Strategic Management Plan for Historic Coal Mining Sites of by umsymums33

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									Strategic Management Plan for Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra

Wollongong City Council
and the

Department of Primary Industries Mineral Resources Division

2006

O.H.M. Consultants

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1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This study is part of a detailed survey of the Illawarra escarpment and the evidence of coal mining heritage in the region. It has been undertaken on behalf of Wollongong City Council, New South Wales Heritage Office and the Department of Primary Industry, Resource Division. The coal mining industry has been through periods of rationalisation with mines having been closed down in recent years. This follows a pattern dictated by global markets and in 2005 the industry is again in a position of economic certainty. This has created an urgent need for research and analysis into the surviving evidence of this historic industry. One of the key challenges will be the rehabilitation of mine sites in sensitive escarpment areas balanced with a need for recording and interpretation of the heritage values of these sites. Although there is an emphasis on the importance of the above ground works associated with coal mining, some of the most significant fabric can be found below the surface. In the older mines, in particular, extensive underground workings dating back to the 1880s have been preserved in situ and are records of the history of coal mining activities in the region. As it has been difficult to document the underground workings, due to the safety issues involved, one of the recommendations of this report is for further documentation of these workings by individual mine owners. This study has investigated the cultural significance of the mining sites and associated sites in accordance with guidelines developed by the Australian Heritage Commission and the Heritage Office of New South Wales. State Heritage Inventory forms were completed with information provided by members of the Reference Group as determined in the original brief. A focus on one component of mining heritage has been problematic for the mine owners and the community. It has not allowed for an assessment of both the tangible and intangible aspects of this heritage in the Illawarra. This report recommends a more comprehensive approach to coal mining heritage which incorporates an evaluation of the cultural landscape and a means of protecting all cultural values. There are many sources of information about coal mining and its heritage: owners, government agencies files, private collections, community organisations interested in history and heritage, museums and libraries, etc. This is an indication of the importance of coal mining in the community of Wollongong, the Illawarra and the State. Several previous studies were relied on, most importantly the recent heritage assessment of the Illawarra Escarpment, carried out by Mayne-Wilson & Associates and Meredith Walker Heritage Futures in association with Godden Mackay Logan Pty Ltd in 2003 for the purposes of developing an Escarpment Management Plan. This research has found that the strengths of mining heritage originate from: The community A continuous and ongoing coal mining industry Cultural landscapes set in the natural values of the escarpment. The report assesses eleven sites in the Wollongong LGA and makes general recommendations to interpret and record the coal mining industry in the Illawarra. These mine sites have now been located onto the Wollongong
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Council GIS as a permanent layer that can be added to as research continues into the future. The policy implications of the Strategic Management Plan for Historic Coal Mine Sites of the Illawarra are as follows: Policy 1 This report and the recommendations should be considered for endorsement by the Reference Group, NSW Heritage Office, Department of Primary Industries and Wollongong City Council. This report should be made available to the public with copies held at all Wollongong City Council Libraries. The assessment and management options for coal mines should be assessed using the cultural landscape model. All items assessed as State Significant will be nominated to the NSW Heritage Office for inclusion on the State Heritage Register. A number of recommendations have been made regarding individual sites (see SHI Sheets) All items assessed as significant should be included in the Wollongong City Council Local Environment Plan Heritage Schedule. A number of recommendations have been made regarding individual sites (see SHI Sheets)

Policy 2 Policy 3 Policy 4

Policy 5

Policy 6 All items should be assessed prior to mine closure and significant items should be retained and interpreted. Adaptive re-use of significant items should be a priority. Policy 7 That a permanent Peak Body be formed to replace the Reference Group on a permanent basis which will be made up of at least a member from; Wollongong City Council Department of Primary Industries Mine owner Department of Environment & Conservation Sydney Catchment Authority Community advocates, representing Helensburgh, Bulli, Mt Kembla and Dapto

Policy 8 The Peak Body must coordinate and advise all decision making regarding; Research Assessment of heritage significance Education Co-ordinate interpretation Off site interpretation Manage a trust fund for the above Archival recording

Things the Peak Body cannot do are Manage sites Protect sites
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Policy 9

Do on site interpretation

As these things are done by the owner or manager of the site. A permanent grant fund be established for use in the Wollongong City Council Area to promote coal mining heritage to be administered by WCC and the Peak Body as a Trust.

Policy 10 The fund should be financed by contributions from Community Enhancement Programs that will be established when any mine owner negotiates with the Government for a new Development Application, (or sooner as an act of goodwill). These funds will have a set component for mining heritage projects across the Wollongong City Council area and for local community programs. Policy 11 The peak body’s role is to endorse any of the submissions made in response to coal mining heritage in the Illawarra. Its response will be given to the relevant planning agency for consideration. Policy 12 A re-assessment of the cultural landscape to be carried out to ascertain if there are any remaining items such as structures, plantings, formal gardens, embankment walls etc on sites outside of the scope of this study. Policy 13 A permanent Mining Archive be established and coordinated by WCC. Policy 14 As part of an overall recognition, a plaque should be placed at each pit-head. The plaques should perform three main functions: Identify all previous mine names. Identify the mine and years of production at the site. Be linked to a register to form an on-line register with more in depth information and form the basis of walking tracks.

