APEC Currents, August 1999 (Australian APEC Study Centre) by umsymums34

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									APEC Currents is a quarterly publication of the Australian APEC Study Centre. It is published in February, May, August and November each year           Vol. 4 No. 3 August 1999




    APEC Leaders Meeting in Auckland
    LEADERS OF THE TWENTY ONE APEC                                   meeting there is a media expectation                              proposed three main themes for the
    member economies meet in Auckland                                that something has to happen. Last                                APEC 99 work program:
    on 11 and 12 September.                                          year’s summit in KL was no                                        • expanding opportunities for doing
      This is the seventh meeting of the                             exception, with domestic political                                  business throughout the APEC
    leaders, previous meetings being held                            events in Malaysia and the US and                                   region
    in Blake Island (USA), Bogor                                     the regional economic crisis all being                            • working with other economies to
    (Indonesia), Osaka (Japan), Manila                               significant distracters from the                                    strengthen the functioning of
    (Philippines), Vancouver (Canada)                                ostensible purpose of the meeting.                                  markets
    and Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia).                                                                                                       • broadening support for and
      The leaders Summit will be preceded                            Expected                                                            understanding of APEC in the
    by the Annual Ministerial Meeting                                The political climate will be different                             community.
    (of trade and foreign ministers).                                this time round. The focus of
      While the rationale of the Leaders                             attention in trade liberalisation will                            The unexpected?
    Summits has always been to further                               be on the imminent negotiations in                                A possible wild card is the fact that
    the work of APEC, the meetings have                              the WTO. APEC’s lesser known                                      this will be President Clinton’s last
    always been interpreted in a broader                             agenda of economic cooperation will                               chance to stamp his mark on the
    political context.                                               get a better run.                                                 organisation. Next year’s meeting
      There has been pressure for the                                  The host country has considerable                               will be after the US Presidential
    leaders to come up with a substantial                            influence on the agenda. It was                                   election, so while Clinton will still
    statement or named plan, hence the                               agreed in Kuala Lumpur that APEC                                  occupy the White House, a new
    Bogor Declaration, the Osaka Action                              New Zealand 99’s tasks must be to                                 president will be waiting in the wings.
    Agenda and the Manila Action Plan                                respond to the economic crisis and                                  Future chairs of APEC will be
    for APEC.                                                        restore the regional economy to                                   Brunei Darussalam 2000, People’s
      With the leaders of some of the                                sustainable growth.                                               Republic of China 2001, Mexico
    world’s largest and richest countries                              To this end, New Zealand has                                    2002.



       New Trade Minister                                                                             his appointment to the Trade Portfolio Mr Vaile served
                                                                                                      as Minister for Transport and Regional Development
                              MR TIM FISCHER RESIGNED as                                              and as Minister for Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry,
                              Deputy Prime Minister and                                               both ministries with significant APEC involvement.
                              Minister For Trade in July. Mr                                            On his appointment Mr Vaile said “I am looking
                              Fischer had served in these                                             forward to my first APEC Trade Ministers Meeting in
                              positions since the election of the                                     Auckland in September. It will provide me with a great
                              Howard Coalition Government in                                          opportunity to meet with my counterparts and to build
                              March 1996. During this period                                          on the substantial trade benefits achieved by APEC to
                              Mr Fischer represented Australia                                        date.”
                              at APEC fora and championed                                               “I am also committed to using my discussions with
       New Trade Minister, Mr APEC within Australia as a key                                          Ministers to advance the cause of delivering benefits to
       Mark Vaile
                              component of our trade policy.                                          Australia from a new round of WTO trade negotiations”.
         Mr Mark Vaile has been appointed as Trade Minister.                                            Mr Vaile will address the opening dinner of the
       Mr Vaile who is a member of the National Party, has                                            CITER4 conference on Thursday 18 September. See page
       been MHR for the NSW seat of Lyne since 1993. Prior to                                         6 for details.


