA, state, tribal, or local
                                                              permit for hazardous wastes. Most sanitary landfills
                                                              are not suitable. Some regions have pesticide


                                                        103
incinerators for disposing of pesticide wastes. Never          refillable containers include minibulks and small-
burn, bury, or dump excess pesticides, and never               volume returnables.
dispose of them in a way that will contaminate public
or private ground water or surface water or sewage             Recyclable and reconditionable containers -- You
treatment facilities.                                          may be able to take your rinsed metal or plastic
                                                               containers to a facility that can recycle them. Some
Pesticide wastes that cannot be disposed of right              55- and 30-gallon drums can be returned to the
away should be marked to indicate the contents and             dealer, manufacturer, or formulator to be
then stored safely and correctly until disposal is             reconditioned and reused.
possible.
                                                               Soluble containers -- Soluble containers are
Labeling statements about waste disposal --                    designed to be placed, unopened, into the mixing
Typical pesticide labeling instructions about disposal         tank. The container dissolves in the solvent (usually
of pesticide wastes include:                                   water) in the tank. Only the over-packaging remains,
                                                               and it may be disposed of as nonhazardous waste in a
         "Do not contaminate water by disposal of              sanitary landfill.
        wastes."
                                                               Triple -rinsed or pressure -rinsed containers --
           "Pesticide wastes are toxic. Improper               Containers that have been correctly triple rinsed or
        disposal of excess pesticide is a violation of         pressure rinsed usually may be disposed of as regular
        Federal law. If these wastes cannot be                 trash in a sanitary landfill, unless prohibited by the
        disposed of by use according to label                  pesticide labeling or by State, tribal, or local
        instructions, contact your State Pesticide or          authorities. Mark the containers to show that they
        Environmental Control Agency, or the                   have been rinsed.
        Hazardous Waste representative at the
        nearest EPA Regional Office for guidance."             Unrinsed containers -- To dispose of unrinsed
                                                               containers, take them to an incinerator or landfill
Containers                                                     operating under EPA, state, or tribal permit for
                                                               hazardous waste disposal. If this is not possible,
Try to avoid the need to dispose of pesticide                  check with your state, tribal, or local authorities to
containers as wastes. For example, you may be able             find out what to do. Otherwise, you may need to store
to:                                                            the containers until you have a way to dispose of
                                                               them.
           use containers that are designed to be
        refilled by the pesticide dealer or the                Burnable containers -- The labeling of some paper,
        chemical company,                                      cardboard, and plastic containers may list "burning, if
                                                               allowed by state and local authorities" as a disposal
                                                               option for pesticide containers. However, open
          arrange to have the empty containers
                                                               burning of pesticide containers and waste pesticides
        recycled or reconditioned, or
                                                               is questionable and may violate federal regulations
                                                               that could take precedence over the instructions on
          use soluble packaging.                               the pesticide labeling. Because of possible air
                                                               pollution hazards and the risks of liability, your best
If you have containers that you must dispose of, be            option is to use another disposal method for these
sure to rinse them, if possible. Rinsed containers are         containers.
easier to dispose of than unrinsed containers.
                                                               Labeling statements about container disposal --
Refillable containers -- Some types of containers are          Typical pesticide labeling instructions about disposal
designed to be refilled with pesticide repeatedly              of pesticide containers include:
during their lifetime, which may be many years. They
usually are not designed to be trip le rinsed or                         "Do not reuse empty containers."
pressure rinsed by the pesticide user. When
necessary, they are cleaned by the pesticide dealer or
chemical company before refilling. Common types of


                                                         104
          "Offer for recycling or reconditioning, or            overflowing, stop the inflow and try to cap off the
        puncture and dispose of in a sanitary landfill,         tank. If a tank, hopper, or container has burst or has
        or incinerate."                                         tipped over and is too heavy to be righted, you will
                                                                not be able to stop the source.
          "Dispose of bag in a sanitary landfill or by
        incineration."                                          Protect others -- Isolate the spill site by keeping
                                                                children, other unprotected people, and animals well
Spill Management                                                back. Rope off the site if necessary. If you suspect
                                                                the spill contains a highly volatile or explosive
A spill is any accidental release of a pesticide. As            pesticide, you may need to keep people back even
careful as people try to be, pesticide spills can and do        farther. Warn people to keep out of reach of any drift
occur. The spill may be minor, involving only a                 or fumes. Do not use road flares or allow anyone to
                                                                smoke if you suspect the leaking material is
dribble from a container, or it may be major,
                                                                flammable.
involving large amounts of pesticide or pesticide-
containing materials such as wash water, soil, and
absorbents.                                                     Stay at the site -- Do not leave the spill site until
                                                                another knowledgeable and correctly protected
You must know how to respond correctly when a                   person arrives. Someone should be at the spill site at
                                                                all times until the spill is cleaned up.
spill occurs. Stopping large leaks or spills is often not
simple. If you cannot manage a spill by yourself, get
help. Even a spill that appears to be minor can                 Contain the Spill
endanger you, other people, and the environment if
not handled correctly. Never leave a spill unattended.          Confine the spill -- As soon as the source of the leak
When in doubt, get assistance.                                  is under control, move quickly to keep the spill in as
                                                                small an area as possible. Do everything you can to
You can get help from Chemtrec (Chemical                        keep it from spreading or getting worse. For small
Transportation Emergency Center) by calling 1-800-              spills, use containment snakes to surround the spill
424-9300. This number is for emergencies only.                  and keep it confined. For larger spills, use a shovel, a
                                                                rake, or other tool or equipment to make a dike of
The faster you can contain, absorb, and dispose of a            soil, sod, or absorbent material.
spill, the less chance there is that it will cause harm.
Clean up most spills immediately. Even minor                    Protect water sources -- Keep the spill out of any
dribbles or spills should be cleaned up before the end          body of water or any pathway that will lead to water,
of the work day to keep unprotected persons or                  such as a ditch, floor drain, well, or sinkhole. If the
animals from being exposed.                                     spilled pesticide is flowing toward such an area,
                                                                block it or redirect it.
When a spill emergency occurs, remember the "three
C's:                                                            Absorb liquids -- Liquid pesticide spills can be
Control, Contain, and Clean up.                                 further contained by covering the entire spill site with
                                                                absorbent materials, such as spill pillows, fine sand,
                                                                vermiculite, sawdust, clay, kitty litter, shredded
Control the Spill Situation
                                                                newspaper, or absorbent pads.
Protect yourself -- Put on appropriate personal
protective equipment before contacting the spill or             Cover dry materials -- Prevent dry, dusty pesticide
                                                                spills, such as dusts, powders, or granules, from
breathing its fumes. If you do not know how toxic the
                                                                becoming airborne by covering them with a sweeping
pesticide is or what type of personal protective
equipment to wear, don't take a chance! Wear barrier-           compound or a plastic covering or by very lightly
laminate apron, footwear, and gloves; eye protection;           misting the material with water. Do not mist too
and a respirator.                                               much, because water may release the pesticidal
                                                                action or may cause the pesticide to form clumps and
                                                                be unusable.
Stop the source -- If a small container is leaking,
place it into a larger chemical-resistant container,
such as a plastic drum or bag. If a spray tank is


                                                          105
Warning: Pesticides that are oxidizers, such as               however, sometimes the site can be successfully
calcium hypochlorite (a common sanitizer) and some            neutralized.
herbicides and desiccants that contain chlorites,
should not be contained with sawdust, shredded                Neutralize the spill site -- The labeling of a few
paper, or sweeping compounds. These absorbent                 pesticides will instruct you to neutralize a spill of that
compounds combine with the oxidizer to create a fire          pesticide. Sometimes an authority, such as the
hazard and could burst into flame.                            pesticide manufacturer or Chemtrec, also will instruct
                                                              you to neutralize the spill site. Follow instructions
Clean Up                                                      carefully.

After you have contained the spill, pick up the spilled       Neutralizing a spill often consists of mixing full-
material and decontaminate the spill site and any             strength bleach with hydrated lime and working this
contaminated items or equipment.                              mixture into the spill site with a coarse broom. Fresh
                                                              absorbent material is then spread over the spill site to
Clean up the spill -- For spilled liquid pesticides,          soak up the neutralizing liquid. This material is swept
sweep up the absorbent material containing the                up and placed in a plastic drum or bag for disposal.
pesticide and place it into a heavy-duty plastic drum         You may be instructed to repeat the process several
or bag. Keep adding the absorbent material until the          times to make sure that the site is thoroughly
spilled liquid is soaked up and removed.                      neutralized.

Spills of dry pesticides should be swept up for reuse         Soil is sometimes neutralized by removing and
if possible. Avoid contaminating the spilled materials        disposing of the top 2 to 3 inches and then
with soil or other debris, so it can be used in the usual     neutralizing the remaining soil. You may be
application equipment and will not clog the nozzles           instructed to mix activated charcoal into the soil or to
or hopper openings. However, if the dry spill has             cover the spill site with 2 or more inches of lime and
become wet or full of debris, it must be swept up and         cover the lime with fresh topsoil.
placed in a heavy-duty plastic drum or bag for
disposal.                                                     Sometimes you may be instructed to cover minor
                                                              spills with activated charcoal. The activated charcoal
Decontaminate the spill site -- Once you have                 can adsorb or tie up enough pesticide to avoid
collected as much of the spilled material as possible,        adverse effects to plants and animals that contact the
decontaminate the spill site as well as you can. Do           soil in the future. However, activated charcoal is not
not hose down the site with water, unless the spill is        effective for large spills.
on a containment tray or pad.
                                                              Decontaminate equipment -- Clean any vehicles,
If the surface on which the pesticide has spilled is          equipment, and personal protective equipment that
nonporous, such as sealed concrete, glazed ceramic            were contaminated by the spill or during the
tile, or no-wax sheet flooring, use water (or the             containment and cleanup process. Use a strong
chemical listed on the label to dilute the pesticide)         mixture of chlorine bleach, dishwasher detergent, and
and a strong detergent to remove the residues of the          water to clean the vehicles and equipment. Wash
spill from the surface. Do not allow any of the wash          personal protective equipment thoroughly, following
solution to run off the site being cleaned. Place fresh       manufacturers' instructions and the guidelines in the
absorbent material over the wash solution until it is         personal protective equipment unit of this manual.
all soaked up. Then sweep up the absorbent material           Remember particularly that porous materials, such as
and place it in a plastic drum or bag for disposal as an      brooms, leather shoes, and clothing, cannot be
excess pesticide.                                             cleaned effectively if they are thoroughly saturated
                                                              with pesticide. They should be discarded.
If the surface upon which the pesticide has spilled is
porous, such as soil, unsealed wood, or carpet, you           Decontaminate yourself -- When you are finished
may have to remove the contaminated surface and               with the spill and equipment cleanup, wash yourself
dispose of it as an excess pesticide. Depending on the        thoroughly with detergent and water. Wash any part
size of the spill and the toxicity of the pesticide,          of your skin that might have been exposed, and
                                                              always wash your face, neck, hands, and forearms.



