Other domains of personality research Personality, Individual by umsymums39


									Other domains of personality research                              Personality, Individual Differences
                                                                     and Evolutionary Psychology
 •   Evolutionary perspectives and individual differences         • Evolutionary Psychological Theory
 •   Behavior Genetics of Personality                                – Barkow, Cosmides, and Tooby (1992) The
 •   Personality and Intelligence                                      Adapted Mind
 •   Longitudinal studies of personality consistency                 – Species typical behavior
         – Block et al.                                                 • Adaptations that are important for survival and
         – Caspi et al.                                                   reproduction will be selected for over time
                                                                        • Why are there individual differences
 • Cognitive Affective Personality Systems
 • Affective Dynamics

     5 broad classes of competition                                  Competition-1: Between species
• Between species                                                Competition and co-evolution: the “Red Queen hypothesis”
                                                                    Van Valen, 1973
• Within species                                                    need to run fast just to stay in place
     –   Intrasexual competition for survival and reproduction   Is co-evolution the genesis of sexual reproduction?
     –   Intersexual competition                                    Why do we sexually reproduce -- wastes 50% of our
     –   Parent offspring competition                               genes
     –   Sibling competition                                        Random reassortment protects from parasites?
                                                                 Are individual differences merely a defense against
                                                                    parasitic load?

     Competition-2: Within species                                    Competition 3: within species
 • Intra-sexual competition for survival and                        • Inter-sexual competition
   reproduction                                                        – Resource investment model (e.g., Buss)
         – Niche selection                                                • Materity certainty and high resource cost
         – Multiple strategies lead to locally optimal                    • Paternity uncertainty and low resource cost
           solutions                                                   – But reproductive success is not number of
                                                                         children, but number of surviving descendants

   Competition-4: Within species                               Competition -5: within species
 • Parent - offspring competition for resources            • Sibling competition (see F. Sulloway’s Born to
    – Offspring share 50% of parent’s genes.                 Rebel for a discussion of the implication of
    – Reproductive value of offspring to parent varies
                                                             birth order effects)
      as situational stress and probability of offspring      – Differential reproductive fitness (as a child) as a
                                                                function of birth order leads to
                                                              – Multiple strategies varying by birth order
    – Parent - step child conflict
                                                                 • First borns -- higher conscientiousness
                                                                 • Later borns higher opennesss
                                                              – (but see also Harris for an analysis of the effects of
                                                                peer groups)

Behavior Genetics and inheritance
                                                                          Behavior genetics
    of individual differences
 • Until recently, little emphasis upon genetic              • Experimental studies
   mechanisms per se, but rather on                             – Rats and selective breeding
   proportions of variance explained through                       • Maze bright versus maze dull
                                                                   • Reactive versus non-reactive
   genetic relationship
                                                                – Drosophila and selective breeding
 • Not much (until recently) recognition of                        • Positive and negative geotaxis
   distinction between structural versus                           • Positive and negative phototaxis
   regulatory genes                                                • Genes for clock timing
                                                                – Dog breeding for 10,000 years

                                                                     Simple genetic models:
         Simple genetic models
                                                                       selection for fitness
• Single gene models - classic Mendelian                   • Small variation in reproductive fitness leads to
  genetics                                                   selection pressure to eliminate less fit allele
  – (One Gene, One Disease)                                • Non additivity (dominance/recessive) makes it
    Multiple alleles                                         harder to select out or fixate.
  – Additive genetic variance
                                                           • Balanced polymorphism has selective advantage
  – Non-additive (dominance/recessive) variance              for heterozygous rather than homozygous. (e.g.,
  – Epistasis - interaction with other genes                 sickle cell, G6PD as defenses against malaria)
                                                           • Mutation rate of ≈ .0001 => 3/generation

                                                                                                   The concept of heritability -
                  Polygenetic models                                                                   sources of variance
                                                                                        • Decomposition of phenotypic variance
    • Polygenes as sum of separate genes                                                      –   Vp = Phenotypic variance
                                                                                              –   Vg = Additive genetic variance
         – Biometric analysis rather than conventional                                        –   Vd = Dominance (recessive) variance
           Mendelian analysis                                                                 –   Vi = epistatic (gene by gene interactions)
         – Polygenetic traits assumed to be the case for                                      –   Vam = assortative mating variance
           complex behaviors                                                                  –   Ve = environmental variance
                                                                                                    • Ves = shared environmental - (variance between families)
    • Work now starting with genes of interest                                                      • Ve = non-shared enviromental (variance within families)
      and looking for behavioral differences                                                  – Cov (genetic by environment covariance)
                                                                                              – Veg (genetic by enviroment interaction)
                                                                                              – Verror = variance due to poor measurement