                                   THE      AUSTRALIAN                  APEC        STUDY          CENTRE            IS    A   CENTRE           OF   MONASH   UNIVERSITY
APEC PROMOTES LIFE INSURANCE               compare regulatory systems with a            At the Third Annual APEC
REGULATORY REGIMES IN ASIA                 particular emphasis on prudential          Ministerial Meeting on the
                                           standards, solvency and capital            Telecommunications and Information
A KEY ELEMENT OF APEC’s response
                                           adequacy. They will outline the types      Industry, which was held in
to the Asian Financial Crisis has been
                                           of capacity requirements needed to         Singapore in June 1998, Ministers
efforts to strengthen the financial
                                           promote best practice and standards        endorsed principles to counteract the
systems of member economies.
                                           in the industry. Links between             adverse impact of the crisis on
  As part of the process of promoting
                                           emerging trends in pension systems         telecommunication systems in the
economic stability in the Asia Pacific
                                           and the role of funds managers and         region. These principles aim to assist
region, the Australian APEC Study
                                           the development of long-term capital       APEC economies to effectively
Centre has developed a program to
                                           markets in Asia will also be explored.     promote universal access to
help strengthen life insurance
                                                                                      communication technologies, thus
regulation and supervision. The            Training program
                                                                                      contributing to overall social and
Program – Enhancing Life Insurance
                                           The second phase of the life               economic development of the region.
Regulatory Regimes in Asia – will be
                                           insurance program will be a                  In recognition of the need to
funded by the Australian Agency for
                                           specialty-training program for up to       pursue cooperative growth and
International Development (AusAID),
                                           24 middle level regulators and             development strategies, the
through its Asian Crisis Fund.
                                           supervisors working in the life            Australian APEC Study Centre has
  The program will consist of a
                                           insurance industry. This part of the       developed the APEC
symposium and training program.
                                           program will take place in March           Telecommunications Training
Colonial Limited and AXA will
                                           2000. Participants will come from          Program. The program will target
contribute additional funds to ensure
                                           China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia,         those developing APEC economies
the participation of key Asian
                                           the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam         whose telecommunications and
economies. Both companies will also
                                           and Fiji. The two week program will        information systems are under threat
participate in the organisation and
                                           be based on the recommendations of         of restricted investment and
management of the program.
                                           the symposium participants. The            development. These economies
Symposium                                  training program will examine the          include Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia,
                                           process of establishing an effective       Thailand and the Philippines.
The first phase of the life insurance
                                           and efficiently managed life insurance       The APEC Telecommunications
program, and international
                                           sector in different Asian economies.       Training Program will provide
symposium, will take place 17 and 18
                                           The program will also examine the          training to 15 middle level officials;
November 1999, in Melbourne. It
                                           relationship between life insurance        three from each participating
will bring together up to 24 senior
                                           sector regulation and over all             economy. Relevant departments of
level insurance supervisory and
                                           economic performance and stability.        communications and information
regulatory officials from China,
                                           The program will be ‘hands-on’ and         technology in cooperation with the
India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the
                                           practical in approach. It will be taught   Australian Department of
Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam and
                                           by Australian business practitioners,      Communication, Information
Fiji to take part in a private dialogue.
                                           academics, and regulators.                 Technology and the Arts (DoCITA)
Australia will lead the program. The
symposium will also have invited                                                      and the Australian APEC Study
representatives from the International                                                Centre will nominate participants.
Association of Insurance Supervisors
                                           APEC TELCOMS TRAINING                        The program will aim to produce
(IAIS), the World Bank, the Asian          PROGRAM                                    policy recommendations that could
Development Bank (ADB) and the             THE DEMAND FOR EFFECTIVE, accessible       guide systems of best practice and
Hong Kong and Singapore                    and affordable telecommunications          reinspire investor confidence in the
Regulatory Authorities to contribute       services has grown tremendously in         telecom sector. In addition,
to the program as guest speakers.          Asia in the past ten years. Demand         participants will outline specific areas
  The symposium will be two days of        has accompanied the rate of overall        of ongoing skills training need that
discussions to explore the problems        economic development in developing         will support this process.
that confront the life insurance           APEC economies including Indonesia,          The Program, which is funded by
industry in the region. Symposium          Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and the         AusAID, will be run in December
participants will examine and              Philippines.                               1999.