                                                        106
Spill Followup                                                              "If container is broken or contents have
                                                                         spilled, clean up immediately. Before
For all large spills, and any spills that take place off                 cleaning up, put on full-length trousers, long-
your property, consider keeping records of your                          sleeved shirt, protective gloves, and goggles
containment and cleanup activities and your                              or face shield. Soak up spill with absorbent
conversations with authorities and the public about                      media such as sand, earth, or other suitable
the spill. Photographs help to document any damage                       material and dispose of waste at an approved
as well as the cleanup process. Report the spill to the                  waste disposal facility."
appropriate agency, when necessary.
                                                                            "If the container is leaking or material is
Spill Assistance                                                         spilled, carefully sweep material into a pile.
                                                                         Refer to Precautionary Statements on label
Chemtrec, the Chemical Transportation Emergency                          for hazards associated with the handling of
Center, is a public service of the Chemical                              this material. Do not walk through spilled
Manufacturing Association. Located in Washington,                        material. Keep unauthorized people away."
DC, Chemtrec is staffed 24 hours a day by trained
personnel who can advise you how to manage                                 "Contact the [chemical company]
chemical emergencies.                                                    emergency response team for
                                                                         decontamination procedures or any other
When you request help from Chemtrec or any other                         emergency assistance at [telephone
source, have the product label on hand. Many                             number]."
pesticide labels list an emergency telephone number
that gives you direct access to the manufacturer and             Spill Kit
people who know how to manage emergencies for
that product.                                                    Keep a spill cleanup kit immediately available
                                                                 whenever you handle pesticides or their containers. If
If the spill occurs on a highway, call the highway               a spill occurs, you will not have the time or the
patrol or highway department right away. If the spill            opportunity to find all of the items.
occurs on a county road or city street, call the county
sheriff, city police, or fire department. These                  The kit should consist of:
authorities are trained for such emergencies and will
be able to assist you in your cleanup. Many local and                      telephone numbers for emergency
state authorities require that you notify them of a                      assistance,
pesticide spill.
                                                                           sturdy gloves, footwear, and apron that are
If you suspect that a large spill is flammable, call the                 chemical-resistant to most pesticides, such as
fire department for assistance. However, do not let                      barrier-laminate gear,
them hose down the spill unless an authority directs
them to do so.                                                               protective eyewear,

If the spill may expose the public to pesticides or                        an appropriate respirator, if any of the
pesticide residues, contact public health officials. If                  pesticides require the use of one during
anyone is poisoned by contacting the spill or if you                     handling activities or for spill cleanup,
suspect that an exposure may lead to poisoning call
the hospital emergency room and provide them with                          containment "snakes" to confine the leak
the brand name, active ingredients, and any other                        or spill to a small area,
labeling information about human health hazards,
signs and symptoms of poisoning, and antidotes.
                                                                            absorbent materials, such as spill pillows,
                                                                         absorbent clay, sawdust, pet litter, activated
Labeling Statements about Spill Management                               charcoal, vermiculite, or paper to soak up
                                                                         liquid spills,
Typical pesticide labeling instructions about spill
procedures include:


                                                           107
           sweeping compound to keep dry spills                • A. 1. Transport containers with intact,
        from drifting or wafting during cleanup,               undamaged, and readable labels.

          a shovel, broom, and dustpan (foldable               2. Inspect containers to be sure that all openings are
        brooms and shovels are handy, because they             tightly closed and that there are no pesticides on the
        can be carried easily),                                outside of the containers.

          heavy-duty detergent,                                3. Handle containers carefully.

           a fire extinguisher rated for all types of          4. Anchor all containers securely.
        fires,
                                                               5. Protect paper and cardboard containers from
          any other spill cleanup items specified on           moisture.
        the labeling of any products you use
        regularly, and                                         6. Protect pesticides from extreme temperatures.

          a sturdy plastic container that will hold the        Q-3. List four actions that you should take to
        quantity of pesticide from the largest                 establish a safe storage site.
        pesticide container being handled and that
        can be tightly closed.
                                                               • A. Keep unauthorized people out; prevent
                                                               water damage; control the temperature; provide
All of these items can be stored in the plastic
container and kept clean and in working order until a          adequate lighting; use nonporous materials;
spill occurs.                                                  prevent runoff; provide clean water.

                                                               Q-4. List four actions to maintain a safe storage
                                                               site.
Test Your Knowledge                                            • A. Prevent contamination; keep labels legible;
                                                               keep containers closed; use original containers;
Q-1. What precautions should you take when you
                                                               watch for damage; store volatile products
transport pesticides in a vehicle?
                                                               separately; isolate waste products; know your
                                                               inventory; consider shelf life.
• A. 1. Never carry pesticides in the passenger
section.
                                                               Q-5. When a pesticide container is damaged, what
                                                               can you do?
2. Never allow children, other passengers, and pets to
ride with pesticides.
                                                               • A. 1. Use the pesticide immediately at a site
3. Never transport pesticides with food, clothing, or          and rate allowed by the labeling.
other things meant to be eaten or in contact with
people or animals.                                             2. Transfer the pesticide into another pesticide
                                                               container that originally held the same pesticide and
4. Never leave your vehicle unattended when                    has the same label still intact.
transporting pesticides in an unlocked trunk
compartment or open-bed truck.                                 3. Transfer the contents to a sturdy container that can
                                                               be tightly closed and fasten the label to the outside of
5. Consider transporting highly volatile pesticides in         the new container.
separate trips from other chemicals.
                                                               4. Place the entire damaged container and its contents
Q-2. What steps should you take to protect                     into a suitable larger container.
pesticide containers during transport?



                                                         108
Q-6. If you have excess pesticide materials that are       • A. Chemtrec; emergency numbers on pesticide
still usable, what can you do with them?                   labeling; police department or highway patrol;
                                                           fire department; public health department.
• A. Apply them to a site listed on the labeling;
find someone else who can legally use them;                Q-14. When should you have a spill kit on hand?
return them to the dealer, formulator, or
manufacturer.                                              • A. Every time a pesticide or pesticide
                                                           container is handled.
Q-7. If you have pesticide wastes (other than
empty containers) what can you do with them?
                                                           Know the Law
• A. Dispose in a hazardous waste landfill or
pesticide incinerator, or store until disposal is          Some pesticide applicators, applicator businesses,
possible.                                                  and dealers may be affected by Title III of the
                                                           Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of
Q-8. List three ways to avoid the need for                 1986 (SARA Title III), administered by the
disposing of empty pesticide containers as wastes.         Environmental Protection Agency. SARA Title III
                                                           has many sections; three relate to the storage of
• A. Use refillable containers; recycle or                 pesticides:
recondition the containers; use soluble
packaging.                                                 Emergency planning and notification -- Under
                                                           certain conditions, the law requires you to notify state
Q-9. What do the three C's of spill management             and local officials about the location and amount of
stand for?                                                 hazardous chemicals at your site. EPA has assigned a
                                                           Threshold Planning Quantity (TPQ) for a number of
                                                           active ingredients (not total weight of formulated
• A. Control, Contain, Clean up.                           product). When the product in storage is at or above
                                                           the TPQ, you must notify the State Emergency
Q-10. What should you do to control a spill                Response Commission (SERC) in writing. Each
situation?                                                 facility must designate a coordinator to work with the
                                                           Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC). The
• A. Protect yourself; stop the source of the              state will notify the LEPC that your operation is
spill; protect others; stay at the site.                   covered under SARA. This is a one-time notification.

Q-11. How should you contain a spill?                      Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) reporting --
                                                           Employers are required to maintain material safety
• A. Confine the spill; protect water sources;             data sheets. They must submit copies of each MSDS
absorb liquids; cover dry materials.                       (or a listing of MSDS's that must be maintained) to
                                                           their local fire department, the LEPC, and the SERC.
                                                           There is one exclusion: if a chemical is used solely
Q-12. What should cleanup include?
                                                           for household, consumer, or agricultural purposes,
                                                           notification is not required. However, under OSHA
• A. Clean up the spill; decontaminate the spill           regulations, pesticide users (except homeowners)
site; neutralize the spill site, if necessary;             must have the MSDS for each pesticide they handle.
decontaminate equipment; decontaminate
yourself.                                                  Annual inventory reporting -- All regulated
                                                           facilities must submit an annua l chemical inventory
Q-13. Who can you call when you need help to               to their local fire department, LEPC, and SERC. This
manage a spill?                                            inventory must include:




                                                     109
          all hazardous chemicals stored at the
        facility in quantities of 10,000 pounds or
        more, and                                           Know the Law
           all extremely hazardous chemicals stored         If you are involved in a pesticide spill, you may need
        in quantities of 500 pounds (or 55 gallons) or      to comply with the provisions of two laws
        more, or in a quantity that exceeds the TPQ,        administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection
        whichever is less. Agricultural producers are       Agency (EPA).
        exempt from this section.
                                                            Title III of the Superfund Amendments and
                                                            Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA Title III)
                                                            requires you to report any accidental release (such as
Know the Law                                                a spill) of any extremely hazardous substance.
                                                            Reporting is required if all the following occur:
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
regulates wastes under the Resource Conservation                       The pesticide was spilled.
and Recovery Act (RCRA). EPA issues a list of
materials that are considered hazardous. However,                      The pesticide is covered under SARA Title
RCRA applies to certain flammable, corrosive,                       III.
reactive, or toxic wastes, even if they are not on the
list. Therefore, some other pesticides could be                        The spill quantity was greater than the
"regulated hazardous wastes" under RCRA. States                     "reportable quantity" specified in the law.
and tribes often have their own hazardous waste laws,
which may be more stringent than RCRA. Contact                         The spill created offsite exposure.
your state or tribal authority for applicable
requirements.
                                                                       If such an accident occurs, you must:
"Wastes" include unrinsed containers, excess
pesticides and pesticide dilutions, and rinse and wash                Notify the State Emergency Response
                                                                    Commission (SERC).
water that contain a listed chemical and cannot be
used. Triple -rinsed pesticide containers are not
considered hazardous waste under RCRA, however.                       Notify the Local Emergency Planning
They can be disposed of in sanitary landfills.                      Committee (LEPC).

RCRA regulates pesticide users who accumulate                         Report the release to the National
wastes of acutely toxic pesticides totaling 2.2 pounds              Response Center (1-800-424-8802).
or more per month or wastes of any RCRA-regulated
pesticides totaling 2,200 pounds per month. Such            In addition, any spill that has the potential to get into
users must register as a generator of hazardous waste,      ground water or surface water must be reported to
obtain an ID number from EPA, state, or tribe and           EPA under the authority of the Clean Water Act.
follow certain disposal requirements.
                                                            If you do not know whether the spill is large enough
To find out if a pesticide is listed in RCRA, call:         to be a "reportable quantity" under SARA Title III or
                                                            whether the spill might get into ground water or
EPA RCRA Hotline                                            surface water, call your local, State, or tribal pesticide
1-800-424-9346                                              agency or the EPA regional office for help.
8:30 a.m. - 7:30 p.m. EST,
Monday through Friday