        Heritability: a hodgepodge ratio                                                                 Estimating heritability
    • h2 = Vg /Vp narrow heritability                                               • Twins: Experiments of nature
    • h2 = (Vg + Vd + Vi …)/Vp Broad heritability                                         – MZa: identical genes,
                                                                                          – DZ: 50% (on average) genetic relationship
    • Both estimates are dependent upon variance
      as observed and imply nothing about what                                      • Family composition: experiments of humans
      would happen if situations change                                                   –   MZa: identical genes, no shared environment
                                                                                          –   DZa: 50% shared genes, no shared environment
         – Consider the case of height or CHD
            • Highly heritable but large environmental effects                            –   MZt: identical genes, shared family environment
            • CHD rates double for Japanese living in US                                  –   DZt: 50% shared genes, shared family environment
            • Height has gone up even though highly heritable                             –   Adopted: 0% shared genes, shared family environment

 Estimating the Genetics of Personality                                                               Personality and Genetics
               rg = 1,.5, 0                           rc = 1,0
                                                                                   Trait                           Narrow       Broad        Shared
                                                                                                                   heritability heritability Environment
    A            C                E               A              C             E
                                                                                   Extraversion                             .36         .49          .00

           a         c        e                             a         c        e   Neuroticism                                .28             .39                .09
                                                                                   Agreeableness                              .28             .38                .04
                                                                                   Conscientiousness                          .31             .41                .05
                P1                                               P2
                                                                                   Openness                                   .46             .45                .05
                                      r s1,s2
A = additive genetic variance
                                                                                   IQ                                         .50             .75                .04
                                                rg = 1 for MZ, .5 for DZ, sibs
C = Common family environment                                                      McGue and Bouchard, ARN, 1998
E = Unique environment                          rc = 1 for together, 0 apart

                   Personality and Genetics                                                     Personality and Genetics
Occupational                    Narrow       Broad         Shared            Psychiatric                 Broad         Shared
interest                        heritability heritabilitya Environment       illness                     heritability Environment
Realistic                                .36           .41         .12       Schizophrenia                         .80        No
Investigative                           .36             .66            .10   Major Depression                       .37             No
Artistic                                .39             .50            .12   Panic disorder                    .30-.40              No
Social                                  .38             .52            .08   Generalized Anx                        .30         Small,
Enterprising                            .31             .50            .11                                                     females
                                                                             Phobias                              .2-.4            No
Conventional                            .38             .38            .11
  a estimated from MZ apart correlation
                                                                             Alcoholism                        .50-.60             Yes
McGue and Bouchard, ARN, 1998                                                Bouchard, CDPS, 2004

                   Personality and Genetics
                                                                                           Heritability: misconceptions
            Social Attitudes          Broad        Shared
                                      heritability Environment                    • High heritability => Constancy: but
            Conservatism                                                                – Heritability changes by changing the
                       Under age 20                0            Yes                       environment
                        Over age 20           .45-.65 Yes, females                      – Reducing environmental variation increases the
            Right Wing Auth                   .50-.64         .0-.16
                                                                                               • Herrnstein’s paradox: higher heritabilities imply
            Religiousness                     .30-.45          .2-.4                             more equal environments
            (adult)                                                                            • Low heritability => high environmental inequality
            Specific religion                      0            NA
Bouchard, CDPS, 2004

                                                                                          Heritability and environment
        Heritability: misconceptions - 2
                                                                                          example of Phenylketonuria
• Heredity vs. environment                                                        • PKU as inability to process phenylalanine
      – Genes code proteins, not behavior                                               – PKU is a Mendelian recessive gene
      – Genes act through environment
                                                                                        – Effect without environmental manipulation
      – As meaningless as asking “Which is more important in area
        of a rectangle: height or width?”
                                                                                          is severe brain retardation
• Individuals versus populations                                                        – Phenylalanine diet stops the effect
      – Variance estimates are population based, not for individual                     – With proper diet, no effects (but girls are
      – Variations in environments affect estimates                                       still carriers of PKU gene and their fetus is
                                                                                          at risk if mother is not on PKU diet)