               APEC                                  O B S E R V E R
                                                                     APEC Observer is a supplement to the quarterly APEC Currents. It offers
                                                                                           analysis and commentary on topical APEC issues


                                                                                                                Vol. 4 No. 3 August 1999




Two Years On… How Australian Exporters
Responded To The Asian Economic Crisis
IT IS JUST OVER TWO years since the collapse of                            Indian Ocean region and the emerging economies
the Thai baht ignited the ‘Asia crisis’. The Asian          Comment        when Asian markets were slow. An example is
crisis was predicted to destroy Australia’s exports            by          the Fremantle Fisherman’s Co-operative which
and send us into recession. The latest data suggests      Tim Harcourt     decided to sell lobsters to the United States when
that Australia has ‘weathered’ the Asian storm.                            sales fell significantly in Asia. Examples like this
  Sure, the Asia crisis did affect exports. Trade data showed     have allowed Australia to effectively absorb the adverse
large reductions in exports to Asian trading partners.            effects of the Asian crisis. However, these gains in new
This was to some extent offset by increases in exports to         markets were complementary (not a substitute) to the
the US, Europe and emerging markets. There is now                 strategy of maintaining business relationships in Asia.
some sign of recovery in Asian markets such as Korea.
  But the economic data do not reveal the whole story.            Third market strategies
In past two years, Australian exporters have employed             These strategies enable Australian exporters to take
some smart strategies to cope with the fall-out in Asia.          advantage of changes in exchange rates to compete with
This is the most interesting part of the Australian side the      European and American competitors in Asian markets.
story of the Asia crisis. Australian exporters did not            For example if Asian customers have to pay US suppliers
panic or despair but adopted a pragmatic response to the          in US dollars the fall in Asian exchange rates (relative to
impact of Asia on their businesses. These strategies can          US dollars) makes the US export prohibitively expensive.
be classified under three headings: ‘Through thick and            This allows Australian suppliers to gain a competitive
thin’, ‘Trade diversion’, and ‘Third market Strategies’.          advantage as the Australian export is relatively cheaper
                                                                  than the US export as the Australian dollar is not as strong
Through thick and thin                                            as the US dollar. Examples are Simplot Foods and Pizza
Australian exporters have worked hard to maintain exist-          Hut. Simplot took advantage of the weakening of the
ing business relationships in Asia. Keeping and nurturing         $A/US exchange rate to supply Kentucky Fried Chicken
long term business relationships in Asia is important and         (KFC) in Malaysia with French Fries winning the
will bring dividends when market conditions change. In            contract against a long-term California-based supplier. In
some instances this has occurred even when the effects of         South Korea, Pizza Hut suppliers of cheese from the
the crisis were felt sharply in dramatic fashion. For             United States and Europe were replaced by South Korean
example, three Australian automotive component makers             suppliers using Australian cheese. This is an example of
had long term contracts cancelled by a major Korean               Australia being able to capture greater market share,
automaker at short notice. There was also a 60 % fall in          which will be beneficial, as the Asian economies recover.
the export of Holden engines to the Republic of Korea.              In conclusion, the lesson of the Asia crisis is that
However some opportunities have emerged for                       exporters with the right strategies and the right
Australian companies too in Korea. For example, a                 information can survive major external shocks even of
Korean component maker importing sub-components                   the magnitude of the Asia crisis. It is two years on and
from Australia that got into trouble joined in a strategic        Australia is still exporting and creating employment (one
alliance with an Australian exporter. This allowed the            in five jobs in Australia are due to exports). Whilst we
Australian company to secure its own business and gain            must always be cautious about the future of the world
new domestic businesses inside South Korea for the                economy given the behaviour of financial markets,
complete component.                                               Australian exporters in this recent episode have shown
                                                                  their flexibility and capacity to survive and grow.
Trade diversion
The strategy of trade diversion enabled exporters to take         Tim Harcourt is Chief Economist Australian Trade
advantage of the Americas, Europe, the Middle East and            Commission
THE FIRST MONASH APEC                        Full text of the Monash APEC           Anand Panyarachun, former Prime
LECTURE                                   Lecture available on from the Web         Minister of Thailand. He will be
THE FIRST MONASH APEC Lecture             site at http://www.apec.org.au,           introduced by Hon Malcolm Fraser,
was held in Melbourne on Friday 18        printed copies will be available on       former Prime Minister of Australia.