The Strategic Management Plan for Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra also makes a range of recommendations for action by individual stakeholder groups. These recommendations are listed below: MINE OWNERS 1. All mines with access to workings should produce an underground film of previous workings and current operations 2. Implement an active oral history program 3. Conservation Management Plan produced for each mine before active production ceases and include public participation 4. Establishment of Community Enhancement Programs with any new Development Applications DEPT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRIES 1. Review community consultation procedures 2. Review and audit compliance with sign off agreements for remediation of sites with individual mine owners to allow them to leave sites with structures of cultural significance still in place. 3. Encourage adaptive reuse over the removal of significant mine fabric. 4. Review cultural heritage aspects of Mine Closure Plans
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WOLLONGONG CITY COUNCIL When a previous mine site is rezoned for other uses, the Council should consider the following planning option; 1. Retain standing built fabric that meets significance criteria 2. All Development Applications for the rezoning or adaptive reuse of significant structures should include maintenance and interpretation provisions 3. Encourage adaptive reuse of buildings 4. Retain formal mine gardens 5. Street naming 6. A central repository is required for the storage and easy access of archives and research material 7. Develop a trail network across the escarpment 8. Inclusion of the eleven mine sites into the Wollongong City Council Local Environment Plan. NSW HERITAGE OFFICE 1. Inclusion of state significant mines onto the State Heritage Register

GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND THE DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT AND CONSERVATION DEC is responsible for managing cultural heritage items on land that it manages and is also responsible for the approval and regulation of works to those items. All works to heritage items must comply with statutory responsibilities set out under the NSW Heritage Act, 1977, the National Parks and Wildlife Act, 1974 and the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act, 1979 and DEC Historic Heritage policies. Current DEC policy states that the stages to achieve best practice cultural heritage management are planning, design and documentation, approval/s, implementation and ongoing management, cyclical maintenance and monitoring and evaluation. For the mining sites in the Illawarra Escarpment State Conservation Area, this staged approach is in its initial stages. Conservation Management Plans will be developed for the PK2 and the Mt Kembla sites. The Conservation Management Plans will include reference to adaptive reuse, interpretation, mining stakeholders and this document is to ensure consistency. As a result of geotechnical instability, unrehabilitated mine sites, coal waste emplacements, land instability and risks to public safety, a risk assessment of the mine sites and consequent stabilisation of the sites and structures would need to be undertaken prior to making any sites available to the public. ALL 1. Establish a structured Peak Body to administer the recommendations in this report.
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2. Map all known sites on GIS System 3. Develop a trail network across the escarpment 4. Develop a plaque program across the escarpment 5. Develop a Internet based web site to promote all the recommendations 6. Develop an interpretation plan for the Illawarra Coal Field 7. Provide housing and resources of archives 8. Funding

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Table of Contents
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3

2.

INTRODUCTION REPORT OBJECTIVES REPORT STRUCTURE LOCATION DETAILED MAPS OF MINE SITES SITE IDENTIFICATION & CURTILAGE AUTHORSHIP REFERENCE GROUP REPORT LIMITATIONS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS STAKEHOLDERS

12 12 13 14 14 16 17 17 17 18 18

2.1. 2.1.1. 2.1.2. 2.1.3. 2.1.4. 2.1.5. 2.1.6. 2.1.7. 2.1.8. 2.1.9.

3. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF COAL MINING IN THE WOLLONGONG AREA 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 3.5. 3.6. 3.7. 3.8. 3.9. 3.10. 3.11. 4. 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 5. ABORIGINAL HERITAGE & COAL MINING IN THE ILLAWARRA EXTRACT FROM – A MINING HISTORY OF THE ILLAWARRA THE FIRST SETTLERS A BACKGROUND TO MINING IN THE ILLAWARRA DISTRICT WOLLONGONG HARBOUR AND BELMORE BASIN COLLIERY JETTIES THE GOVERNMENT RAILWAY AND HARBOUR DEVELOPMENTS THE PIONEER KEROSENE WORKS COKE OVENS COAL SEAMS SOCIAL HISTORY

19 19 19 20 20 22 23 23 24 24 25 26 32 33 34 35 36

COAL MINING LANDSCAPES UNDERGROUND FABRIC ABOVEGROUND FABRIC OFFSITE FABRIC STATEMENTS OF SIGNIFICANCE

5.1. 5.2. 5.2.1. 5.2.2. 5.2.3. 5.2.4. 5.2.5. 5.2.6.

COMPARITIVE SIGNIFICANCE OF COAL MINING IN THE ILLAWARRA 36 INDIVIDUAL SITES 37 COALCLIFF COLLIERY (1877-1991) 37 CORRIMAL COLLIERY (1870-1986) 38 38 BULLI COLLIERY (1861-1988) ELOUERA COLLIERY (FORMERLY WONGAWILLI) – 1870 39 39 HUNTLEY COLLIERY (1946-1989) KEMIRA COLLIERY (1855-1991) 40
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5.2.7. 5.2.8. 5.2.9. 5.2.10. 5.2.11. 6.

METROPOLITAN COLLIERY (1886- STILL OPERATING) MOUNT KEMBLA (1883-1970) MT PLEASANT COLLIERY (1861-1955) NEBO COLLIERY (1946-1993) SOUTH BULLI (1887 – STILL OPERATING)

40 40 41 41 41 43 43 44 44 44 45 46 46 47 48 49 51

STATUTORY AND NON STATUTORY COMPLIANCE OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTS FEDERAL GOVERNMENT STATUTORY OBLIGATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION ACT 1999, STATE GOVERNMENT STATUTORY OBLIGATIONS NSW HERITAGE ACT, 1977 NATIONAL PARKS AND WILDLIFE ACT, 1974 ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING AND ASSESSMENT ACT, 1979 MINING ACT 1992 LOCAL GOVERNMENT STATUTORY OBLIGATIONS NON STATUTORY CONSIDERATIONS

6.1. 6.2. 6.2.1. 6.3. 6.3.1. 6.3.2. 6.3.3. 6.3.4. 6.4. 6.5. 7. 7.1. 7.2. 7.3. 8.

DEFINING THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE

MANAGEMENT OF THE COAL MINE LANDSCAPES OF THE ILLAWARRA 52 OPERATIONAL/NON OPERATIONAL MINES 54 RECOGNISING COAL MINING LANDSCAPE COMPONENTS 55 ISSUES 63

9. 9.1. 9.2. 9.3. 9.4. 10.