   Cognitive and non-cognitive
                                                                    Studies of Cognitive Skill
     aspects of personality
• Traditional personality variables are central       • Individual Differences approach to the
  tendencies of behavior: what do you like to           study of intelligence
  do, how do you normally feel                        • Experimental/Cognitive Psychology
• Cognitive Ability measures are limit                  approach to the study of task components
  measures: how much can you do, what are
  the limits of performance

 Cognitive Ability and Cognitive
                                                                                     Historical trends
• Ability studies emphasize individual
  differences and shared variance between
  divergent tests
  – Little emphasis upon cognitive processes
• Traditional cognitive psychology
  emphasizes development of processes and
  distinctions between processes
  – Little emphasis upon individual differences


                                                     Raven’s Progressive Matrices
Conventional measures of ability
                                                   Which one best completes the form?
• Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales
  – Verbal and Performance subscales
• Raven’s Progressive Matrices
     abstract reasoning (culture fair?)
  – How much has been learned in 12 years of
  – Vocabulary/quantitative skills

Item similar to Raven’s
                                 Wechsler Intelligence Test
                           • Verbal scales:           Performance Scales
                              – Information                  Object Assembly
                              – Comprehension:               Block Design
                              – Digit Span                   Digit Symbol/Coding
                              – Similarities                 Picture Arrangement
                              – Vocabulary                   Picture Concepts
                              – Arithmetic                   Picture Completion

                          Standard hierarchical model of ability
                            • g (general intelligence)
                              – Gc (crystallized intelligence)
                                 • Domain specific
                                 • Increases over much of life span
                              – Gf (fluid intelligence)
                                 • General processing speed and flexibility
                                 • Peaks around 20-25

                                 Life as an intelligence test
                            • Conventional tests are short (30 minutes to
                              2-3 hours) and use representative content
                            • Continued performance across many
                              situations is a continuing test of ability
                            • (see L. Gottfredson)

                                                                                Life as a intelligence test
                                                                            (adapted from Gottfredson, 2002)
                                                                            Relative risk (odds ratio) of this outcome for “dull” (IQ 75-90) vs.
                                                                                   “bright” (IQ 110-125) persons: Young white adults

                                                                           High school dropout                                                                  133.9
                                                                           Chronic welfare recipient              (female)                                       10.0
                                                                           Ever incarcerated (male)                                                                 7.5
                                                                           Lives in poverty                                                                         6.2
                                                                           Had illegitimate child (women)                                                           4.9
                                                                           Unemployed 1+ mo/yr (male)                                                               1.5
                                                                           Out of labor force 1+mo/yr (male)                                                        1.4
                                                                           Divorced in 5 years (ever married)                                                       1.3
 Gottfredson, Scientific American

            Life as an intelligence test                                   3. How Does Our Own g Level
        (adapted from Gottfredson, 2002)                                   Affect the Life Tests We Take?
                                                                                                             80           100           120 120
                    Common subtests, e.g.                                  Applicants for:
                                                                           of median
                                                                           (among all
                                                                                                  WAIS IQ:
                                                                                                                                   25       30
                                                                                                                                                   35   IQs: Middle 50%
                                                                                                                                                         40    Training Potential

                                                                            91      Research Analyst

                                                                           Attorney, Engineer
                                                                                    Editor & Assistant
                                                                                    Manager, Advertising
                                                                                                                                                               WPT 28 and Over
                                                                                                                                                               Able to gather and synthesize

                     Elementary, secondary school
                                                                                    Chemist                                                                    information easily; can infer
                                                                                    Engineer                                                                   Information and conclusion s
                                                                                    Executive                                                                  from on -the-job situations
                                                                            86                                                                                 (IQ 116 and above)
                                                                                    Manager, Trainee
                                                                                    Systems Analyst
                                                                            83      Copywriter

                     Law-abiding, employed, married
                                                                            81      Manager/Supervisor
                                                                                    Manager, Sales                                                             WPT 26 TO 30
                                                                                    Programmer, Analyst                                                       Above average individuals; can

                                                                           Teacher, Programmer
                                                                                    Manager, General                                                          100-120
                                                                                                                                                              be trained with typical college
                                                                                                                                                              format; able to learn much on
                                                                                                                                                              their own; e.g. independent