                                                      110
APPENDIX - TERMS TO KNOW                                      Emulsion: A mixture of two or more liquids that are
Abrasive : Capable of wearing away or grinding                not soluble in one another. One is suspended as small
down another object.                                          droplets in the other.
Active ingredients : The chemicals in a pesticide             Endangered species: Organisms whose survival as a
product that control the target pest.                         species has been designated by a Federal agency to
Acute effects : Illnesses or injuries that may appear         be endangered or threatened.
immediately after exposure to a pesticide (usually            Exposure : Coming into contact with a pesticide;
within 24 hours).                                             getting a pesticide on a surface or in or on an
Adjuvant: Chemical added to a pesticide formulation           organism.
or tank mix to increase its effectiveness or safety.          Eyewash dispenser: Commercially available system
Agitate : To stir or mix.                                     for flushing contaminants out of the eyes.
Alkaline : The opposite of acidic; having a pH greater        Formulation: Pesticide product as sold, usually a
than 7.                                                       mixture of active and inert ingredients.
Allergic effects : Harmful effects, such as skin rash or      Fumigant: Pesticide that is a vapor or gas or that
asthma, that some people develop in reaction to               forms a vapor or gas when applied and whose
pesticides that do not cause the same reaction in most        pesticidal action occurs in the gaseous state.
other people.                                                 Ground water: Water beneath the earth's surface in
Back-siphoning: The movement of liquid pesticide              soil or rock.
mixture back through the filling hose and into the            Heat stress: Illness that occurs when the body is
water source.                                                 subjected to more heat than it can cope with.
Carrier: The primary material used to allow a                 Host: A plant or animal on or in which a pest lives.
pesticide to be dispersed effectively; for example, the       Inert ingredients : Inactive components of a
talc in a dust formulation, the water mixed with a            pesticide formulation that are used to dilute the
wettable powder before a spray application, or the air        pesticide or to make it safer, more effective, easier to
that disperses the pesticide in an air blast application.     measure, mix, and apply, and more convenient to
Chemical-resistant: Able to prevent movement of               handle.
the pesticide through the material during the period          Insoluble : Does not dissolve in liquid.
of use.                                                       Juvenile hormones: Natural insect chemicals that
Collecting pad or tray: A safety system designed to           keep the earlier stages of an insect from changing
contain and recover spills, rinsates, leaks, and other        into the normal adult form.
pesticide-containing substances.                              Labeling : The pesticide product label and other
Concentrated: Having a high percentage of active              accompanying materials that contain directions which
ingredient.                                                   pesticide users are legally required to follow.
Concentrates: Pesticides that have a high percentage          Leaching: The movement of pesticide in water or
of active ingredient.                                         another liquid downward through soil or other
Decontaminate: Remove pesticide from surfaces or              planting medium.
organisms that are exposed so no further harm or              Liability: Legal responsibility.
damage can occur.                                             Mycoplasmas : The smallest known living organisms
Delayed effects : Illnesses or injuries that do not           that can reproduce and exist apart from other living
appear immediately (within 24 hours) after exposure           organisms. They obtain their food from plants.
to a pesticide or combination of pesticides.                  MSHA: Mine Safety and Health Administration.
Diluent: Anything used to dilute a pesticide.                 Nematodes: Small, usually microscopic, eel-like
Dilute : To make less concentrated.                           roundworms.
Distributor products: Products that are produced and          NIOSH : National Institute for Occupational Safety
registered by a manufacturer or formulator and sold           and Health.
under a different name by a distributor.                      Nonporous surfaces: Surfaces that have no openings
Drift: Pesticide movement away from the release site          to allow liquid to be absorbed or pass through.
in the air.                                                   Nontarget organism: Any plant or animal other than
Ecosystem: A system formed by the interaction of a            the pest that is being controlled.
community of organisms with their environment.                Nontarget: Any site or organism other than the site
Emulsifier: Chemical that allows petroleum-based              or pest toward which the control measures are being
pesticides (EC's) to mix with water.                          directed.
                                                              Offsite : Outside the area where the pesticide is being
                                                              released.


                                                        111
Oncogenicity: The ability to cause tumors.                   pesticide equipment, or other pesticide-containing
Organic matter: Materials and debris that originated         materials.
as living plants or animals.                                 Runoff: The movement of pesticide away from the
OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health                         release site in water or another liquid flowing
Administration in the United States Department of            horizontally across the surface.
Labor.                                                       Scouting: Regularly searching for, identifying, and
Parasite : An organism living on, in, or with another        assessing numbers of pests and the damage they are
living organism for the purpose of obtaining food.           causing.
Pathogen: An organism that causes disease in other           Sensitive areas : Sites or organisms that are
organisms.                                                   particularly vulnerable to harmful effects from
Penetrant: Chemical that helps a pesticide active            pesticides.
ingredient to get through a surface and into an object       Sensitive : Particularly vulnerable to harm from
or organism.                                                 pesticide exposure.
Personal protective equipment (PPE): Devices and             Soluble : Able to be dissolved in another substance,
clothing worn to protect the human body from                 usually a liquid.
contact with pesticides or pesticide residues.               Solvent: A liquid, such as water, kerosene, xylene, or
Pesticide handler: A person who directly works with          alcohol, that will dissolve a pesticide (or other
pesticides, such as during mixing, loading,                  substance) to form a solution.
transporting, storing, disposing, and applying, or           Surface water: Water on top of the earth's surface,
working on pesticide equipment.                              such as in lakes, streams, rivers, irrigation ditches, or
Pesticide handling: Directly working with                    storm water drains.
pesticides, such as during mixing, transporting,             Suspension: A substance that contains undissolved
storing, disposing, and applying, or working on              particles mixed throughout a liquid.
pesticide equipment.                                         Systemic pesticide : Pesticide that is absorbed and
Petroleum-based: Made from petroleum products.               circulated by a plant or animal so that the plant or
Examples are: xylene, refined oil, and kerosene.             animal is toxic to pests that feed on it.
Pheromones: Chemicals emitted by an organism to              Target pest: The pest toward which control measures
influence the behavior of other organisms of the same        are being directed.
species.                                                     Target site : The site toward which control measures
Porous surfaces: Surfaces that have tiny openings            are being directed.
which allow liquid to be absorbed or to pass through.        Target: The site or pest toward which control
Precautionary statement: Pesticide labeling statement        measures are being directed.
that alerts you to possible hazards from use of the          Tip-and-pour: Built-in measuring device that fills
pesticide product and that may indicate specific ways        with a given amount of pesticide when the container
to avoid the hazards.                                        is tilted.
Predator: An organism that attacks, kills, and feeds         Toxicity: Measure of a pesticide's ability to cause
on other organisms.                                          acute, delayed or allergic effects.
Release: When a pesticide leaves its container or the        Use site : The immediate environment where a
equipment or system containing it and enters the             pesticide is being mixed, loaded, applied, transported,
environment. Release can be intentional, as in an            stored, or disposed of, or where pesticide-
application, or by accident, as in a spill or leak.          contaminated equipment is being cleaned.
Residue : The part of a pesticide that remains in the        Volatile : Evaporating rapidly; turning easily into
environment for a period of time following                   a gas or vapor.
application or a spill.                                      Water-based pesticides: Pesticides that use
Rinsate : Pesticide-containing water (or another             water as the only diluent or carrier.
liquid) that results from rinsing a pesticide container,




                                                       112
APPENDIX - EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES ON THE HUMAN BODY
CHEMICAL FAMILY               ACTION ON                SYSTEMIC EFFECTS              IRRITATION                    DELAYED/                     TYPE OF PESTICIDE
                              HUMAN SYSTEM                                           EFFECTS                       ALLERGIC EFFECTS
1. Organophosphates           Inhibits                 Headache, dizziness,          Minimal rashes, but           Loss of appetite,            Insecticides, Acaracides
                              acetylcholinesterase     weakness, shaking,            readily absorbed through      weakness, weight loss,
                              enzyme in tissues.       nausea, stomach cramps,       the skin.                     and general feeling of
                                                       diarrhea, sweating.                                         sickness, Occasionally
                                                                                                                   permanent harm to brain
                                                                                                                   and nerve system.
2. N-Methyl Carbamates        Reversible changes in    Headache, dizziness,          Minimal rashes, but           Loss of appetite,            Insecticides, Acaricides
                              acetylcholinesterase     weakness, shaking,            readily absorbed through      weakness, weight loss,
                              enzyme in tissues.       nausea, stomach cramps,       the skin.                     and general feeling of
                                                       diarrhea, sweating.                                         sickness.
3. Organochlorines            Disrupt function of      Headache, dizziness,          Minimal rashes, but           Some buildup in the fat      Insecticides, Acaricides
(Chlorinated Hydrocarbons)    nervous system, mainly   weakness, shaking             readily absorbed through      tissues. May cause
                              the brain.               nausea, excitability,         the skin.                     nervousness, weakness,
                                                       disorientation.                                             and shaking. Some
                                                                                                                   buildup in glands and
                                                                                                                   damage cells and
                                                                                                                   hormone production.
4. Pyrethrum and Pyrethrins   Allergin                 Slight toxic reaction.        Minimal                       Skin and respiratory tract   Insecticides, acaricides
                                                                                                                   allergic effects.
5. Nicotine                   Harms nervous system.    Nausea, headache,             Minimal, but readily          --                           Insecticides
                                                       diarrhea, dizziness,          absorbed through the skin.
                                                       shaking, abdominal pain,
                                                       lack of coordination,
                                                       sweating, salivation.
6. Rotenone                   Irritant                 Minimal                       Irritates skin, eyes, and     --                           Insecticides, acaricides
                                                                                     respiratory tract.
7. Bacillus thuringiensis     None known               --                            --                            --                           Insecticide
8. Gibberellic Acid           None known               --                            --                            --                           Growth regulator
9. Pyrethroids                Irritant                 Minimal                       Stinging, burning, itching,   --                           Insecticides
                                                                                     tingling, numbness of
                                                                                     skin.
10. Fluorides                 Harms brain and          Thirst, abdominal pain,       --                            --                           Insecticides
                              stomach.                 vomiting, diarrhea,
                                                       headache, weakness,
                                                       salivation, dilated pupils,
                                                       lethargy.



                                                       113
CHEMICAL FAMILY        ACTION ON                  SYSTEMIC EFFECTS             IRRITATION                    DELAYED/                    TYPE OF PESTICIDE
                       HUMAN SYSTEM                                            EFFECTS                       ALLERGIC EFFECTS
11. Boric Acid         Irritants; Harms           Nausea, vomiting,            Irritates and burns skin      --                          Insecticide
                       stomach, intestines,       abdominal pain, diarrhea,    and respiratory tract.
                       blood system, and brain.   blood in vomit and feces,
                                                  headache, weakness,
                                                  tremors, restlessness.
12. Chlordimeform      Harms bladder;             Blood in urine, frequent     Skin rash, sweet taste.       --                          Insecticide, miticides
                       Sometimes harms skin.      and painful urination,
                                                  abdominal and back pain,
                                                  hot sensation, sleepiness.
13. Propargite         Irritants; Low systemic    Minimal                      Severe skin and eye           Probable skin sensitizer.   Acaricide
                       toxicity.                                               irritant.
14. Diflubenzuron,     Low systemic toxicity.     Minimal                      --                            --                          Insecticide
Teflubenzuron
15. Chlorobenzilate    Irritants; Low systemic    Minimal                      Skin and eye irritant.        Tumors observed in          Acaricide
                       toxicity.                                                                             laboratory animals.
16. Cyhexatin          Irritants; Probable harm   Probable headache,           Mild skin irritant.           --                          Acaricide
                       to nervous system.         nausea, vomiting,
                                                  dizziness, avoidance of
                                                  light.
17. Methoprene         Very low systemic          Minimal                      --                            --                          Insecticide
                       toxicity.
18. Sulfur             Irritant; Low systemic     Minimal                      Irritates eyes, skin, and     --                          Acaricide; Fungicide
                       toxicity.                                               respiratory tract.
19. Diethyltoluamide   Irritants; Low systemic    Headaache, restlessness,     Very irritating to eyes,      --                          Insect repellent
                       toxicity, except to        crying spells, stupor,       mild skin irritation and
                       children.                  tremors.                     peeling, except severe
                                                                               skin irritation in tropical
                                                                               conditions.
20. Alkyl Phthalates   Irritants; Low systemic    Stomach- and intestine-      Severely irritating to eyes   --                          Insect repellent
                       toxicity.                  lining irritation.           and mucous membranes,
                                                                               not irritating to skin.
21. Benzyl Benzoate    Irritants; Low systemic    Minimal                      Occasionally irritating to    --                          Acaricide
                       toxicity.                                               skin.