A NEW MODEL WHAT IT MEANS THE BENEFITS PROPOSED NEW MODEL POLICY FINAL OUTCOMES FOR STAKEHOLDERS MINE OWNERS DEPT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRIES WOLLONGONG CITY COUNCIL NSW HERITAGE OFFICE THE DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT AND CONSERVATION ALL INTERPRETATION

64 65 65 66 67 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 72 73 73 73
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10.1. 10.2. 10.3. 10.4. 10.5. 10.6. 11.

11.1. TOURS 11.1.1. SELF GUIDED 11.1.2. OPERATED
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11.1.3. INTERNET 11.1.4. WALKING TRACKS 11.1.5. MEMORIALS 11.1.6. MARKERS OR PLAQUES 11.1.7. PLAQUE POLICY 11.1.8. PLANNING 11.1.9. ARCHIVES 11.1.10. PUBLIC LIABILITY ISSUES AND RISK MANAGEMENT 12. REFERENCES

76 76 77 78 79 79 79 80 81 87 89 91 93 96 100 105

12.1. APPENDIX A 12.2. APPENDIX B 12.2.1. APPENDIX B2. 12.3. APPENDIX C 12.4. APPENDIX D 12.5. APPENDIX E 13. SHI LISTING CARDS

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2. INTRODUCTION

2.1. REPORT OBJECTIVES
The aims of this project are to direct a plan of action for the future, taking into account the significant body of work that exists on the heritage of coal industry in the Illawarra. This work should be made available to the wider community and put into action by the key stakeholders. As part of the brief, this report has not undertaken any primary research into the history of coal mining in the region, but has instead relied on information provided by the Reference Group as determined. The report has relied on the generous support of the Reference Group and previous studies that have been undertaken on coal mining in the Illawarra. The Illawarra Coal Field, centred in the City of Wollongong Local Government Area is significant to the region, state and the nation in both economic and cultural terms and contributes to the aesthetic, historical, social and technical values of the region. The report has found a number of possibilities to enhance the importance of heritage to the coal industry in the Illawarra, whilst allowing ongoing production and with the participation of all stakeholders. The management of this resource is reliant on action by the main stakeholders acting in the public interest. There is significant emphasis on the above ground works associated with coal mining but in reality the largest portion of the coalmine is underground. With the older workings, there is significant fabric still in existence underground and although the environment is unfavourable, the items are protected by their position. Three main areas of investigation into cultural significance were undertaken and were viewed from a technical, social and historical perspective. From this evaluation a statement of significance was developed for the individual mines and for the district as a whole. The guidelines used were those developed by the Australian Heritage Commission in Mining Heritage Places Assessment Manual. Eleven mines were studied in detail and nine State Heritage Inventory forms developed in consultation with the Reference Group. These are included in this report. It is recommended that; Eleven mines included in this report be considered for inclusion on the State Heritage Register That the Reference Group assess, amend and ratify the recommendations and policies of this report so that the relevant Authorities can put them into action and, That a strategy be developed for promoting and funding the heritage values of historic coal mining places in the Illawarra by forming a new Peak Body to coordinate this function.

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The report has relied on the generous support of the Reference Group and previous studies that have been undertaken, that have dealt with coal mining in the Illawarra. 2.1.1. REPORT STRUCTURE The report has been structured following the procedures outlined in this section. They were amended in consultation with the Reference Group, during the course of the project to develop a new methodology for the closure of coal mines and develop appropriate policies for their preservation and interpretation. Stage 1 and 2 were carried out as part of this process, leaving Stage 3 to be implemented by the key stakeholders. In the preparation of this report the following processes were devised; 1. Assess the cultural significance Identify the site, place or landscape Gather all the relevant information about the place Identify stakeholders Prepare a statement of significance 2. Adopt principles for conservation based on identified significance values Identify obligations arising from the significance assessment Assess physical conditions, opportunities and constraints for the management of the place or landscape Develop a conservation policy Determine conservation processes Prepare a State heritage Inventory form 3. Implement, monitor and review the plan Determine what actions the plan requires Manage the place in accordance with the strategy Assess whether the plan has achieved its objectives Review the plan to assess what changes could be made to improve the results for the management of the landscape.

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2.1.2. LOCATION All the mines covered in this report are within the Wollongong City Local Government Area although the Illawarra Coal Field extends into all neighbouring council areas.

Figure 1- The Illawarra Coal Fields.

2.1.3. DETAILED MAPS OF MINE SITES The following maps of the Wollongong Local Government Areas Collieries have been prepared with the assistance of G Mould. More detailed maps are included in Appendix D to allow for site identification.

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Figure 2 –Wollongong LGA Northern Collieries showing sites 1 to 20.

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Figure 3 –Wollongong LGA Southern Collieries showing sites 21 to 46.

2.1.4. SITE IDENTIFICATION & CURTILAGE For the purposes of easy identification, the pit head portal is the identifier for each mine (eastings/northings), although the above ground works are often spread over many hectares and the underground works are spread over many square kilometres. The definition of mine fabric in this report, unless otherwise stated, means all the above ground fabric. The recorded information has been plotted on the Wollongong GIS as the Heritage Mine Layer and can be added to or amended at any stage.

