Newton’s Laws of Motion by umsymums38


									                             Newton’s Laws of Motion
Newton’s 1st Law: An object maintains its velocity unless acted on by a force
Newton’s 2nd Law: The acceleration of an object is equal to the net force acting on it
                  divided by its mass: a = F / m
Newton’s 3 Law: For every force F applied to object B by object A, there is a force –F
                  applied to object A by object B

The Big Question: What causes an object to accelerate (i.e. change its state of motion)?
How come in football (and in life) you can never hit without being hit back?

What this builds on: The idea of motion developed in the previous two units. You
know how to solve motion problems given the acceleration, now you will learn where the
acceleration comes from and how to find its value.

Fundamental Concepts:
   • An object will not change its state of motion unless a net force acts on it.
   • If no net force acts on an object the object remains at constant velocity or at rest.
   • The force of gravity and your weight are the same thing and equal mg
   • Your mass does not change as you move to other planets, etc.; mass is equivalent
     to how many atoms an object (or person) contains.
   • Net force means the addition of all the forces in each of the 3 possible space
     directions (x,y,z).
   • Newton’s 3rd law states for every force there is an equal but opposite reaction
     force. This means if I punch the wall, my hand exerts a force on the wall and the
     wall exerts a force in the opposite direction on my hand.

Fundamental Equation:
               r    r
            ∑ F = ma this is Newton’s 2nd law and the only formula you need to
               solve force and acceleration type problems. The vector sign means it’s
               actually 3 equations (one each for x,y,z):
               ∑ Fx = max (add up all the forces acting on an object in the x-direction
               and this equals the objects mass multiplied by its acceleration in x-
               ∑ Fy = ma y (same as above, but for the y-direction)
               ∑F   z   = maz (same, but we usually don’t include the 3rd dimension)
Steps to Solving a Force/Acceleration Problem:
1) Identify which is the object of interest. This is the object we care about.
2) Identify all the forces acting on the object. We don’t care about forces (like reaction
   forces) that act on other objects in the problem.
3) Identify which forces or which pieces of forces are in the x-direction and y-direction
   and which are at an angle (i.e. in both directions)
4) Draw the Free-body diagram
5) Break the forces that are at angles into their x-parts and y-parts using the angle and
6) Then simply add the x-forces to the x-forces and the y-forces to the y-forces.
7) Divide both by the mass of the object and you have the acceleration in the x-direction
   and the acceleration in the y-direction.

The different forces and what they are:
   • Fg = Force of gravity. The force of gravity is often called ‘weight’ and is equal to
       the mass of the object multiplied by the acceleration of gravity (mg)
   • FN = Normal Force. Normal means perpendicular and true to its name the normal
       force is always perpendicular (and outward) to the surface that the object is
       resting on.
   • Fspring = Force of a spring. The force of the spring equals the strength of the spring
       (k) multiplied by the distance it is stretched or compressed (i.e. Fspring=k∆x). The
       units of k are N/m.
   • FT = Force of tension. This is the force that a rope pulls on an object.
   • Fs = Force of static friction. This is the force of friction on an object that is not
       moving. The force of friction is always parallel to the surface that the object is
       resting on. Static friction force equals the coefficient of static friction multiplied
       by the normal force (i.e. Fs = µsFN)
   • Fk = Force of kinetic friction. This is the force of friction on an object that is
       moving. Kinetic friction force equals the coefficient of kinetic friction multiplied
       by the normal force (i.e. Fs = µkFN)

Reminder: Room 313 homework parties are every day after school and at lunch on
Wednesdays. Dr. Philhour’s site at has links to Java applets for physics
and other tools for learning this material interactively. Check it out … maybe seeing the
material from a new angle will help you!

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