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History of Geothermal


									Geothermal Power Generation –British Columbia and California Markets 1) Geothermal – What does it mean? GEO – means EARTH THERMAL – means HEAT 2) Heat flows outward from Earth's interior. The crust insulates us from Earth's interior heat. The mantle is semi-molten, the outer core is liquid and the inner core is solid.

Geothermal Education Office

2) The Deeper you go, the hotter is gets (In Celsius and Kilometers)

Geothermal Education Office

3) When the rising hot water and steam is trapped in permeable and porous rocks under a layer of impermeable rock, it can form a geothermal reservoir

Geothermal Education Office

4) Natural steam from the production wells power the turbine generator. The steam is condensed by evaporation in the cooling tower and pumped down an injection well to sustain production.

Geothermal Education Office

5) Like all steam turbine generators, the force of steam is used to spin the turbine blades which spin the generator, producing electricity. But with geothermal energy, no fuels are burned.

Geothermal Education Office - Turbine

blades inside a geothermal turbine generator.

6) Those white plumes you see at geothermal power plants are steam (water vapor). Geothermal plants do not burn fuel or produce smoke.

Geothermal Education Office

7) History of Geothermal 8) Prince Piero Ginori Conti invented the first geothermal power plant in 1904, at the Larderello dry steam field in Italy.

US Department of Energy

9) In 1960, the United States first large-scale geothermal electricity-generating plant begins operation. Pacific Gas and Electric operates the plant, located at The Geysers. The first turbine produced 11 megawatts (MW) of net power and operated successfully for more than 30 years.

Source: US Department of Energy

10) The most active geothermal resources are usually found along major plate boundaries where earthquakes and volcanoes are concentrated. Most of the geothermal activity in the world occurs in an area known as the "Ring of Fire." The Ring of Fire rims the Pacific Ocean and is bounded by Japan, the Philippines, the Aleutian Islands, North America, Central America, and South America.


12) When added together, California's geothermal power plants produce about 40 percent of the world's geothermal generated electricity. The power plants have a dependable installed capacity of about 1,900 megawatts -- producing 4.9 percent of California's total electricity in 1999 (12,786 million kilowatt/hours). (source: California Energy Commission)

Various Plants operating in the Geysers Field 13) Power Demand in California  California’s Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) requires 20% of electricity sales to come from renewables by 2010 with a goal of 33% by 2020  In 2006, less than 15% of all electricity consumed in California came from renewables such as geothermal, wind, solar and small hydro 14) California Utilities view geothermal as the “gold standard“ for electricity generation, as it is baseload, with a 95-99% capacity factor

Geothermal Education Office

15) 20 plants are still operating at The Geysers. Wastewater from nearby cities is injected into the field, providing environmentally safe disposal and increased steam to power plants. (insert chart slide 9 in Nov ppt)

16) Insert slide 10 – from Nov ppt 17) Insert slide 13 – from Nov PPT 18) Insert slide 14 19) Insert slide 16 20) Insert slide 20 21) Power Demand in British Columbia

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BC requires 1,200 MW of new capacity by 2010, increasing to over 4,000 MW by 2023 to meet demand Power demand exceeds supply in British Columbia BC Hydro - net importer over the past 5 years – (7,000 GWh in 2006 (13.5% of load)

22) Power Demand cont.. - BC Hydro plans to acquire some 10,000 GWh/year of firm energy by 2015 from Independent Power Producers (Source: BC Hydro 2006 IEP) - Policy of BC’s Government and BC Hydro: 50% of new power to be “Green” 23) Insert Slide 22 – Nov ppt 24) - November 20, 2007 the BC Government introduced legislation which if passed, will enshrine into law its commitment to be the greenest jurisdiction in North America by 2020 - Premier Gordon Campbell named the 22 members of the Climate Action team - Results will be requirements in terms of tools, incentives and regulations in place to meet the targets. 25) Insert Slide 23 26) Insert Slide 24 27) Insert Slide 25 28) Insert Slide 28

29) Insert Slide 29 30) Insert Slide 30 31) Insert Slide 34 32) Inserts Slide 35

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