June. The speaker was Kim Beazley,        request from the centre.                    Other international guests who
Leader of the Opposition. His lecture                                               have accepted to date are:
was titled “Winning in the global                                                   • Tunku Abdul Aziz, Member,
                                          DEMOCRACY AND FREE                          Executive Board, Transparency
economy: Australia’s trade policies
for the new millennium”                   MARKETS IN ASIA IN THE                      International
  Mr Beazley was introduced by Mr         TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY                      • Professor Alexander Likhotal,
Hugh Morgan of WMC Ltd. Professor         THE ASIAN ECONOMIC CRISIS has               Green Cross International
David Robinson, Vice Chancellor of        demonstrated the importance of open       • Dr Bernie Villegas, Dean of
Monash University chaired the event.      political systems to economic growth        Economics, University of Asia and
  The APEC Lecture was well               and stability. A conference to explore      Pacific, Manila.
attended and the organisers are keen      these issues will be held in Melbourne    Australian presenters who will
to make it a regular event.               on November 26 and 27.                    participate include
  Mr Beazley ranged over a number           This conference has been convened       • Mr Michael Backman, Author
of issues relating to Australia’s trade   to bring together leading thinkers to     • Ms Mara Bun, Australian
policy including a perceived decline      look at the future of democratic            Consumers Association
in APEC’s momentum, prospects for         institutions and free markets in the      • Mr Alan Oxley, APEC Study Centre
the WTO Round and emerging signs          Asian Region.                             • Dr Michael Porter, Macquarie
of protectionism during the lead up         The Conference has been organised         Bank, Sydney
to US presidential elections.             jointly by the Australian APEC Study      • Mr Roland Rich, Foundation
  He contrasted two options for           Centre, The Centre for Democratic           Director, Centre for Democratic
government response to globalisation:     Institutions, and The Asia Society          Institutions
the ‘nightwatchman’ state and the         AustralAsian Centre.                      • Mr Kevin Rudd MP, Australian
development of a knowledge based            Sessions at the conference include        Parliament
society. He argued for a strong           • Democracy and Prosperity                • Dr Andrew Southcott, MP,
government role in social policy to       • Democracy and the Asian                   Australian Parliament
extract the full benefit of global          Economic Crisis                         • Mr Dick Woolcott AO, Founding
engagement for all Australians.           • One Party States and Free Markets         Director, AustralAsian Centre of
  The Australian APEC Study Centre        • Free Markets and Asia’s Economic          the Asia Society
wishes to thank Toyota Australia who        Recovery.                               Details can be obtained from the
assisted with sponsorship of the          The Opening Dinner of the                 Australian APEC Study Centre or
Lecture.                                  conference will be addressed by Khun      from the website.


                      CITER4: THE MILLENNIUM ROUND
                      THE FOURTH INTERNATIONAL TRADE conference           Conference sessions will be held on the
                      organised by the Australian APEC Study Centre,    significance of the round, industrial products,
                      the Asian Economics Centre at the University      services, agriculture, clothing and textiles,
                      of Melbourne, and Victoria University’s           intellectual property, anti-dumping, dispute
                      Department of Applied Economics will be held      resolution, competition policy, regionalism,
                      on 16 to 18 September. The theme of the con-      environment and trade, developing countries
                      ference will be the WTO Millennium Round.         and the WTO, labour rights and the civil
                        The Opening Dinner to be held on                society.
                      Thursday September 16 will be addressed by          The conference program and registration
                      the new Trade Minister Hon Mark Vaile. As         forms are available on the Web page or can
                      usual an impressive line up of academics,         be obtained by telephoning the Centre.
                      officials and experts will present papers to        A full report of the conference will be given
                      the conference.                                   in the November issue of APEC Currents.
W H A T ’ S                          H A P P E N I N G                                      I N             A P E C
                                          practices, labour market systems and          To help developing APEC member
 APEC HRD MINISTERIAL                     social safety net issues. For example,      economies advance their own food
 MEETING                                  Australia’s contribution through the        recall systems, the APEC Sub-
THE THIRD APEC HUMAN Resources            publication Innovative Labour Market        Committee on Standards and
Development Ministerial Meeting           Adjustment Policies and Programmes          Conformance has developed a set of
was held in Washington, D.C., from        in APEC Member Economies was                APEC Food Recall Guidelines.
