Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation

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					Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation

S06 – IC 5

Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic Reinforcement
Intrinsic Reinforcement
Reinforcement that derives from the activity itself, rather than from any consequences that might follow
For example: Person A loves jazz and attends the jazz concert for love of the music

Extrinsic Reinforcement
Reinforcement that derives from the external consequences of performing the behavior
For example: the person’s significant other, Person B, is not fond of jazz, but attends the concert in order to obtain extra credit in his/her music class

Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic Motivation
Person A (loves jazz) was intrinsically motivated to attend the jazz concert Person B (not fond of jazz) was extrinsically motivated to attend the jazz concert


Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation
Up until 1970, behavioristic principles were widely accepted:
Extrinsic reward was thought to increase performance and motivation

In the 1970s, three separate studies found results suggesting that extrinsic reward resulted in a decrease in intrinsic interest in the task

Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation
Those 3 studies plus subsequent research have found conflicting results:
Extrinsic reward for a behavior has been shown to decrease intrinsic motivation to engage in that behavior in some studies Other studies have found that reinforcing behavior extrinsically may actually increase intrinsic motivation

Factors Affecting Intrinsic Motivation
Calder & Staw (1975) was the first study (among many) to show that the initial level of interest in a task makes a big difference:
Don’t reward a behavior if intrinsic interest is already high, it may decrease intrinsic motivation However, if interest in the behavior is low, using extrinsic reinforcement may increase interest


Factors Affecting Intrinsic Motivation
Lepper, Greene, & Nisbett (1973) showed that:
tangible rewards that were unexpected did not decrease intrinsic motivation whereas, expected, tangible rewards undermined intrinsic motivation

Factors Affecting Intrinsic Motivation
Deci (1971) showed that:
Contingent verbal rewards could increase intrinsic interest Contingent tangible rewards could decrease intrinsic interest

Avoid use of tangible reinforcements; use the smallest reward that is still effective, e.g., praise

Factors Affecting Intrinsic Motivation
Rewards that are given regardless of performance (performance-independent) tend to reduce intrinsic motivation Rewards that are completion-dependent may or may not reduce intrinsic interest Rewards for the quality of the performance are more likely to increase intrinsic motivation
(Pretty & Seligman, 1984; Deci, 1971; Deci & Ryan, 1985; etc.)


Factors Affecting Intrinsic Motivation
Ryan (1982) found that verbal rewards that student subjects perceived as an attempt to control their behavior resulted in a loss of interest in the task Feehan & Enzle (1991) found that subjects that thought they had control over the reinforcement schedule maintained higher intrinsic interest in the task than those that did not have control When using reward, avoid the appearance of trying to control the person’s behavior

Take-Home Point
When using extrinsic reward, choose the reinforcement, the behavior that one reinforces, and the presentation parameters carefully