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2.1.5. AUTHORSHIP The following people as part of O.H.M. Consultants compiled the assessment and report. Marion Landau David McBeath Roger Parris 2.1.6. REFERENCE GROUP The Reference Group had its first meeting in November 2004 and the group will go on meeting for the duration of the study. Membership of the Reference group has been drawn from industry, government, and the community. There are representatives of BHP Billiton and Metropolitan Coal Mine, the Department of Environment & Conservation, Parks and Wildlife Division (DEC), Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Minerals Heritage Sub Committee, Department of Primary Industries Mineral Resources Division, Mt Kembla Mining Heritage Committee, a project co-coordinator and Wollongong City Council1. The Reference Group consists of; Zina Ainsworth Jennifer Bean Stephen Barry Ron Cairns Peter Chrystal David Hickie Bill Huuskes Geoff Mould Arthur Murray Hank Pinkster Don Reynolds Greg Scott BHP Biliton DEC (Parks and Wildlife Division) Department of Primary Industries (Mineral Resources) AusIMMHC Wollongong City Council Gutteridge Haskins and Davey Metropolitan Coal Mine AusIMMHC Balgownie Museum BHP Billiton AusIMMHC AusIMMHC

Phillip Donaldson Mt. Kembla Mining Heritage Committee

Bob Kininmonth AusIMMHC

Jackie SedgewickDEC (Parks and Wildlife Division) Cate Stevenson Mt. Kembla Mining Heritage Committee Louise Thom Wendy Todd Project Coordinator Wollongong City Council

2.1.7. REPORT LIMITATIONS An investigation into the cultural significance of mining heritage places on the escarpment is multi-faceted and takes into account both the tangible and intangible values and how to manage them in a sustainable way. It considers the opinions of the mining companies as expressed through the Reference Group, legal obligations and the importance of this heritage to the people of the region.
Louise Thom, Project Coordinator NSW Heritage Office Newsletter Strategic Management Plan For Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra O.H.M. Consultants

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No primary research has been undertaken in accordance with the original brief. All information included in the report relied on research provided by the Reference Group together with site visits to some of the mine sites and surrounding areas, previous reports and studies as acknowledged above and local history societies. Access to certain sites was not possible and assessments have been made on documentary evidence. The report does, however, clarify a number of options for the future management of the eleven mines investigated in detail. It also gives further detail on methodologies for managing this resource at a local level. Risk assessments concerning disused structures, tunnels and mine shafts have not been carried out as part of this report. This has been raised as an outstanding issue. 2.1.8. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Louise Thom - Project Coordinator The authors wish to thank the Reference Group and in particular the assistance of members of the Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (AIMM) Illawarra Branch Minerals Heritage Sub Committee whose knowledge of the history and heritage of coal mining on the Escarpment was invaluable. In particular, the following guided us in the field; Cate Stevenson Stephen Barry Ron Cairns Phillip Donaldson Bill Huuskes Don Reynolds Geoff Mould Wollongong City Council Staff

2.1.9. STAKEHOLDERS Wollongong City Council Department of Primary Industries, Mineral Resources Division New South Wales Heritage Office Department of Environment and Conservation, Parks and Wildlife Division Mine Site Owners including: BHPbilliton Pty Ltd Helensburgh Coal Pty Ltd

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3. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF COAL MINING IN THE WOLLONGONG AREA

3.1.ABORIGINAL HERITAGE & COAL MINING IN THE ILLAWARRA
During research no evidence has been found of the traditional owners of the Illawarra using coal prior to European occupation. There have been numerous reports of Aboriginal use of coal in the Hunter Region as a fuel. Very few records of the interaction of the coal industry with the Aboriginal people in the 19th century have been found although the upheaval and displacement from their traditional land is documented in A History of Aboriginal People of the Illawarra 1770 to 1970. The use of the land for timber getting, farming and then mining all had an effect on the habitation, use, tracks and food sources for Aboriginal people. This has been a theme of European occupation of traditional lands generally and not specific to the coal industry in the Illawarra. There are records of Aboriginal men working in the coal industry in the early 1900’s as coal trimmers 2 and Aboriginal people continue to work in the industry today.

3.2. EXTRACT FROM – A MINING HISTORY OF THE ILLAWARRA
Sections 3.2 to 3.10 have been prepared by R Cairns, G Mould and D. Reynolds, AusIMMHC. Whilst there is some suggestion that the Aborigines had burnt coal long before the white men arrived in this country, the first recorded discovery in New South Wales was made by an escaped convict William Bryant who was accompanied by his wife Mary and others and found coal near Newcastle in March 1791. A French landing party had also recorded having found and burned coal on the southeast coast of Tasmania in February 1793. The first discovery of coal in the Illawarra was made in May 1797 by a group of shipwrecked sailors making their way to Port Jackson on foot along the east coast after their ship had been earlier driven ashore in the Bass Strait. They found coal and made a fire near Austinmer and returned to Port Jackson soon after when they were rescued by a fishing boat near Wattamolla. Governor Hunter sent Dr. George Bass to the area in August of that year in the company of one of the survivors to confirm the discovery and Bass reported sighting coal seams at Coalcliff and Austinmer. Coal mining in the Colony commenced in 1797 at Newcastle after its discovery near the mouth of the Hunter River using convict labour and continued for around twenty-eight years producing the modest quantities of coal needed to support the Colony. In 1828 the British Government granted the Australian Agricultural Company [AAC], a Newcastle based private enterprise a thirty-year monopoly on all coal mining in the Colony.
2

Graham, Kate and DEC, A History of Aboriginal People of the Illawarra 1770 to 1970. 2005 pg 40 Strategic Management Plan For Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra O.H.M. Consultants

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Despite the fact that coal had been discovered in the Illawarra in 1797, the AAC monopoly was to delay the development of coal mining in the area for some sixty years. When mining did commence in 1849 the fact that the coal seams outcropped southward of Coalcliff at an increasing height above sea level and on the sloping face of the escarpment presented problems with transport. These were unique to the area and proved a problem in delivering the coal from the mine portals to the coastal plain and seaports below. The first mine was opened at Mt Keira and by the turn of the nineteenth century a number of mines had been established along the coastline from Helensburgh to Mount Kembla.