28-29 July. The theme was HRD             identified as a useful aid to policy          As an adjunct to the APEC Food
Challenges and Opportunities in the       makers, in the context of the economic      Recall Guidelines, the APEC Sub-
New Millennium: Addressing the            and financial crisis in Asia. The           Committee on Standards and
Human Resource and Social Impacts         meeting also confirmed the important        Conformance has endorsed an APEC
of the Asian Crisis.                      role HRD issues play in complementing       Arrangement for the Exchange of
  The meeting was aimed at                APEC’s trade and investment agenda.         Information on Food Recalls.
encouraging regional cooperation            The Ministerial Statement and Plan          The APEC Arrangement for the
and strengthening the capacity of         of Action will be available on the          Exchange of Information on Food
member economies to mitigate the          APEC Secretariat Website at                 Recalls is a practical example of the
effects of future economic volatility     http://www.apecsec.org.sg/                  way in which member economies
on workers and their families.                                                        could exchange information should
  The three sub-themes that were                                                      they become participants to the APEC
                                           APEC FOOD RECALL                           Mutual Recognition Arrangement on
discussed by Ministers were:
                                           GUIDELINES                                 Conformity Assessment of Foods and
• options for developing labour
  market systems,                         A KEY ASPECT OF ANY effective food          Food Products (APEC Food MRA).
• how governments can strengthen          control system is the ability of the          Australia announced its
  social safety nets                      regulatory bodies to recall or withdraw     participation in the Arrangement on
• how improving workplace practices       unsafe products from the market place.                                       continues
  can improve productivity.
  Informative discussions were held
under the sub-themes which each had                       APEC MEETINGS 1999 – 2000
strong relevance for Australia. In the     1-6 Nov       Gold Coast, Qld Australia 3rd APEC Technomart
context on labour market systems, the      8-12 Nov      Hong Kong, China           16th Meeting Transportation Working Group
key role the private sector can play in    18-19         Wellington New Zealand     18th Meeting of the Energy Working Group
providing employment services was          6-7 Dec       Tokyo, Japan               Economic Committee Symposium on
discussed, as well as the role of the                                               APEC Economies Beyond the Asian Crisis
Internet in facilitating job matching.      2000
On the issues of social safety nets,       25-28 Jan     Sapporo, Japan             21st Meeting of the Human Resources
                                                                                    Development Working Group
Australia was able to share its
experience of mutual obligation in         March         Lima, Peru                 12th Meeting of the Trade Promotion
                                                                                    Working Group
social security arrangements.
                                           20-24 March, Thailand                    18th Meeting of the Industrial Science
  At the meeting, Ministers asked                                                   and Technology Working Group
economies to ensure the needs of           6-7 April,    Singapore                  2nd APEC Education Ministerial Meeting
vulnerable populations, including          May/June (tba)Peru                       13th Meeting of the Marine
indigenous people, are adequately                                                   Resources Working Group
met by labour market systems and           June,         Cancun, Mexico             4th APEC Ministerial Meeting on Tele-
                                                                                    communications and Information Industry
social safety nets. There was also
                                           21-23 June,   Bandar Seri Begawan,       Small and Medium Enterprises Ministerial
constructive dialogue on workplace                       Brunei Darussalam          Meeting
relations issues with Australia noting
                                           29-30 June    Darwin, Australia,         Meeting of APEC Ministers Responsible
the importance of direct and                                                        for Trade
cooperative relations between              12-13 Nov     Bandar Seri Begawan,       APEC Ministerial Meeting
employees and employers.                                 Brunei Darussalam
  The meeting also recognised the          15-16 Nov     Bandar Seri Begawan        APEC Leaders Meeting
                                                         Brunei Darussalam
need to facilitate and coordinate the
exchange of information about best            Information from the APEC Secretariat homepage www.apecsec.org.sg
W H A T ’ S                            H A P P E N I N G                                         I N             A P E C
2 June 1999. For more information            report on outcomes of the workshop            Zealand. The EBN is chaired by Mr
on this and other APEC related               held in Thailand in April 1999 which          Barry Leay (CE Ecodyne, New
Standards and Conformance matters            focused on research priorities to             Zealand). Australia is represented by
contact: Mr Guy Wilmington,                  address the use of cyanide and related        Dr Roland Williams (recently retired
Department of Industry, Science and          chemical residues, food quality issues        Chairman, Shell Australia) and Mr
Resources Ph:(02) 6213 6605                  relating to the transport, storage and        Barry Cusack (Managing Director,
                                             handling of live reef fish, and               Rio Tinto Australia).