                                                  114
CHEMICAL FAMILY            ACTION ON                 SYSTEMIC EFFECTS               IRRITATION                    DELAYED/                      TYPE OF PESTICIDE
                           HUMAN SYSTEM                                             EFFECTS                       ALLERGIC EFFECTS
22. Arsenicals             Irritants; Harms liver,   Headache, burning              Swelling of mouth and         Accumulates in body;          Rodenticides,
                           kidney, brain, bone       stomach pain, vomiting,        throat, irritating to eyes,   Chronic headaches,            Insecticides, Acaricides,
                           marrow, and nervous       diarrhea, dizziness; garlic    nose, and throat.             dizziness, stomach aches,     Marine antifouling
                           system.                   odor on breath and feces.                                    salivation, low fever,        compounds, Desiccants,
                                                                                                                  garlic breath; Skin, liver,   Herbicides, Fungicides
                                                                                                                  kidney, and blood system
                                                                                                                  disorders; Possible skin
                                                                                                                  and lung cancer.
23. Chlorophenoxy          Irritants; Harms liver,   Do not remain in body;         Irritating to eyes, skin,     Severe disfiguring skin       Fungicides
Compounds                  kidney, and nervous       passed out within hours or     lungs, mucous                 condition (chloracne) in
                           system. May cause skin    days.                          membranes.                    manufacturing workers.
                           to discolor.
24. Nitrophenolic and      Harms liver, kidneys,     Headache, weakness,            Moderately irritating         Weight loss, cataracts,       Herbicides
Nitrocresolic Pesticides   and nervous system.       thirst, excessive sweating,    sensations to skin, eyes,     glaucoma.
                                                     feeling of overall illness;    nose, and throat.
                                                     Yellow stain on skin, hair,
                                                     and urine is characteristic.
25. Pentachlorophenol      Irritants; Harms liver,   Headache, weakness,            Highly irritating to skin,    Weight loss, weakness,        Herbicides, Defoliants,
                           kidneys, and nervous      nausea, excessive              eyes, nose, and throat.       anemia. Severe                Molluscicides,
                           system.                   sweating, dizziness, fever,                                  disfiguring skin disorder     Germicides, Fungicides,
                                                     rapid breathing, intense                                     in manufacturing workers.     and Wood preservatives.
                                                     thirst, vomiting,
                                                     restlessness.
26. Paraquat and Diquat    Irritants; Harms skin,    Burning pain in mouth,         Irritates and harms skin,     --                            Herbicides
                           nails, cornea, liver,     throat, stomach, and           nails, nose, and eyes.
                           kidney, linings of        intestine, nausea,
                           stomach and intestine,    vomiting, diarrhea,
                           and heart. Severe         giddiness, fever.
                           delayed harm to lungs.
27. Acetamides             Irritants                 Minimal                        Moderately irritating to      --                            Herbicides
                                                                                    skin and eyes.
28. Anilides               Irritants                 Minimal                        Irritates skin, eyes, and     Skin sensitizers.             Herbicides
                                                                                    respiratory tract.
29. Aliphatic Acids        Irritants                 Minimal                        Irritates skin, eyes, and     --                            Herbicides
                                                                                    respiratory tract.
30. Benzamide              Irritants; Low systemic   Minimal                        Occasionally irritating to    --                            Herbicide
                           toxicity.                                                skin.




                                                     115
CHEMICAL FAMILY              ACTION ON                  SYSTEMIC EFFECTS           IRRITATION                     DELAYED/            TYPE OF PESTICIDE
                             HUMAN SYSTEM                                          EFFECTS                        ALLERGIC EFFECTS
31. Benzoic Acid and         Irritants                  Minimal                    Irritating to skin and         --                  Herbicides
Anisic Acid Derivatives                                                            respiratory tract.
32. Benzonitriles            Irritants                  Minimal                    Moderately irritating to       Skin sensitizers.   Herbicides, Fungicides
                                                                                   skin and respiratory tract.
33. Benzothiadiazinone       Irritants                  Minimal                    Irritates eyes and             --                  Herbicide
Dioxide                                                                            respiratory tract.
34. Dithio and Thio          Irritants; Very weak or    Nausea, vomiting,          Irritates skin, eyes,          Skin sensitizers.   Herbicides, Fungicides
Carbamates                   no inhibition of           diarrhea, weakness.        mucous membranes, and
                             cholinesterase enzyme                                 respiratory tract.
                             in tissues.
35. Carbanilate              Irritants; Very weak or    Minimal                    Irritates skin, eyes,          Skin sensitizers.   Herbicides
                             no inhibition of                                      mucous membranes, and
                             cholinesterase enzyme                                 respiratory tract.
                             in tissues.
36. Chloropyridinyl          Irritants                  Minimal                    Irritates skin and eyes.       --                  Herbicides
37. Cyclohexenone            Irritants                  Minimal                    Irritant                       --                  Herbicides
Derivative
38. Dinitronaminobenzene     Irritants                  Minimal                    Moderately irritating.         --                  Herbicides
Derivatives
39. Fluorodinitrotoluidine   Irritants                  Minimal                    Mildly irritating.             --                  Herbicides
Compounds
40. Isoxazolidinone          Irritants                  Minimal                    Moderately irritating.                             Herbicides
41. Nicotinic Acid           Irritants                  Minimal                    Irritating to eyes and skin.   --                  Herbicides
Isopropylamine Derivative
42. Oxadiazolinone           Low systemic toxicity.     --                         --                             --                  Herbicides
43. Phosphonates             Irritants                  Minimal                    Irritating to eyes, skin,      --                  Herbicides
                                                                                   and respiratory tract.
44. Phthalates (except       Irritants                  Minimal                    Moderately irritating to       --                  Herbicides
endothall)                                                                         eyes
45. Endothall                Harms heart, blood         Convulsions, shock, lack   Irritating to eyes, skin,      --                  Herbicides, Algicides
                             vessels, nervous system,   of coordination, severe    and mucous membranes.
                             and stomach and            burning of stomach and
                             intestinal lining.         intestine.
46. Picolinic Acid           Irritants                  Minimal                    Irritating to skin, eyes,      --                  Herbicides
Compounds                                                                          and respiratory tract.



                                                        116
CHEMICAL FAMILY             ACTION ON                  SYSTEMIC EFFECTS            IRRITATION                    DELAYED/                       TYPE OF PESTICIDE
                            HUMAN SYSTEM                                           EFFECTS                       ALLERGIC EFFECTS
47. Triazines               Irritants; Low systemic    Minimal                     Moderately irritating to      --                             Herbicides
                            toxicity.                                              skin, eyes, and respiratory
                                                                                   tract.
48. Triazole                Minimal                    Minimal                     Slight irritant effect.       --                             Herbicide
49. Uracils                 Irritants                  Minimal                     Irritate skin, eyes, and      --                             Herbicides
                                                                                   respiratory tract.
50. Urea derivatives        Irritants                  Minimal                     Irritate eyes, skin, and      --                             Herbicides
                                                                                   mucous membranes.
51. Thiophthalimides        Irritants; Low systemic    Minimal                     Irritates skin, eyes, and     Skin sensitizers.              Fungicides
                            toxicity                                               respiratory tract.
52. Copper                  Irritants; Harms           Prompt vomiting, burning    Irritates skin, respiratory   --                             Fungicides
                            stomach and intestinal     pain in chest, diarrhea,    tract, and particularly the
                            lining, brain, liver,      headache, sweating.         eyes. Corrosive to eyes.
                            kidneys, and blood
                            system.
53. Organomercuric          Harms nervous system       Delirium, muscle            Minimal                       Weakness and lack of           Fungicides
Compounds                   and kidneys.               weakness, lack of                                         coordination in arms and
                                                       coordination, numbness in                                 legs; difficulty talking and
                                                       fingers and face, slurred                                 swallowing; permanent
                                                       speech, hearing loss.                                     nerve and brain damage.
54. Organotin               Irritants; Harms brain,    Headache, vomiting,         Irritates eyes, skin, and     --                             Fungicides, Antifouling
                            stomach, and intestines.   dizziness, convulsions,     respiratory tract.                                           paints
                                                       stomach pain.
55. Cadmium                 Irritants; Harms lungs,    Headache, cough, labored    Very irritating to            Harm to kidneys, liver,        Fungicides
                            kidney, blood system,      breathing, chest pain,      respiratory tract.            blood system, bone
                            liver, stomach and         nausea, vomiting,                                         structure.
                            intestinal lining.         diarrhea, abdominal pain.
56. Anilazine               Irritants; Low systemic    Minimal                     Irritates skin.               --                             Fungicides
                            toxicity.
57. Cycloheximide           Low systemic toxicity.     --                          --                            --                             Fungicides
58. Dodine                  Irritants; Low systemic    Nausea, vomiting,           Irritates skin and eyes.      --                             Fungicides
                            toxicity.                  diarrhea, harm to stomach
                                                       and intestinal lining.
59. Iprodione, Metalaxyl,   Slight Irritants; Low      Minimal                     Slightly irritating to eyes   --                             Fungicides
Terrazole, Thiabendazole,   systemic toxicity.                                     and skin.
Triadimefon, Triforine



                                                       117
CHEMICAL FAMILY            ACTION ON                   SYSTEMIC EFFECTS              IRRITATION                  DELAYED/                  TYPE OF PESTICIDE
                           HUMAN SYSTEM                                              EFFECTS                     ALLERGIC EFFECTS
60. Coumarins,             Prevents blood from         Minimal, blood in urine.      Bleeding gums and nose.     --                        Rodenticides
Indandiones, and Other     clotting.
Anticoagulants
61. Yellow Phosphorous     Corrosive; Highly toxic;    Breath has garlic odor;       Corrosive to skin, eyes,    --                        Rodenticides
                           Harms heart, blood          Feces may glow and            and mucous membranes.
                           system, liver, brain, and   smoke; Vomiting,
                           kidneys.                    diarrhea, lethargy,
                                                       restlessness, irritability,
                                                       burning pain in throat,
                                                       stomach, and intestines.
62. Zinc Phosphide         Highly toxic; Harms         Intense nausea, stomach       Irritates skin and mucous   --                        Rodenticides
                           liver, kidneys, nervous     pain, excitement, chills,     membranes; very
                           system, heart; Severe       cough.                        irritating to respiratory
                           respiratory and                                           tract.
                           intestinal irritation.
63. Thallium sulfate       Harms nervous system,       Stomach pain, nausea,         Minimal                     Confusion, damage to      Rodenticides
                           lungs, heart, blood         diarrhea, salivation,                                     nervous system, partial
                           vessels, kidney, liver,     headache, lethargy,                                       paralysis, damage to
                           and lining of stomach       tremors, muscle                                           sight.
                           and intestines.             weakness.
64. Sodium Fluoroacetate   Extremely toxic. Harms      Stomach pain, vomiting,       Minimal                     --                        Rodenticides
                           heart and brain.            hallucination,
                                                       nervousness.
65. Strychnine and         Acts directly on cells in   Blue skin color, violent      Minimal                     --                        Rodenticides
Crimidine                  the brain and spinal        convulsions.
                           cord.
66. ANTU and Norbormide    Low systemic toxicity,      --                            --                          --                        Rodenticides
                           except in huge doses.
67. Red Squill             Low systemic toxicity.      Prompt vomiting and           --                          --                        Rodenticides
                                                       nausea.
68. Pyriminil              Very toxic; Harms           Nausea, vomiting,             Minimal                     --                        Rodenticides
                           nervous system, brain,      diarrhea, stomach cramps,
                           and area around the         chills, confusion,
                           heart.                      weakness, chest pains.
69. Cholecalciferol        Harms liver, kidney,        Weakness, headache,           --                          --                        Rodenticides
                           and heart tissue.           nausea, excess thirst and
                                                       urine.