3.3. THE FIRST SETTLERS
In 1815 Aborigines told Dr. Charles Throsby Smith, who had cattle grazing in the Liverpool district, that there was plentiful grazing land and water on the coast in the area they knew as Five Islands. Throsby Smith visited the area soon after in the company of these natives and was able to confirm what he had been told. He returned with a herd of cattle driving them down to the coastal plain along a track he had made near Bulli on the earlier trip. He erected a stockyard near the area we now know as Belmore Basin and began grazing his cattle. Other cattlemen soon followed and by 1826 the small settlement known as Wollongong had been established complete with a modest harbour that provided the only reliable means of access for travellers and the handling of supplies and product to and from the area. In 1834 the site and layout of the town of Wollongong was gazetted and included a harbour at what is now known as Belmore Basin. Whilst several primitive bush tracks provided access to and from the west these were rendered impassable in bad weather and the lack of a reliable access by land was to impede the development of the area for a number of years. The routes for a more reliable roads system on the coastal plain and over the escarpment were laid out in 1834 and the Mt Keira Road, constructed in 1835/6 by convict labour provided the first reliable road to the west over the escarpment.

3.4. A BACKGROUND TO MINING IN THE ILLAWARRA DISTRICT
In 1839 the Reverend W.B. Clark who was a Parson and skilled Geologist commenced his examination of the coal seams on the escarpment and the results of his efforts provided an insight into the available coal seams and the potential for coal mining. By the 1840’s most of the available cedar had been removed and with the large areas of land cleared by timber getting, unsuitable for any large-scale production of agricultural products the area began to give way to a growing dairying industry.

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There was however a real need for another primary industry to support the continued development of the area and coal was to provide the answer to that need. The monopoly held by the AAC on coal mining was in force at this time and an attempt in 1839 by Captain R.M. Westmacott to open a mine at Bulli was hotly contested in court by the AAC. It was not until 1847 that the AAC voluntarily relinquished their monopoly and this opened the door to the development of coalmines by others in the State. Mr. James Schoobert opened the first mine in this area at Mt.Keira in 1849. The mine initially worked the Wongawilli or No3 seam and later the Balgownie or No2 seam. The mine was a crude affair with a tunnel into the seam, a lone miner filling one skip at a time then pushing the skip to the surface on a tramline of wooden rails. The coal was dumped at the mine entrance, loaded into horse drawn sleds and carts for transport to the harbour and loaded on to a ship in bags. The mine was to pass into new hands in 1857 and mining began in the Bulli or No1 seam lying above the Wongawilli seam and became known as the Osborne- Wallsend Colliery. In the period spanning 1847 to 1900 no less than twelve mines were opened along the escarpment with others being in the course of development. 2300 men were employed and the annual production reached 1.26 million tons. The Bulli seam was found to be ideally suited as a fuel for steam engines and as was to be later realised, ideally suited to the production of coking coal. The Balgownie or No2 seam coal was worked at some mines and blended with the Bulli seam coal to satisfy selected customers needs. The mines opened in the 1840- 1900 phase of the industries development were the Mt Keira mine 1849,Thomas Hale’s Woonona mine 1857, Taylor and Walker’s Russell Vale mine 1861, Bulli mine 1861, and Mount Pleasant mine at Balgownie 1862. All of these mines were located in the area bounded by Mt Keira to the south and Thirroul to the north. At Coal Cliff where the presence of coal had been confirmed by Bass in 1797 a mine known as the Jetty mine was opened in 1878 to be followed by the Bellambi, South Clifton and the Mt Kembla mines in 1883, with the North Illawarra, Corrimal, North Bulli mines in 1884 and South Bulli in 1887. The opening of the Mt Kembla mine in 1883 was to be the first mine opened in the Bulli seam to the south of Mt Keira. In 1888 the Southern Coal Company commenced the development of a mine in the Bulli seam on the south-eastern slopes of Mt Kembla but the Company was forced to abandon the project, that included considerable expenditure on a jetty at Red Point and rail line to the mine site, a screening plant and incline haulage to the mine portals, due to the poor quality of coal encountered in the seam. The Tongarra mine near Albion Park opened in the Tongarra or No5 seam in 1893 and in 1884 prospecting tunnels had been driven in all the exposed seams at Avondale south west of Dapto. The Metropolitan Colliery opened in 1888 in a valley near Helensburgh and required the sinking of a 335-metre shaft to reach the Bulli seam. A shaft some 50 metres in depth was also sunk at South Clifton as part of the initial development of that mine.

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In 1910 the Jetty mine, established in 1877 became known as the Coal Cliff colliery when a shaft was sunk inland from the jetty to establish the mine surface plant and provide access to the existing underground workings. In the first half of the 20th century more than a dozen mines were opened along the escarpment. Whilst several new mines were established in the period 1940 to 1980, with few exceptions all of these mines have closed and in one case three mines Nebo, Kemira and Wongawilli have been amalgamated to create one mine [Elouera]. The closure of these mines was as a result of the exhaustion of coal reserves, changes in mining practices and the costs associated with operating and maintaining very old mines with extensive underground workings. Several new shaft access mines were developed on green field sites behind the escarpment in the 1970’s to mine the Bulli seam. One of these mines has been closed and a second closed with the remaining reserves being accessed by using the combined facilities of the mine and an adjacent operating mine.

3.5. WOLLONGONG HARBOUR AND BELMORE BASIN
The need to have a means of exporting coal from an area that had no other means of access other than by sea made the need for a harbour a critical item in the coal handling chain from the mines to the waiting ships. In 1837 plans for a basin and pier were adopted to develop the existing harbour site and later in that year 300 convicts and a guard of soldiers arrived to undertake this work. The harbour opened for service in 1844 after some changes had been made during construction to increase its size to match the increase in trade that had taken place during the seven-year construction of the basin. Further additions were made to the basin in 1861 with changes again required during construction to increase the handling capacity. The work was finally completed in 1868 with an official opening ceremony and the naming of the harbour as the Belmore Basin. The harbour was furnished with three coal staithes capable of loading 3000 tons of coal per day and a wharf frontage that could accommodate about 15 vessels. Later modifications included the installation of a fourth loading staithe. Two coal mine developments that directly contributed to the ongoing need to upgrade the handling capacity of the harbour were the construction in 1859 of a tramway from the Osborne Wallsend mine at Mt Keira to the western side of the Wollongong to Bulli road, (near the site of Bunning’s Warehouse) where the coal was dumped and then hauled by horse and dray to the harbour. In 1861 the tramline was extended to Cliff Road and the harbour with the wagons being hauled along the rail line initially by horse and in 1879 by steam locomotive. In 1862 the Mount Pleasant Colliery owners developed a similar proposal. This tramline was routed in a south-western direction from the mine located on the mountainside behind Balgownie to the Wollongong Bulli Road (near the grounds of the Keira High School and TAFE College). The tramline then followed a route that crossed Fairy Creek and Stuart Park to follow a path along what is now the walking and cycle track leading from the North Beach to Belmore Basin. Horses initially hauled the wagons to be replaced in 1884 by steam locomotive.
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When the Belmore Basin opened in 1868 the monthly coal exports amounted to 31,450 tons and an average of 68 vessels were handled in the same period. By 1878 the coal passing through the harbour had increased to 92,500 tons.