                     Rung on occupational & income ladders
                                                                                    Purchasing Agent                                                          study or reading assignments
                                                                                    Nurse, Registered                                                         (IQ 113-120)
                                                                                    Sales, Account Exec.
                                                                            70      Administrative Asst.
                                                                                    Manager, Store
                                                                                    Clerk, Credit

                     Daily self-maintenance (functional literacy)
                                                                                    Drafter, Designer
                                                                                    Lab Tester & Tech.
                                                                            66      Manager, Assistant

                                                                           Secretary, Lab tech                                                                 96-116
                                                                                    Sales, General
                                                                                    Sales, Telephone                                                            WPT 20 TO 26
                                                                                    Secretary                                                                  Able to learn routines quickly;
                                                                                    Clerk, Accounting                                                          train with combination of

                     Personal health & safety
                                                                                    Collector, Bad Debt                                                        written materials with actual
                                                                                    Operator, Computer                                                         on the job experience.
                                                                            60      Rep., Cust. Srvc.                                                          (IQ 100-113)

                                                                                    Sales Rep., Insurance
                                                                                    Automotive Salesman
                                                                                    Clerk, Typist
                                                                            55      Dispatcher
                                                                                    Office, General

                    Different subtests, e.g.                               Meter reader, Teller                                                                91-110
                                                                                    Police, Patrol Off.
                                                                                    Receptionist                                                               WPT 16 to 22
                                                                                    Cashier                                                                    Successful in elementary
                                                                                    Clerical, General                                                          settings and would benefit
                                                                            50      Inside Sales Clerk                                                         from programmed or mastery
                                                                                    Meter Reader                                                               learning approaches; impor -
                                                                                    Printer                                                                    tant to allow enough time and

                     Tertiary education & training
                                                                                    Teller                                                                     "hands on" (o n the job)
                                                                                    Data Entry                                                                 experience previous to work.
                                                                                                                                                               (IQ 93 -104)
                                                                                    Electrical Helper
                                                                            45      Machinist
                                                                                    Manager, Food Dept.
                                                                                    Quality Control Chkr.
                                                                                    Claims Clerk

                                                                           Welder, Security guard                                                              85-105
                     Job performed
                                                                                    Driver, Deliveryman
                                                                                    Guard, Security                                                           WPT 10 to 17
                                                                            42      Labor, Unskilled                                                          Need to be "explicitly taught"
                                                                                    Maintenance                                                               most of what they must learn;
                                                                                    Operator, Machine                                                         successful approach is to use
                                                                                    Arc Welder, Die Sett.                                                     apprenticeship program; may
                                                                                    Mechanic                                                                  not benefit from "book learning"

                     Hobbies
                                                                                    Medical-Dental Asst.                                                      training.
                                                                            37      Messenger                                                                 (IQ 80 -95)
                                                                                    Production, Factory
                                                                                    Food Service Worker
                                                                                    Nurse's Aide

                                                                           Packer, Custodian
                                                                            31      Warehouseman
                     Type of civic participation
                                                                                                                                                              WPT 12 OR LESS
                                                                                    Custodian & Janitor
                                                                                                                                                              Unlikely to benefit from
                                                                            25      Material Handler

                                                                                                                                                              formalized training setting;
                                                                            21      Packer
                                                                                                                                                              successful using simple tools
                                                                                                                                                              under consistent supervision.
                                                                                                                                                              (IQ 83 and below)

             g-Related Relative Risk Varies
                                                                          Intelligence: unanswered questions
                  by Kind of Outcome
Complex                                                                   • Stability and change over time within
                                                                            individuals and between individual
                                                                          • Cultural effects
                                                                          • Genetic Effects


 The Scottish Longitudinal Study                         Scotland Longitudinal Study
• June 1, 1932, all children age 11 attending      • Test retest (age 11 to age 77) r = .63,
  school in Scotland (N=87,498) took a 45            corrected for range restriction = .73
  minute IQ test (Moray House Test)                • Mean scores on Moray House Test
• Followup studies from Ian Deary and his            increased from age 11 to age 77 (43 to 54,
                                                     sd = 11).
  colleagues (N>600) have examined
  mortality risk, test retest correlations, MRI    • IQ at age 11 predicted relative risk of dying
                                                     before 80
  scans, Alzheimer onset, etc.