                                                       118
CHEMICAL FAMILY              ACTION ON                   SYSTEMIC EFFECTS            IRRITATION                     DELAYED/                 TYPE OF PESTICIDE
                             HUMAN SYSTEM                                            EFFECTS                        ALLERGIC EFFECTS
70. Napthalene               Irritants; Harms kidneys    Headache, dizziness,        Irritates eyes and             Skin sensitizer          Rodenticides
                             and blood system.           nausea, vomiting.           respiratory tract.
71. Methylene Chloride       Harms stomach,              Fatigue, weakness.          --                             --                       Fumigants
                             intestines, liver, and
                             kidney.
72. Methyl Bromide           Irritants; Serious harm Coughing of frothy fluid;       Severe burns, itching and      Lack of coordination,    Fumigants
                             to lungs; Harms nervous Severe shortness of             blisters on skin.              muscle weakness,
                             system.                 breath, drowsiness,                                            confusion.
                                                     shaking, weakness.
73. Chloroform, Carbon       Irritants; Harms liver      Dizziness, loss of          Irritates respiratory tract.   --                       Fumigants
Tetrachloride, Ethylene      and kidneys.                sensation and motor
Dichloride                                               power, unconsciousness.
74. Ethylene dibromide       Severe irritants; Harms     Dizziness, headache,        Severely irritates             Damage to male           Fumigants
                             lungs, liver, kidney, and   fatigue, cough, abdominal   respiratory tract.             reproductive organs.
                             lining of stomach and       pain.                       Corrosive to eyes and
                             intestine.                                              skin.

75. Dibromo -chloropropane   Severe irritant; Harms      Headache, nausea,           Irritating to skin, eyes,      Sterility, eye damage.   Fumigants
                             liver and kidney.           vomiting, slurred speech,   and respiratory tract.
                                                         confusion.
76. Dichloropropene,         Strong irritants; Harms     Breathing spasms.           Severely irritate skin,        --                       Fumigants
Dichloropropane              liver, kidney and heart                                 eyes, and respiratory tract.
                             tissue.
77. Paradichlorobenzene      Irritants; Low systemic     Minimal                     Mildly irritating to nose      --                       Fumigants
                             toxicity.                                               and eyes.
78. Ethylene Oxide,          Irritants; Harms lungs      Headache, nausea,           Blistering and erosion to      Skin sensitizer.         Fumigants
Propylene Oxide              and heart.                  vomiting, weakness,         skin.
                                                         cough of frothy, bloody
                                                         fluid.
79. Formaldehyde,            Irritants; Harms kidney,    Asthma, abdominal pain.     Irritating to eyes and         Systemic sensitizer      Fumigants
Paraformaldehyde             blood systems and                                       respiratory tract; hardens
                             lin ing of stomach and                                  and roughens skin.
                             intestine.
80. Acrolein                 Irritants; Harms lungs,     Asthma, abdominal pain.     Severe eye and                 --                       Fumigants, Herbicides
                             kidneys, blood system                                   respiratory tract irritant;
                             and lining of stomach                                   Blisters on skin.
                             and intestine.



                                                         119
CHEMICAL FAMILY         ACTION ON                  SYSTEMIC EFFECTS             IRRITATION                     DELAYED/                TYPE OF PESTICIDE
                        HUMAN SYSTEM                                            EFFECTS                        ALLERGIC EFFECTS
81. Sulfur Dioxide      Strong irritant to lungs   Respiratory distress.        Severely irritating to eyes    --                      Fumigants
                        and throat.                                             and respiratory tract.
82. Chloropicrin        Irritants                  Vomiting, abdominal          Severely irritating to eyes,   --                      Fumigants
                                                   pain.                        skin, and respiratory tract.
83. Sulfuryl Fluoride   Harms lungs and            Weakness, nausea,            Irritating to eyes, nose,      Harm to lungs and       Fumigants
                        kidneys.                   vomiting, cough, muscle      and throat.                    kidneys.
                                                   twitching, convulsions.
84. Carbon Disulfide    Irritants; Harms nervous   Dizziness, headache,         Irritates eyes, nose, and      Painful tingling and    Fumigants
                        system; Delayed harm       nausea, and                  throat.                        weakness in arms and
                        to kidney and liver.       disorientation.                                             legs; loss of mental
                                                                                                               functions; blindness,
                                                                                                               deafness, paralysis.
85. Phosphine           Irritants; Harms lungs,    Nausea, vomiting,            Mildly irritating to           --                      Fumigants
                        liver, kidneys, heart,     dizziness, weakness,         respiratory tract.
                        and nervous system.        shaking, cough, difficulty
                                                   in breathing, intense
                                                   thirst.
86. Hydrogen Cyanide,   Irritants; Harms brain     Headache, nausea,            --                             --                      Fumigants, Rodenticides
Acrylonitrile           and heart tissues.         constriction of throat,
                                                   dizziness, nervousness,
                                                   sudden unconsciousness.
87. Metaldehyde         Harms stomach lining,      Salivation, cramps,          --                             --                      Molluscicides
                        kidney, liver.             vomiting, tremors.
88. Aminopyridine       Disrupts nervous system    Thirst, nausea, dizziness,   --                             --                      Avicides
                        functions.                 weakness, excessive
                                                   sweating.
89. Calcium Cyanamide   Irritants                  Flushing, headache, low      Irritates skin; May be         --                      Fungicides and
                                                   blood pressure, difficulty   caustic to skin and                                    Herbicides
                                                   breathing.                   severely irritating to
                                                                                mucous membranes.
90. Sodium Chlorate     Irritants; Harms           Swelling of mouth and        Irritates skin, eyes, and      --                      Herbicides, Defoliants
                        intestinal lining,         throat, pain in esophagus,   respiratory tract.
                        nervous system, and        stomach and intestine,
                        kidneys.                   restlessness, nausea,
                                                   vomiting, diarrhea.




                                                   120
CHEMICAL FAMILY         ACTION ON                   SYSTEMIC EFFECTS        IRRITATION                 DELAYED/                    TYPE OF PESTICIDE
                        HUMAN SYSTEM                                        EFFECTS                    ALLERGIC EFFECTS
91. Creosote            Irritants; Harms brain      Salivation, vomiting,   Severely irritates skin,   Skin irritation, skin       Wood preservatives,
                        tissue, lining of stomach   abdominal pain,         eyes, and mucous           discoloration; Rarely       Insecticides, Disinfectants
                        and intestine.              headache, dizziness,    membranes.                 gangrene and skin cancer.
                                                    chills, convulsions.
92. Hexachlorobenzene   Irritants; Low systemic     --                      Minimal                    Injures liver and blood     Fungicides
                        toxicity; chronic                                                              system.
                        systemic effects.
93. Penta-              Minimal                     --                      --                         Possible skin sensitizers   Fungicides
chloronitrobenzene
94. Dichloran           Minimal                     --                      --                         --                          Fungicides
95. Chlorothalonil      Irritants                   --                      Irritates eyes, mucous     Skin sensitizer, rarely.    Fungicides
                                                                            membranes, and
                                                                            respiratory tract.
96. Chloroneb           Irritants                   --                      Moderately irritating to   --                          Fungicides
                                                                            skin and mucous
                                                                            membranes.
97. Benomyl             Low systemic toxicity.      --                      --                         Skin sensitizer.            Fungicides




                                                    121
The number following each pesticide on the list below refers to the number corresponding to the pesticide family on the EFFECTS OF
PESTICIDES ON THE HUMAN BODY chart in the previous section.

1080, 60                             acrolein, 80                        Ambush, 9                           Arelin, 50
2,3,6--TBA, 31                       acrylaldehyde, 80                   Amerol, 48                          Arrhenal, 22
2,4,5 trichlorophenoxyacetic acid,   Acrylofume, 86                      Ametrex, 47                         Arsenal, 41
23                                   acrylonitrile, 86                   ametryn, 47                         arsenic acid, 22
2,4,5-T, 23                          Actellic, 1                         Amex, 38                            arsenic pesticides, 22
2,4-D, 23                            Acti-dione, 57                      amiben, 31                          arsenic trioxide, 22
2,4-DB, 23                           Actispray, 57                       Amine 2,4,5-T, 23                   arsenous oxide, 22
2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 23   Activol, 8                          aminocarb, 2                        Arsine, 22
2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid,     Actor, 26                           4-aminopyridine, 88                 Arsinyl, 22
23                                   Afalon, 50                          amino-triazole, 48                  Arsonate Liquid, 22
2,4-dichlorophenoxypropionic acid,   Afesin, 50                          Amiral, 59                          Asana, 9
23                                   Aficida, 2                          Amitrol-t, 48                       Aspon, 1
2,4-DP, 23                           Afugan, 1                           amitrole, 48                        Aspor, 34
2-methyl-3,6 dichlorobenzoic acid,   Agritox, 1                          Ammo, 9                             asulam, 34
23                                   Agrosan, 53                         Amoxone, 23                         Asulox, 34
2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy aliphatic   Agrotect, 23                        anilazine, 56                       Asuntol, 1
acids and esters, 23                 Agrothion, 1                        anilides, 28                        AT-90, 48
4-Aminopyridine, 88                  Agroxone, 23                        anisic acid derivatives, 31         Atranex, 47
4-AP, 88                             Akar, 15                            Ansar, 22                           Atratol, 90
A7 Vapam, 34                         Akzo Chemie Mancozeb, 34            Anthio, 1                           atraton, 47
AASTAR, 1, 9                         Akzo Chemic Maneb, 34               Anticarie, 92                       Atratone, 47
AAtack, 34                           alachlor, 28                        Antimilace, 87                      atrazine, 47
Aaterra, 59                          Alanox, 28                          ANTU, 60                            Aules, 34
AAtrex, 47                           aldicarb, 2                         4-Ap, 88                            Avadex, 34
Abate, 1                             aldrin, 3                           Apachlor, 1                         Avicol, 93
Abathion, 1                          Aldrite, 3                          Apex, 17                            Avitrol, 88
Abol, 2                              aliphatic acids, 29                 Aphox, 2                            Azac, 34
Acaraben, 15                         alkyl phthalates, 20                Apl-Luster, 59                      Azar, 34
Accelerate, 45                       Allethrin, 9                        Appex, 1                            azinphos methyl, 1
Accotab, 38                          allidochlor, 27                     aprocarb, 2                         Azodrin, 1
Accothion, 1                         Allisan, 94                         Apron, 59                           Azolan, 48
acephate, 1                          Alon, 50                            Aquacide, 26                        Azole, 48
acetamides, 27                       AIP, 85                             Aqua-Kleen, 23                      bacillius thuringiensis, 7
Acme amine, 23                       alpha-napthyl thiourea, 60          Aqualin, 80                         Bactimos, 7
Acme Butyl Ester, 23                 alphametrin, 9                      Aquathol, 45                        Bactospeine, 7
Acme LV, 23                          Altosid, 17                         Aquatin, 54                         Bactur, 7
Acrex, 24                            aluminum phosphide, 85              Aquazine, 47                        Balan, 39
Acricid, 24                          Amaze, 1                            Aquinite, 82                        Balfin, 39
Acritet, 86                          Ambox, 24                           Arbotect, 59                        Ban-Hoe, 49