3.6. COLLIERY JETTIES
As the number of mines increased along the coast and in the absence of a government railway or an all weather road system leading to the harbour from the mines to the north and south of Wollongong, the mine operators provided their own facilities for loading coal onto ships by building jetties that were linked to tram lines from the mines. The history of these coal-loading jetties is with two exceptions one of relatively fragile and flimsy structures located in positions that could only provide minimum protection from heavy sea conditions. This led to the frequent damage and destruction of the jetties including loss of lives and equipment and incidents where the attending ships were washed on to the nearby shores and reefs. The building of these structures first began at Bellambi Point in the period 1858 to 1863. Jetties were constructed at Sandon Point for the Bulli Colliery about 1863, for the Jetty Colliery at Coal Cliff in 1878, the Mount Kembla Colliery near Red Point (later to be known as Port Kembla) and the North Illawarra Coal Company at Austinmer in 1884. Following earlier attempts a new jetty was built at Bellambi Point in 1887 to be followed by second jetty in 1889 only to be abandoned in 1889.The Southern Coal Company jetty built at Port Kembla in 1890 was to service a mine in the Mt Kembla area that did not eventuate and was used by that Company for its mine at Corrimal and by others and remained in service until 1916. The Mt Kembla and Southern Coal Company jetties at Port Kembla proved capable of withstanding the sea conditions without serious damage as a result of them being located in more sheltered positions. The Bellambi Point jetty remained in service until 1954, the Coal Cliff jetty until 1912 and the Bulli Colliery Sandon Point and Mt Kembla Red Point jetties until the 1940’s. The jetties to the north of Wollongong were washed away on several occasions imposing a heavy financial burden on the mine owners who did not achieve the benefits originally planned from these jetties.

3.7. THE GOVERNMENT RAILWAY AND HARBOUR DEVELOPMENTS
The Government Railway system reached the Illawarra in 1886 but it did not provided a continuous single line connection from Wollongong to Sydney until 1888 when the Waterfall to Clifton section was completed. With the arrival of the railway the Government was keen to see all the export coal handled through Belmore Basin. In 1890 the Osborne Wallsend tramline was resumed from its intersection with the Government line to the harbour and a connection made between the two rail line systems at their intersection.
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Similar connections were made at other mines both north and south of Wollongong where the mine and the Government lines crossed. The handling capacity of the harbour was however being increasingly stretched to its limits and the Governments single track rail line to Sydney, completed in 1888 was simply not capable of handling the increased capacity needed to support the districts export needs. This state of affairs led, after much agitation and consideration of several other alternative port sites that included Lake Illawarra and Tom Thumb Lagoon, to a Government decision in 1895 to develop Port Kembla as the future port for the district and work began on that project in 1900. The handling of coal through the Belmore Basin declined when the Port Kembla Harbour facilities became available but small quantities of coal continued to be shipped through the Basin up until the 1940’s.

3.8. THE PIONEER KEROSENE WORKS
Although this was not a coalmine it is part of history of the area. The shale was extracted from the No 4 or American Creek seam and the coal used to fire the retorts was mined from either the Balgownie or Wongawilli seams. A shale bed found in the American Creek seam at Mt Kembla led to the production of sample quantities of kerosene shale being produced in 1865 to be followed by the establishment of a kerosene shale plant 1872.The plant operated until 1878 before closing as a result of being unable to compete with the price of kerosene being produced elsewhere in the State and imported from overseas. The plant was located near the entrance to the Dendrobium mine on Cordeaux Road at Mt Kembla Heights.

3.9. COKE OVENS
In 1916 the NSW Department of Mines published an extensive report titled, The Coke Industry of New South Wales detailing the various coke manufacturing works in NSW. The report was prepared by their Geological Surveyor, L.F. Harper. The nine Southern District coke works, then operating, are described in detail. They include: Mt Lyell Coke Works at Port Kembla. Federal Coke Works at Wollongong. Mt Pleasant Coke Works at North Wollongong. Corrimal- Balgownie Coke Works at Corrimal railway station. B.H. Associated Smelters Coke Works at Bellambi. Bulli Coke Works at Bulli. North Bulli Coke Works at Coledale. South Clifton Coke Works at South Clifton. Illawarra Coke Co. Coke Works at Coal Cliff.
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Prior to 1916 four coke works that had operated had been shut down; these were: Osborne & Ahearn’s Coke works at Belmore Basin. These were Illawarra’s first coke ovens and there were only a small number of ovens in operation. They operated spasmodically from 1875 to 1890 and supplied coke for the initial operations of the British Tasmanian Charcoal Iron Company Ltd on the Tamar River in Tasmania. Bertram’s Corrimal Coke Works at Tarrawanna. These were a battery of seven beehive ovens built in 1889 that only operated for a short period until the Southern Coal Company took over Bertram’s mine in 1890. Australian Coke Making Works (ACMW) at Unanderra which were built in 1889 by the Southern Coal Company (SCC); unfortunately the SCC’s plans to develop a mine at Mt Kembla struck a major fault and inferior coal quality and was abandoned. The SCC then purchased Bertram’s Corrimal mine and closed the Corrimal coke ovens. In 1912 the ASCM coke ovens were closed down after the Corrimal Balgownie Colliery (Reconstituted SCC) had opened a large modern coke ovens plant at Corrimal. Robshaw & Figtree Coke Works were built in 1889 at the Mount Pleasant colliery to the north of North Wollongong adjacent to their railway. They were leased to Robshaw and Figtree and were closed in 1910 when the Figtree Bros built a new set of ovens at North Wollongong. Since 1916 the largest of all Illawarra non-recovery coke ovens were progressively built at Wongawilli by Hoskins Iron & Steel and Australian Iron & Steel. In 1938 AIS built their first by-products coke ovens plant in their Port Kembla works and the Wongawilli coke ovens were shut down. The Wongawilli coke ovens were again placed back in service for a short period about 1945 to meet a wartime coke shortage at the Port Kembla steelworks. The only non-recovery coke ovens still operating in Illawarra are: Corrimal- Balgownie Coke Ovens at Corrimal. Illawarra Coke Co. Coke Ovens at Coal Cliff.