                                             combating destructive fishing practices.        The objective of the EBN is to
 HISTORIC APEC MEETING                         Three new project proposals endors-         provide strategic input from a busi-
 EXAMINES FISHERIES                          ed by the FWG that were submitted             ness sector perspective into the EWG.
 AND MARINE ISSUES                           to the APEC Secretariat in Singapore          The meeting will allow business to
                                             for funding. These projects are:              contribute to the activities of the EWG.
DESTRUCTIVE FISHING PRACTICES and
                                             • Development of a Health and                 This includes consideration of a
their impacts on coral reefs, integrated
                                               Husbandry Manual for Grouper                proposed study on the inter-connection
coastal management, and development
                                               Farming                                     of electricity grids. The EBN will also
of biochemical and ocean disaster
                                             • Development of a Regional                   make recommendations on the
indicators were among the issues
                                               Research Program on Grouper                 monitoring of policy principles for
discussed at an historic joint meeting
                                               Virus Transmission and Vaccine              Independent Power Producers and
of the APEC Fisheries Working
                                               Development                                 the Natural Gas Initiative.
Group (FWG) and APEC Marine
                                             • Joint APEC/FAO/NACA Ad Hoc                    The 7th meeting of the APEC
Resources Conservation Working
                                               Expert Consultation on Trans-               Energy Regulators’ Forum (ERF) will
Group (MRCWG) in Cairns in May.
                                               boundary Aquatic Animal Pathogen            be held in Wellington, New Zealand
  Other issues discussed included the
                                               Transfer and the Development of             on 17 November with the 18th
outcomes from the 1998 APEC
                                               Harmonised standards on                     meeting of the APEC EWG to follow
Oceans Conference, the utilisation of
                                               Aquaculture Health Management.              on 18-19 November 1999. The EWG
decommissioned offshore oil platforms
                                             The FWG endorsed Australia to                 meeting will consider the reports
as artificial reefs, and consideration
                                             continue as Lead Shepherd of the              from the EBN and ERF meetings as
of Marine Protected Areas.
                                             Working Group until June 2001.                well as the reports on two current
  The inaugural Joint Session which
                                             Significantly, this will allow Australia      projects, namely, Assessing the
occurred as part of the10th meeting
                                             to continue to drive the fisheries            Impacts of Liberalising Energy Trade
of the FWG and the 12th meeting of
                                             agenda in APEC.                               and Investment in APEC Member
the MRCWG, signified a major step
in working closer and addressing                                                           Economies and Environmentally
issues of interest to both fora.                                                           Sound Energy Infrastructure.
                                              APEC ENERGY WORKING
  Discussions highlighted the benefits                                                       The APEC EWG Secretariat is part
                                              GROUP (EWG) –
of the two fora meeting and while it                                                       of the International Energy Branch,
                                              FORTHCOMING MEETINGS
was agreed to continue meeting                                                             Department of Industry Science and
jointly every two years. There was           THE SECOND MEETING OF the APEC                Resources. The APEC EWG Website
also support for a US proposal to hold       Energy Working Group Business                 can now be found at:
a joint workshop on coral reef issues.       Network (EBN) will be held on 6-8             http://www.isr.gov.au/resources/apec-
  The FWG also held an Aquaculture           September 1999 in Wellington, New             ewg
Session during its meeting that
reviewed the progress of existing
aqua-culture-related projects being                     THE     AUSTRALIAN              APEC     STUDY       CENTRE
undertaken by the FWG which include:           Alan Oxley, Chairman                       The Centre is located at
• Collaborative APEC Grouper                   Professor John McKay, Director             Monash City Offices
  Research and Development                     Darby Higgs, Deputy Director               Level 12, 30 Collins Street
  Network                                      Jo Bosben, Assistant Director              Melbourne 3000
• Collaborative Aquaculture                    Rosie Morrison , Conference Manager        Telephone 613 9903 8757
  Education Program                            Patricia Prowling, Projects Officer        Fax 613 9903 8813
• Women in Aquaculture                         Tim Thornton, Projects Officer
  The Aquaculture Session included a          email: apec@arts.monash.edu.au                       home page: http://www.apec.org.au

                 APEC Currents is a quarterly publication of the Australian APEC Study Centre edited by Darby Higgs

								
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