                                                122
Banvel, 23, 31                         Bicep, 27              Bug-Geta, 87                        Carpene, 97
barban, 35                             Bidrin, 1              Busan, 35                           Carzol, 2
Barricade, 9                           binapacryl, 24         Butoxon, 23                         Casoron, 32
Barrier, 32                            biopermethrin, 9       Butoxone, 23                        Castrix, 60
barthrin, 9                            bioresmethrin, 9       butralin, 38                        CCN52, 9
Basagran, 33                           Birlane, 1             butylate, 34                        CDAA, 27
Basalin, 39                            Black Leaf 40, 5       Butyrac, 23                         Cekiuron, 50
Basanite, 24                           Bladafum, 1            Bux, 2                              Ceku CB, 92
Basfapon, 29                           Bladex, 47             BW-21-Z, 9                          Ckeugib, 8
BASF-Maneb Spritzpulver, 34            Bo-Ana, 1              cacodylic acid, 22                  Cekumeta, 87
Bash, 1                                Bolate, 22             Caddy, 55                           Ckeuquat, 26
Batasan, 54                            Bolero, 34             Cadminate, 55                       Cekusan, 47
Baygon, 2                              Bolls -Eye, 22         cadmium chloride, 55                Cekusil, 53
Bayleton, 59                           Bolstar, 1             cadium pesticides, 55               Cela W-524, 59
Bayrusil, 1                            bomyl, 1               cadmium sebacate, 55                Celathion, 1
Baytex, 1                              Bophy, 22              cadium succinate, 55                Celfume, 73
Baythion, 1                            borates, 11            cadium sulfate, 55                  Celmer, 53
Baythroid,9                            borax, 11              Cad-Trete, 34, 55                   Celmide, 74
Beet-Kleen, 35                         Bordeaux Mixture, 52   Caid, 60                            Ceresan, 53
Belgran, 50                            Borea, 49              Calar, 22                           Certan, 7
Belmark, 9                             Boric acid, 11         calcium acid methane arsonate, 22   Chem Bam 34
bendiocarb, 2                          boron trioxide, 11     calcium arsenate, 22                Chem Fish, 6
Benefin, 39                            Botran, 94             calcium arsenite, 22                Chem Pels C 22
Benex, 97                              Botrilex, 93           calcium cyanamide, 89               Chem Rice, 28
benfluralin, 39                        Bravo, 95              Caldron, 24                         Chem Zineb, 34
Benlate, 97                            Brestan, 54            Caliber, 47                         Chemox General, 24
benomyl, 97                            Brimstone, 18          CAMA, 22                            Chemox PE, 24
bensulide, 1                           Brodan, 1              Canadien, 60                        Chemsect DNBP, 24
bentazon, 33                           brodifacoum, 60        Can-Trol, 23                        Chemsect DNOC, 24
Benzac, 31                             bromacil, 49           Caparol, 47                         Chem-Sen 56, 22
benzamide, 30                          bromadiolone, 60       Captaf, 51                          Chipco Thiram, 34
Benzilan, 15                           Bromax, 49             Captofol, 51                        Chipco Turf Herbicide "D", 23
Benzofuroline, 9                       Bromofume, 72          captan, 51                          chloramben, 31
benzoic, anisic acid derivatives, 31   Brom-O-Gas, 72         Captanex, 51                        Chlordan, 3
benzonitriles, 32                      Brom-O-Gaz, 72         Carbacryl, 86                       chlordane, 3
benzothiadiazinone dioxide, 33         bromomethane, 72       Carbamult, 2                        chlordecone, 3
Benzyl Benzoate, 21                    Bromone, 60            carbanilates, 35                    chlordimeform, 12
Berelex, 8                             bromophos, 1           carbaryl, 2                         chlorfenvinphos, 1
Bermat, 12                             bromophos-ethyl, 1     Carbazinc, 34                       chlorimuron ethyl, 50
Betasan, 1                             Brom-O-Sol, 72         carbofuran, 2                       chlormephos, 1
Bexton, 28                             Broot, 2               carbon disulfide, 84                chlorobenzilate, 15
BH 2,4-D, 23                           Bud-Nip, 35            carbon tetrachloride, 73            chloroform, 73
BH 2,4-DP, 23                          Bueno, 22              carbophenothion, 1                  Chloro-IPC, 35
BHC, 3                                 bufencarb, 2           Carbyne, 35                         chloroneb, 96


                                                  123
chlorophacinone, 60             copper potassium sulfide, 52       Curitan, 58                    DDD, 3
Chlorophen, 25                  copper quinolinolate, 52           cyanamide, 89                  DDT, 3
chlorophenothane, 3             copper resinate, 52                Cyanide, 86                    DDVP, 1
Chlor-O-Pic, 82                 copper silicate, 52                cyanofenphos, 1                Debroussaillant 600, 23
chloropicrin, 82                copper sulfate, 52                 cyanophos,1                    Decabane, 32
chloropyridinyl, 36             copper sulfate tribasic, 52        Cyanox, 1                      decamethrin, 9
Chlorothalonil, 95              Co-Ral, 1                          cyclethrin, 9                  Dechlorane, 3
chlorotoluron, 50               Co-Rax, 60                         cycloate, 34                   Desic, 9
Chloroxone, 23                  Corozate, 34                       cyclohexenone derivative, 37   Ded-Weed, 23, 29
chloroxuron, 50                 Corry's Slug and Snail Death, 87   cycloheximide, 57              Ded-Weed SULV, 23
chlorophoxim, 1                 Cosan, 18                          Cyclon, 86                     DEET, 19
chlorpropham, 35                Cotoran, 50                        Cyflee, 1                      DEF, 1
chlorpyrifos, 1                 Cottonex, 50                       cyfluthrin, 9                  DeFend, 1
chlorthal-dimethyl, 44          coumachlor, 60                     Cygon, 1                       De-Fol-Ate, 90
chlorthiophos, 1                coumafene, 60                      cyhexatin, 16                  Deftor, 50
cholecalciferol, 60, 69         coumafuryl, 60                     Cylan, 1                       DeGreen 1
Chrysron, 9                     coumaphos, 1                       Cymbush, 9                     Deiquat, 26
cinerins, 4                     coumarins, 60                      Cymperator, 9                  Delnav, 1
Ciodrin, 1                      coumatetralyl, 60                  Cyolane, 1                     deltamethrin, 9
cismethrin, 9                   Counter, 1                         Cyperkill, 9                   demeton, 1
Classic, 50                     Cov-R-Tox, 60                      cypermethrin, 9                demeton-S-methyl, 1
Clifton Sulfur, 18              Crab-E-Rad, 22                     Cypona, 1                      Denarin, 59
cloethrcarb, 2                  Crag Turf Fungicide 531, 55        Cyprex, 58                     Dervan, 90
ClortoCaffaro, 95               creosote, 91                       Cyrux, 9                       Des-i-cate, 45
Clortosip, 95                   crimidine, 65                      cythioate, 1                   Dessin, 24
Cobex, 39                       Crisalamina, 23                    Cytrol, 48                     Detamide, 19,
Codal, 27                       Crisamina, 23                      Cytrolane, 1                   Dethdiet, 67
Comite, 13                      Crisazina, 47                                                     Devizeb, 34
Command, 40                     Crisfolatan, 51                    2,4-D, 23                      Dextrone, 26
Compound 1080, 64               Crisfuran, 2                       2,4-DB, 23                     Dexuron, 26
Contrac, 60                     Crisquat, 26                       D50, 23                        Di-on, 50
Contraven, 1                    Crisuron, 50                       Dacamine, 23                   Di-Tac, 22
copper acetate, 52              Crop Rider, 23                     Daconate, 22                   Diacon, 17
copper acetoarsenite, 22        Crossbow, 36                       Daconil 2787, 95               dialifor, 1
copper ammonium carbonate, 52   Crotothane, 24                     Dacthal, 44                    diallate, 34
copper arsenite, 22             crotoxyphos, 1                     Dailon, 50                     Dianex, 22
copper carbonate, 52            crufomate, 1                       Danitol, 9                     Diaract, 14
copper hydroxide, 52            cryolite, 10                       Dapacryl, 24                   Diater, 50
Copper Lime dust, 52            Cuman, 34                          Dart, 14                       diazinon, 1
copper linoleate, 52            cupric oxide, 52                   Dasanit, 1                     Dibrom, 1
copper naphthenate, 52          cuprous oxide, 52                  DBCP, 75                       dibromochloropropane,76
copper oleate, 52               Curacron, 1                        DCNA, 94                       dibromoethane, 74
copper oxychloride, 52          Curamil, 1                         DCPA, 44                       dibutylphthalate, 20
copper phenyl salicylate, 52    Curaterr, 2                        D-D, 76                        Dicamba, 23, 31


                                            124
Dicarbam, 2                          dinocap, 24                     Dormone, 23        Elgetol, 24
dichlobenil, 32                      Dinofen, 24                     Dosaflo, 50        Elocron, 2
dichlofenthion, 1                    dinopenton, 24                  Dosanex, 50        Embutox, 23
Dichloran, 94                        dinoprop, 24                    Dotan, 1           emerald green, 22
dichlorethane, 73                    dinosam, 24                     Dowpon, 29         Emisan, 53
2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 23   dinoseb, 24                     2,4-DP, 23         Emulsamine BK, 23
2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid,     dinosulfon, 24                  DPA, 28            Emulsamine E-3, 23
23                                   dinoterb, 24                    DPX 1410, 2        Endosan, 24
2,4-dichlorophenoxypropionic acid,   dinoterbon, 24                  Drat, 60           endosulfan, 3
23                                   Dinoxol, 23                     Drawinol, 24       endothall, 45
dichloropropane, 76                  Di-on, 50                       Draza, 2           endothion, 1
dichloropropene, 76                  dioxacarb, 2                    Drexar 530, 22     Endrin, 3
dichloropropane plus                 dioxathion, 1                   Drexel Defol, 90   Entex, 1
dichloropropene, 76                  Dipel, 7                        Drinox, 3          Envert, 23
dichloropropionic acid, 29           diphacin, 60                    Drop-Leaf, 90      EPBP, 1
dichlorvos, 1                        diphacinone, 60                 Drupina 90, 34     EPN, 1
dicofol, 3                           Dipher, 34                      DSE, 34            epoxyethane, 78
dicrotophos, 1                       Dipterex, 1                     DSMA, 22           Eptam, 34
Dicuran, 50                          Dipyridyls, 26                  Du-Ter, 54         EPTC, 34
dieldrin, 3                          Diquat, 26                      Dual, 27           Eradicane, 34
Dieldrite, 3                         Direx, 50                       Duraphos, 1        Eraze, 60
dienochlor, 3                        Dirimal, 38                     Duratox, 1         Erban, 28
diethyltoluamide, 19                 disodium arsenate, 22           Dursban, 1         esfenvalerate, 9
difenacoum, 60                       disodium methane arsonate, 22   Duter, 54          Esgram, 26
difenoxuron, 50                      disulfoton, 1                   Dwell, 59          Estone, 23
Diflubenzuron, 14                    Disyston, 1                     Dycarb, 2          ethalfluralin, 39
Difolatan, 51                        Di-tac, 22                      Dyclomec, 32       Ethanox, 1
Dilic, 22                            Dithane, 34                     Dyfonate, 1        Ethazol, 59
Dimecron, 1                          Dithione, 1                     Dylox, 1           ethion, 1
dimefox, 1                           ditranil, 94                    Dynamyte, 24       ethoprop, 1
dimephenthoate, 1                    Diurex, 50                      Dyrene, 56         ethyl parathion, 1
dimetan, 2                           Diurol, 50                      E-48, 1            ethylan, 3
Dimethan, 2                          diuron, 50                      E-601, 1           ethylene dibromide, 74
dimethoate, 1                        DLP -87, 68                     E-605, 1           ethylene dichloride, 73
dimethrin, 9                         DMA, 22                         Earthcide, 93      ethylene oxide, 78
dimethyl phthalate, 20               DMA 4, 23                       Easy off-D, 1      ETO, 78
Dimilin, 14                          DMP, 20                         Ectiban, 9         etrimfos, 1
dinitramine, 39                      DNAP, 24                        EDB, 74            Etrofolan, 2
Dinitro, 24                          DNBP, 24                        E-D-Bee, 74        Evik, 47
Dinitro-amino-benzene derivatives,   DNC, 24                         EDC, 73            Exotherm Termil, 95
38                                   DNOC, 24                        edifenphos, 1      E-Z-Off D, 1
dinitrocresol, 24                    Dodine, 97                      Ekamet, 1          Fac, 1
dinitrophenol, 24                    Dojyopicrin, 82                 Ekatin, 1          Fall, 90
dinobuton, 24                        Dolochlor, 82                   Eksmin, 9          Famfos, 1