3.10.

COAL SEAMS

There are seven major coal seams outcropping in the Illawarra. They are numbered from one to seven from the uppermost to the lowest levels of the Illawarra Coal measures. There are seven main seams: Bulli No 1 Balgownie (4ft) No 2 Wongawilli (17ft dirty) No 3 American Creek seam (noted for its oil shale qualities) No 4 Tongarra No 5 Woonona No 6
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Unanderra No 7

Other thin intermittent seams exist between these formations and several identified but uneconomical seams occur below the main sequence. All of the main seams in the above coal measures have been prospected at one time or another and in some cases mined to a limited extent and then abandoned.3

3.11.

SOCIAL HISTORY

Oral histories are an important tool in reading the cultural landscape and interpreting events. Such information can document the changes in landscape and place over time and can often provide an explanation for seemingly anachronous patterns in the landscape, filling the gap of information about a structure that once stood in a particular place. They provide a valuable tool in recording the changing nature of the industry over time through personal accounts. These accounts, often explain why events occurred, customs were formed and practices carried out (in particular safety practices). The oral histories can also explain strange patterns in the landscape once obvious structures have long been removed. They also widen the subject to include families and associated industries reliant on the core coal mining industry The social history of coal mining in the Illawarra district has been part of ongoing research by groups including the Union (CFMEU) and local historical societies such as the Mount Kembla Mining Heritage Committee. In their publication At the Coalface; The Human Face of Coal Miners and Their Communities; An Oral History of the early days,4 the Union has undertaken an oral history project which documents the lives of the mine workers. The first volume in this series features profiles of 12 coal mining personalities telling their stories “of struggle and survival, of courage and determination, of tragedy and triumph” and has their experiences to be recorded for future generations. Whilst disasters with multiple deaths command the headlines and evoke enormous public sympathy, the toll of mine workers fatalities, shocking injuries and crippling diseases remain a permanent feature of mining community life. The Miners Cottage at Bulli houses a memorial that lists 621 known to have died in the Southern District coal mines. “Whilst this memorial is a testament to the toll on human life in the coal mines, they do not reveal the full story. Thousands more are estimated to have died prematurely as a result of their injuries and industrial diseases, particularly from the deadly disease black lung caused by years of inhaling coal dust”5. Union membership and activism was an important aspect of working life for the miners in the Illawarra coalfields. It helped define the development of these communities with the establishment of women’s auxiliaries, first aid
3 Referenced from B.Sheldon contribution to – Wongawilli Heritage Study 2003 – pg. 90 Appendix E Schematic section 4 Moore, Fred, Gorman, P and Harrison, R, At the Coalface; The Human Face of Coal Miners and Their Communities; An Oral History of the early days, Mining and Energy Division of the Construction Forestry Mining and Energy Union, Sydney 1998 5 At the Coalface; The Human Face of Coal Miners and Their Communities; An Oral History of the early days, foreward 26 Strategic Management Plan For Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra O.H.M. Consultants

stations at the mines, accident relief funds and the introduction of a levy to pay for doctors to visit those injured in the mines. By the turn of the century, miner’s organisations were established in all districts and although they pursued many common demands, they operated as separate groups. Between1908-1909, the three NSW unions the Northern, Southern and Western Districts formed the Federated Coal and Shale Workers Union. In 1915, representatives from this group, together with Queensland, Victoria and Tasmania came together to form the Miners Federation. The new union was soon tested in what became known as the Peter Bowling Strike of 1909-1910, when the miners sought to restore lost conditions and improve standards. The coal owners organization, revised in 1906, confronted the miners. Historically, the coal industry has been the victim of boom and bust cycles and when the market was down the miners were expected to bear the brunt of he crisis. This proved to be the case in 1929, in the midst of the Great Depression, when there was a lockout of miners for 15 months in Northern District after workers refused to take a 12.5 percent cut in wages. Later they were forced back to work in May 1930. Miners in other districts were also forced to take these cuts. By the mid 1930’s, the miners were set to enter a new phase in the history of the Union, under the leadership of Charles Nelson and William Orr. They were the first communists to be elected as national union officials. Under their leadership, the Federation soon recovered lost wages and conditions and advances were made in health and safety and the miner’s pension fund was established in 1941 The Coal and Mine Workers Pension Act 1941 provided for compulsory retirement at the age of 60. To qualify, a miner had to be in the industry for more than 20 years. The union fought against the unfettered introduction of mechanization by coal owners in the industry, believing it would lead to over production and the destruction of thousands of jobs. The Federation also advocated the nationalization of the industry but this was rejected by the Federal Labour Government led by Prime Minister Ben Chifley. Chifley favoured a form of national control between the Commonwealth and the States. Only the New South Wales Government agreed and jointly enacted legislation with the Federal Government to establish the Joint Coal Board in 1946. Part of its charter, was to ensure an improvement in the working and living conditions of mine workers. The 1949 National Coal Strike turned out to be a turning point in the conduct of the industry and resulted in the removal of the communist leadership by the Union membership and the formation of the Joint Coal Board. The coal industry was also taken out of the mainstream arbitration system and given its own Coal Industry Tribunal in recognition of the special nature of the work in the industry, and its importance to the nation. The social history of the region has also been the focus of some of the local history societies, such as the Mt Kembla Mining Heritage Committee. It is actively carrying out oral histories in Mt Kembla and has published a number of books to document the intangible aspects of their working lives and to explain who, why, where, and when certain activities were carried out within their own environment. This work has been made possible by funding support from the BHPbilliton Dendrobium Mine.