     Intelligence and Mortality
      Deary - Midlothian study                         IQ increases: the “Flynn Effect”
                                                   • Although normed for a mean of 100, sd=15,
                                                     IQ scores have increased over time
                                                        – Comparisons of standardization samples given
                                                          older and newer tests
                                                   • IQ scores on “culture fair” tests have tended
                                                     to go up about 1 sd/generation
                                                   • IQ scores on “crystallized” tests have not
                                                     increased as much

           The Flynn effect:
                                                   Group differences and heritability
          shadows on the wall
• Flynn effect is on observed variables, but       •   Group differences of 1 standard deviation
  what about change on the unobserved?             •   Heritability within groups of .6-.8
                                                   •   Is the between group difference genetic?
• Jensen and Plato’s cave
                                                   •   Lewontin’s pot example
  – Latent variables as real heights                    – Consider a bag of seed, take two random handfuls, put
  – Observed variables as shadow heights                  one into a pot with good soil and the other into a pot
                                                          with fewer nutrients. Within pot differences are all
  – Shadow length is changing (Flynn effect) but          genetic, between pot differences are all environmental.
    are the real heights?                               – Within group heritability implies nothing about
                                                          between group differences

                                                       Conley’s meta analysis of personality stability
Stability of personality across time

 • Longitudinal studies
    – Age trends
    – Correlational patterns
    – Absolute changes
 • Cross sectional studies
    – Mean scores as a function of age

                                                            Moffitt and Caspi: genes for
Longitudinal studies of personality
                                                             sensitivity or resilience?
 • Jack Block; Lives through Time                       • Effect of child upbringing interacts with
 • Terri Moffitt and Avshalom Caspi: the                  specific genes
   Dunedin study                                        • Good vs abusive parents
    – Birth cohort in Dunedin, NZ has been followed     • MAOA gene interacts with parental effects
      for 20 years                                        to lead to adult criminality and
    – Examining, among other things, risk for
      impulsivity, criminality, effects of stressful    • 5HTT gene interacts with family effects in
      childrearing                                        relationship childhood and adult depression

    Personality Research: Review                                         Causal Models
                                                        • Approach and Inhibitory traits
• Individual differences versus experimentalism            – Approach/Positive Affect/Positive Emotionality
• Theories of individual differences                          •   Extraversion/impulsivity/Achievement
  – Descriptive taxonomies                                    •   Problems with simple state theories
                                                              •   Traits as central tendency of state
     • Folk taxonomies
                                                              •   Traits as likelihood of state
     • Recent work in folk taxonomy: the Big 5
                                                              •   Traits as rates of change in state
     • Five Factor Model of Traits
                                                           – Avoidance/Inhibition/negative Emotionality
  Causal models                                               • Anxiety/Depression

       Personality theory and
      personality measurement
• If it exists, it exists in some amount …               • How well are we measuring whatever we
• Issues in measurement                                    are measuring?
  – Latent constructs - observed variables                  – Internal consistency of measures
                                                               • Domain sampling, true score theory
  – Shape of relationship between latent and
    observed                                                – Stability of measures
  – Reliability of measurement                                 • Traits versus states

     • Multiple forms of reliability                        – Alternate forms/alternate people

                     Validity                              Methods of scale construction
• How well are we measuring what we think                • Empirical
  we are measuring                                       • Rational/Theoretical
  – Face, Concurrent, Predictive, Construct              • Homogeneous
  – Construct
                                                         Do they make a difference?
     • Do measures of the same thing go together/
     • Do measures of different things not go together     How to do it
     • So what (does it make a difference)

              Sources of data                                      Final research project
• Not limited to simple self report, need to be          • Introduction
  sensitive to threats to validity from many                – Review of relevant literature
                                                            – Why is the problem an interesting problem
                                                         • Method
• Multi-traits - multi methods and the                      – Enough to be replicated
  principles of convergent and discriminant              • Results
  validity                                                  – Appropriate analysis
                                                         • Discussion
                                                            – What does it all mean?

      Final research project
• Additional comments
  – APA style throughout
  – Writing to be yours, thoughts can be shared
    with research partners (and others)
  – Analysis - can be done with me
     • Schedule appointments - walk in, email, etc.
  Due December 6.


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