                                                 125
Famid, 2                      formaldehyde, 79        Go -Go-San, 38                  hexachlorobenzene, 92
famphur, 1                    formalin, 79            Golden Dew, 18                  hexachlorocyclohexane, 3
Farmco, 23                    formetanate, 2          Goldquat 276, 26                Hexadrin, 3
Ferberk, 34                   formothion, 1           Gordon's Amine, 23              Hexaferb, 34
fenamiphos, 1                 Formula 40, 23          Gordon's Butyl Ester, 23        Hexathane, 34
fenchlorphos, 1               Forron, 23              Gordon's Dymec Turf Herbicide   Hexathir, 34
fenitrothion, 1               Fortrol, 47             Amine 2,4-D, 23                 Hexazir, 34
Fenkill, 9                    fosamine ammonium, 43   Gordon's LV 400 2,4-D, 23       Hi-Yield Dessicant H-10, 22
fenophosphon, 1               fosthietan, 1           Gordon's Mecomec, 23            Hoe 002784, 24
fenpropathrin, 9              Fratol, 64              Gordon's Phenaban 801, 23       Hong Nien, 53
fensulfothion, 1              French Green, 22        Graminon, 50                    Hostaquick, 1
fenthion, 1                   Fumarin, 60             Gramocil, 26                    Hostathion, 1
fentin acetate, 54            Fumitoxin, 85           Gramonol, 26                    hydrocyanic acid, 86
fentin chloride, 54           Fundal, 12              Gramoxone, 26                   hydrogen cyanamide, 89
fentin hydroxide, 54          Funginex, 59            Gramuron, 26                    hydrogen cyanide, 86
fenvalerate, 9                Fungitrol II, 51        Granurex, 50                    Hydrothol, 45
Ferbam, 34                    Fungostop, 34           Grasalan, 50                    Hyvar, 49
Fermide, 34                   Furadan, 2              Gra zon, 46                     IBP, 1
Fernasan, 34                  furethrin, 9            Griffex, 47                     Igran, 47
Fernesta, 23                  Furloe, 35              Grocel, 8                       Imidan, 1
Fernimine, 23                 furmarin, 60            Gusathion, 1                    indandiones, 60
Fernos, 2                     Futura, 7               Guthion, 1                      indothrin, 9
Fernoxone, 23                 G 28029, 1              Gypsine, 22                     Inverton 235, 23
Ferxone, 23                   GA 3 , 8                Haipen, 51                      iodofenphos, 1
Ficam, 2                      Galecron, 12            Haitin, 54                      IP50, 50
Final, 60                     Gallotox, 53            Halizan, 87                     Iprodione, 59
Flectron, 9                   gamma BHC, 3            Hanane, 1                       isofenphos, 1
Florocid, 10                  gamma HCH, 3            Havoc, 60                       isolan, 2
fluchlorallin, 39             Gardona, 1              HCB, 92                         isomethiozin, 47
flucythrinate, 9              Gardoprim, 47           Hedonal, 23                     Isopestox, 1
fluometuron, 50               Garlon, 36              Hel-Fire, 24                    isoprocarb, 2
fluorides, 10                 Gebutox, 24             Helothion, 1                    isopropalin, 38
fluorodinitrotoluidines, 39   Gesafram 50, 47         heptachlor, 3                   isoproturon, 50
fluvalinate, 9                Gesagard, 47            Heptagran, 3                    Isotox, 3
FMC 9044, 24                  Gesamil, 47             heptenophos, 1                  isoxathion, 1
Folbex, 15                    Gesapax, 47             Herald, 9                       Isoxazolidinone, 40
Folcord, 9                    Gesatamin, 47           Herb-All, 22                    jasmolins, 4
Folex, 1                      Gesatop, 47             Herbalt, 50                     Jones Ant Killer, 22
Foliafume, 6                  gibberellic acid, 8     Herbaxon, 26                    Kabat, 17
Folosan, 93                   Gibberellin, 8          Herbicide 273, 45               Kack, 22
Folpan, 51                    Gibrel, 8               Herbidal, 23                    Kafil, 9
Folpet, 51                    Glifonox, 43            Herbizole, 48                   KafilSuper, 9
Foltaf, 51                    Glycophene, 59          Herbodox, 38                    Karathane, 24
fonofos, 1                    glyphosate, 43          Herboxone, 26                   Karbation, 34


                                        126
Karmex, 50               lindane, 17         Meothrin, 9                           metolachlor, 27
Karphos, 1               Line Rider, 23      mephosfolan, 1                        metoxuron, 50
Kayafume, 72             Linex, 50           mercaptophos, 1                       metribuzin, 47
Kelthane, 3              Linorox, 50         Mercuram, 34                          mevinphos, 1
Kemate, 56               Linurex, 50         mercury pesticides, 53                Mezene, 34
Kepone, 3                linuron, 50         Merge 823, 22                         MGK, 19
Kerb, 30                 Liphadione, 60      Merpafol, 51                          Micromite, 14
Kildip, 23               Liqua-Tox, 60       Merpan, 51                            Mcrozul, 60
Kill-All, 22             Liquid Sulfur, 18   merphos, 1                            Miller 531, 55
Kill-Ko Rat Killer, 60   Liquiphene, 53      Mersolite, 53                         Milogard, 47
Kiloseb, 24              Lironion, 50        Mertect, 59                           Milo-Pro, 47
Kitazin, 1               LM91, 60            Mesamate, 22                          Minex, 17
Kiwi Lustr 277, 94       Lonacol, 34         Mesurol, 2                            mipafox, 1
Klerat, 60               Lorox, 50           Metadelphene, 19                      MIPC, 2
Klorex, 90               Lorsban, 1          Metalaxyl, 59                         Miracle, 23
KM, 90                   MAA, 22             metaldehyde, 87, metalkamate, 2       mirex, 3
Knockmate, 34            Macondray, 23       Metam-Fluid BASF, 34                  mitis green, 22
Koban, 59                Magnetic 6, 18      Metam-Sodium, 34                      Mocap, 1
Kobu, 93                 Maki, 60            Metason, 87                           Monitor, 1
Kobutol, 93              malathion, 1        Metasystox, 1                         monoammonium methane arsonate,
Kopfume, 74              MAMA, 22            metaxon, 23                           22
Korlan, 1                Mancozeb, 34        methabenzthiazuron, 50                mono-calcium arsenite, 22
Krenite, 43              Mancozin, 34        methamidophos, 1                      monocrotophos, 1
Kromad, 34               maneb, 34           Metham-Sodium, 34                     monolinuron, 50
Kryocide, 10             Maneba, 34          Methane arsonic acid, 22              monosodium methane arsonate, 22
Krysid, 66               Manesan, 34         Methar 30, 22                         Monuron, 50
Kumulus S, 48            Manex, 34           methidathion, 1                       Morocide, 24
Kusatol, 90              Manzate, 34         methiocarb, 2                         Morrocid, 24
Kypfarin, 60             manzeb, 34          Meth-O-Gas, 72                        MSMA, 22
Kypman 80, 34            Manzin, 34          methoprene, 17                        Multamat, 2
Kypzin, 34               Maposol, 34         Methoxone M, 23                       Mycodifol, 51
Lacco Sulfur, 18         Marlate, 3          methoxychlor, 3                       N-2790, 1
Lance, 2                 Matacil, 2          methoxyethyl mercury acetate, 53      nabam, 34
Landrin, 2               Mavrik, 9           methoxyethyl mercury chloride, 53     Nabasan, 34
Lannate, 2               MCPA, 23            methoxyethyl mercury pesticides,      naled, 1
Lanox, 2                 MCPB, 23            53                                    Namekil, 87
Larvicide, 82            MCPP, 23            methyl bromide, 72                    naphthalene, 70
Lasso, 28                M-Diphar, 34        2-methyl-3,6 dichlorobenzoic acide,   naphthene, 70
Lawn-Keep, 23            MeBr, 72            23                                    naramycin, 57
Lazo, 28                 Mecopex, 23         methyl mercury pesticides, 53         NaTA, 29
Lead Arsenate, 22        mecoprop, 23        methyl parathion, 1                   Nebure x, 50
lenacil, 49              Melprex, 58         methyl trithion, 1                    neburon, 50
leptophos, 1             MEMA, 53            methylene chloride, 71                Neguvon, 1
Lexone, 47               MEMC, 53            metobromuron, 50                      Nemacur, 1


                                     127
Nemafume, 75                    Orthocide, 51             Pentac, 3                          pirimiphos-methyl, 1
Nemanax, 75                     oryzalin, 38              pentachloronitrobenzene, 93        Pirimor, 2
Nemaset, 75                     Osaquat super, 26         pentachlorophenate, 25             Pivacin, 60
Nemasol, 34                     Oust, 50                  pentachlorophenol, 25              pival, 60
Nem-A-Tak, 1                    Outflank 9                Pentacon, 25                       pivaldione, 60
Nematocide, 75                  Ovatoxin, 12              Pentagen, 93                       Pivalyn, 60
Nemispor, 34                    Oxadiazolinone, 42        Penwar, 25                         Place-Pax, 60
Neopynamin, 9                   Oxamyl, 2                 Permasect, 9                       Planotox, 23
Neosorexa PP580, 60             oxirane, 78               permethrin, 9                      Plantgard, 23
Nephis, 74                      oxydemeton-methyl, 1      Perthane, 3                        Plictran, 16
Netagrone 600, 23               oxydeprofos, 1            Perthrine, 9                       PMAA, 53
Nexagan,1                       Paarlan, 38               Pestox, 1                          PMAS, 53
Neion, 1                        Pamisan, 53               Phalton, 51                        PMP Tracking Powder, 60
NIA 9044, 24                    Panogen, 53               Pharorid, 51                       Poast, 37
nicotine, 5                     Pansoil, 59               phencapton, 1                      Policar, 34
nicotine sulfate, 5             Paracide, 77              Phenostat, 54                      Polybor, 11
nicotinic acid-isopropylamine   Para-col, 26              phenthoate, 1                      Polymone, 23
derivative, 41                  paradichlorobenzene, 77   Phentinoacetate, 54                Polyram M, 34
Niomil, 2                       paraformaldehyde, 79      phenyl mercuric acetate, 53        Polytrin,9
Nitrador, 24                    Paraquat, 26              phenyl mercury ammonium acetate,   Pomarsol forte, 34
nitrochloroform, 82             parathion, 1              53                                 Pounce, 9
Nitrolime, 89                   Paris Green, 22           Phix, 53                           PP581, 60
Nitropone C, 24                 Parzate, 34               phorate, 1                         Pramex, 9
Nix, 9                          Pathclear, 26             phosalone, 1                       Pramitol, 47
No Bunt, 92                     Patoran, 50               Phosdrin, 1                        Prebane, 47
Nomersam, 34                    Pattonex, 50              phosfolan, 1                       Precor, 17
Nomolt, 14                      Pay-off, 9                phosmet, 1                         Preeglone,26
norbormide, 66                  PB-Nox, 6                 phosphamidon, 1                    Prefar, 1
Noxfire, 6                      PCNB, 93                  phosphine, 85                      Preglone, 26
Noxfish, 6                      PCP, 25                   phostoxin, 85                      Prentox, 6
NRDC 149, 9                     P.C.Q., 60                Phosvel, 1                         Priglone, 26
Nudrin, 2                       PDB, 77                   Phosvin, 62                        Primagram, 27
Nusyn-Noxfish, 6                PDQ, 23                   phoxim, 1                          Primatol, 47
Nuvanol-N, 1                    PEBC, 34                  phthalates, 44                     Primextra, 27
OFF, 19                         pebulate, 34              phthalthrin, 9                     Primicid, 1
Oftanol, 1                      Pencal, 22                Phytar 560, 22                     Primin, 2
Ofunack, 1                      Penchlorol, 25            Pic-clor, 82                       Princep, 47
Omite, 13                       pendimethalin, 38         picloram, 46                       Proban, 1
OMPA, 1                         Penite, 22                picolinic acid 46                  Prodalumnol double, 22
Ontracic 8000, 47               Pennamine D, 23           Pillarquat, 26                     Prodan, 10
Orthene, 1                      Pennant, 27               Pillarxone, 26                     profenofos, 1
Ortho Danitol, 9                Penncap-M, 1              pindone, 60                        profluralin, 39
Ortho Diquat, 26                Penncozeb, 34             pirimicarb, 2                      Pro-Gibb, 8
Ortho Paraquat, 26              Penta, 25                 pirimiphos-ethyl, 1                Prolate, 1


                                            128
prolin, 60                    Rapid, 2                         Saprol, 59                           Sonalan, 39
promecarb, 2                  Ratak, 60                        Sarclex, 50                          Soprabel, 22
prometon, 47                  Raticate, 66                     Saturn, 34                           Sopranebe, 34
Prometrex, 47                 Ratilan, 60                      schradan, 1                          Spectracide, 1
prometryn, 47                 Ratimus, 60                      Schweinfurt Green, 22                Spike, 50
pronamide, 30                 Ratomet, 60                      Scout, 9                             Spotrete, 34
propachlor, 28                Raviac,60                        Seedtox, 53                          Spra-cal, 22
Propanex, 28                  RAX, 60                          Selinon, 24                          Spring Bak, 34
propanil, 28                  red squill, 67                   Semeron, 47                          Spritz-Hormin/2,4-D, 23
propargite, 13                Reglone, 26                      Sencor, 47                           Spritz-Hormit/2,4-D, 23
propazine, 47                 Reglox, 26                       Sencoral, 47                         Sprout-Nip, 35
propenal 80                   Regulex, 8                       Sencorex, 47                         Spur, 9
propetamphos, 1               Remasan Chloroble M, 34          Seritox 50, 23                       S-Seven, 1
propoxur, 2                   Resisan, 94                      sethoxydim, 37                       Stam, 28
propylene oxide, 78           resmethrin, 9                    Setrete, 53                          Stampede, 28
propyl thiopyrophosphate, 1   Revenge, 29                      Sevin, 2                             Stirofos, 1
prothoate, 1                  RH-787, 68                       Shimmer-ex, 53                       Stomp, 38
Prowl, 38                     Rhodianebe, 34                   Shoxin, 66                           Strobane, 3
Proxol, 1                     Rhodthane, 3                     siduron, 50                          strychnine, 65
prussic acid, 86              Ridall-Zinc, 62                  simazine, 47                         Subdue, 59
Purivel, 50                   Ridomil, 59                      Simazol, 48                          Subitex, 24
Pydrin, 9                     Ripcord, 9                       Sinbar, 49                           Sul-Cide, 18
Pynamin, 9                    Riselect, 28                     Sinituho, 25                         Sulerex, 50
Pynosect, 9                   Rodent Cake, 60                  Sinox, 24                            Sulfex, 18
Pyradex, 34                   Rodex, 60                        Siperin, 9                           sulfometuron methyl, 50
pyrazophos, 1                 Rodex-Blox, 60                   Skeetal, 7                           sulfotep, 1
pyrethrins, 4                 Rodine, 60                       Sodar, 22                            sulfur, 18
pyrethroids, 9                Rody, 9                          sodium aluminofluoride, 10           sulfur dioxide, 81
pyrethrum, 4                  Ro-Neet, 34                      sodium arsenate, 22                  sulfuryl fluoride, 83
pyridaphenthion, 1            ronnel 1                         sodium biborate, 11                  sulprofos, 1
pyriminil, 68                 Ronstar, 42                      sodium cacodylate, 22                Sumicidin, 9
Pyrobor, 11                   Rotacide, 6                      sodium chlorate, 90                  Sumithion, 1
Quilan, 39                    rotenone, 6                      sodium fluoaluminate, 10             Super Crab-E-Rad-Calar, 22
quinalphos, 1                 Rotenone Solution FK-11, 6       sodium fluoride, 10                  Super D Weedone, 23
Quintox, 69                   Roundup, 43                      sodium fluoroacetate, 64             Super Dal-E-Rad, 22
quintozene, 93                Rout (bromacil and diuron), 50   sodium fluosilicate, 10              Supernox, 28
Racumin, 60                   Rozol, 60                        sodium pentaborate, 11               Superormone Concentre, 23
Rad-E-Cate, 22                Ruelene, 1                       sodium pentachlorophenate, 25        Supracide, 1
radione, 60                   Safrotin, 1                      sodium silico fluoride, 10           Surecide, 1
Rampage, 69                   Safsan, 10                       sodium tetraborate decahydrate, 11   Surflan, 38
Rampart, 1                    Salvo arsenic, 22                Sofril, 18                           Surpass, 34
Ramrod, 28                    Salvo 2,4-D, 23                  Sok-Bt, 12                           Surpur, 28
Ramucide, 60                  Sanspor, 51                      Solasan, 34                          Sutan, 34
Randox, 27                    Santophen, 25                    Sometam, 34                          Suzu, 54


                                          129
Swat, 1                      Tersan, 97                    Tomilon, 50                           Trifungol,34
Sweep, 26                    tetrachlorvinphos, 1          Tomorin, 60                           Trimangol, 34
Syllit, 58                   tetraethyl pyrophosphate, 1   Topitox, 60                           Trimaton, 34
Synthrin, 9                  tetrafluoron, 50              Torak, 1                              trimethacarb, 2
Systox, 1                    tetramethrin, 9               Tordon, 46                            Trinoxol, 23
2,4,5-T, 23                  Tetrapom, 34                  Tota-col, 26                          Tri-PCNB, 93
Tag, 53                      Thallium, 63                  Toxakil, 3                            Triphenyl Tin, 54
Talan, 24                    thallium sulfate, 63          toxaphene, 3                          Triple Tin, 54
Talbot, 22                   thiabendazole, 59             Toxe r Total, 26                      Tripomol, 34
Talcord, 9                   thibenzole, 59                Tox-Hid, 60                           Triscabol, 34
Talon, 60                    Thimer, 34                    TPTA, 54                              Trithion, 1
Tamex, 38                    thimet, 1                     TPTH, 54                              Tritoftorol, 34
Tamogam, 60                  thiobencarb, 34               TPTOH, 54                             Truban, 59
Tantizon,47                  Thiodan, 3                    TR-10, 39                             Tuads, 34
Target MSMA, 22              Thioknock, 34                 tralomethrin, 9                       Tuban, 23
Tattoo, 2                    Thiolux, 18                   Trametan, 34                          Tubothane, 34
2,3,5-TBA, 31                thiometon, 1                  Transamine, 23                        Tubotin, 54
TBZ, 59                      Thion, 18                     Trans-Vert, 22                        Tuffcide, 95
TCA, 29                      Thiophal, 51                  Treflan, 39                           Tupersan, 50
TCBA, 31                     Thiophos, 1                   triadimefon, 59                       Turcam, 2
TDE, 3                       thiophthalimides, 51          triallate, 34                         Turf-Cal, 22
tebuthiuron, 50              Thiotepp, 1                   Triasyn, 56                           Turflon, 36
Tecto, 59                    Thiotex, 34                   Triazole, 48                          U 46, 23
teflubenzuron, 14            Thiovit, 18                   triazophos, 1                         Ultracide, 1
Teknar, 7                    thiram, 34                    Tribac, 31                            Unicrop-CIPC, 35
Telone II, 76                Thiramad, 34                  Tribactur, 7                          Unicrop DNBP, 24
temephos, 1                  Thirasan, 34                  Tri-ban, 60                           Unicrop Maneb, 34
Temik, 2                     Thistrol, 23                  Tribunil, 50                          Unidron, 50
1080, 64                     Thiuramin, 34                 Tributon, 23                          Uniroyal DO 14, 13
Tenoran, 50                  Thuricide, 7                  tricalcium arsenate, 22               Unisan, 53
TEPP, 1                      Tiezene, 34                   Tricarbamix Z, 34                     Uragan, 49
terbacil, 49                 Tiguvon, 1                    trichlorfon, 1                        Urox B, 49
terbucarb, 34                Tilcarex, 93                  trichloroacetic acid, 29              Ustaad, 9
terbufos, 1                  Tillam, 34                    trichlorobenzoic acid, 31             Vacor, 68
terbuthylazine, 47           Tinestan, 54                  trichloromethane, 73                  valone, 60
Terbutrex, 47                Tinmate, 54                   trichloronate, 1                      Vancide, 34
terbutryn, 47                Tirampa, 34                   2,4,5 trichlorophenoxy acetic acid,   Vapam, 34
terpene polychlorinates, 3   TMTD, 34                      23                                    Vapona, 1
Terraclor, 93                TMTDS, 34                     triclopyr, 36                         Vaitox, 29
Terraklene, 26               T-Nox, 23                     Tri-Clor, 82                          VC-13 Nemacide, 1
Terraneb, 96                 Tolban, 39                    tricyclohexyl tin hydroxide, 16       Vectal, 47
Terrazole, 59                Tolkan, 50                    trifluralin, 39                       Vectobac, 7
Terro Ant Killer, 22         Toluex, 50                    Trifocide, 24                         Venturol, 58
Terr-O-Gas, 73               Tomarin, 60                   Triforine, 59                         Venzar, 49


                                         130
vernolate, 34        Wax Up 38         Weedtrol, 24            ziram, 34
Vertac, 24           WBA 8107, 60      white arsenic, 22       Ziramvis, 34
Vi-Cad, 55           Weed Tox, 23      Yasoknock, 64           Zirasan, 34
Vikane, 83           Weed-B-Gon, 23    yellow phosphorus, 61   Zirberk, 34
Volid, 60            Weed-E-Rad, 22    Zebtox, 34              Zirex, 34
Voncaptan, 51        Weed-Hoe, 22      Zerlate, 34             Ziride, 34
Vondodine,58         Weed-Rhap, 23     Ziman-Dithane, 34       Zitox, 34
Vondozeb, Plus, 34   Weedar, 23        zinc arsenate, 22       Zolone, 1
Vonduron, 50         Weedatul, 23      zinc phosphide, 62      Zolvis, 18
VPM, 34              Weedazol, 48      Zinc-Tox, 62            zoocoumarin, 60
Vydate L, 2          Weedol, 26        Zincmate, 34            Zotox, 22
warfarin, 60         Weedone, 23       zineb, 34               ZP, 62
Warfarin Q, 60       Weedtrine-D, 26   Zinosan, 34             ZR-515, 17




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