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Extracts of selected oral histories have been included to illustrate the benefits of an oral history program and broaden the subject of mining heritage beyond a fabric based approach in the region. The following extract is taken from 40 Years in the Dark: A Life Spent Working in the South Coast Coal Mines, An Autobiography, by Lisle House (An Oral History)6 “1950s – Nearly all contract mining was finished with the demise of the pit ponies and the introduction of mechanization. Management and union relations always very touchy and confrontation was a daily occurrence. Production was on day shift only 7am to 3pm, on afternoon shift the places were cut and fired. Dogwatch was for maintenance and pumping. With the increase in continuous miners changes occurred. In the latter half of the 1950s we were producing on day and afternoon shifts. 1960s - We began producing on 3 shifts in the sixties. It was inevitable with the increase in costs for equipment. Belts, shuttle cars and continuous miners in all the sections. Industrial relations had improved considerably in this era in some collieries. Justice Gallagher, Chairman of the Coal Industrial Tribunal gave BHP permission to mine on four shifts at Kemira with their long wall in 1967. They then tried to introduce it into Old Bulli in 1969. The men refused to work the dogwatch shift. The Union wanted a 35 hour working week and this they vigorously campaigned for. 1970s – On 14 August 1970, a working week of 37 ½ hours was introduced into the industry. This was to be followed by a 35 hour week on 1 August 1971. The Miners Federation done a deal, a 35 hour week for four shift production. It sounded good at the time but in the long term I think it was the thin end of the wedge as far as conditions went. Long wall mining was all the rage in the industry. 1980s – We now have retrenchments, sit-ins and mine closures. Then the worst thing that ever happened to the miner. His family and social life completely disrupted by the introduction of the roster system. The owners were not prepared for this, they were given a bag of lollies and didn’t know which one to eat first. Mine managers were having nightmares trying to work out how they could get 25 hours production out of 24 hours”. THE BULLI MINES One of the most important common campaigns was for greater safety standards. This came to a head with the Bulli Mining Disaster, when 81 men and boys were killed in an explosion at Southern District’s Bulli Pit – on 23 March 1887 - Australia’s first big mining disaster and it occurred after a prolonged strike. The strike was against wage cuts and victimization of union leaders. A subsequent inquiry into the disaster found managerial neglect of safety measures, but little was done.
6

This document can be found in the Wollongong Local Studies Library. Strategic Management Plan For Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra O.H.M. Consultants

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In an account of the life of Roy Coltman, who started working at South Bulli mine in 1912 at age 14, a vivid image is portrayed of life in the South Bulli mining community. Five generations of his family have worked in the Southern District coal mines and his grandfather and great uncle were killed in the mining disaster. ‘When I found out, when I realized that my grandfather and his brother was killed in the Bulli disaster, I thought, well, I’ll take up and study about ambulance and fires and explosions, things connected with that. In six years I got a medal from the Mines Department and that was suppose to be the finish of that… But I never regretted being in the mine. I never thought of disasters or explosions or anything and I don’t think the other men did either. It was just a day’s work. We done our work and dealt with it day to day in that way. Once the coal was extracted it was removed by the wheelers The wheelers, they had their horses, each had one horse there and they were beautiful horses. The horses were human really and if a skip got off the rail then they’d hook the tail-chain…into the wheel of the skip…..and the horse would give him a lift up…They were beautiful. Beautiful horses, and they were well groomed and well kept”7

Figure 4 - Old South Bulli Colliery 1909 pit ponies and their handlers from The Mines of Bellambi Coal Co.

7

Moore, Fred, Gorman, P and Harrison, R, At the Coalface; The Human Face of Coal Miners and Their Communities; An Oral History of the early days, Mining and Energy Division of the Construction Forestry Mining and Energy Union, p 11
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MOUNT KEMBLA 31 July 1902 Southern District mine exploded, killing 96 men and boys. It remains the worst industrial disaster in Australia’s history. The following is an extract from the oral history of Fred Kirkwood, who worked at Mount Kembla mine from 1909 – 1969. Conditions were harsh in 1923 when Fred started work at Mount Kembla. “There were no bathrooms and toilets around the place, there was no first aid room, no lunch rooms and there was no road into the mine site. You had to walk in by track to get to the mine. I was first employed on the screens. The men travelled from Unanderra and Figtree, many miles away, and they would have to carry their own water”.8 The miners would have to walk more than a mile up the sharp incline to Mount Kembla mine. “They all walked up. They would work 10 hours a day and then walk home again. If people came from Figtree they would ride push bikes from there and then walk up the incline. I knew some blokes who used to walk from Keira. They had a job at Kembla and walked from Keira…”

Figure 5 - Haulage line for Mount Kembla colliery forming a pattern in the landscape that can still be seen today. Moore, Fred (ed), Paddy Gorman and Ray Harrison, At the Coalface: The human face of coal miners and their communities: An Oral History of the early days

These histories are an important source of documentary evidence and can be used for research and interpretation purposes via the media such as radio programs, displays or printed publications. The information gathered from oral
8

Moore, Fred, Gorman, P and Harrison, R, At the Coalface; The Human Face of Coal Miners and Their Communities; An Oral History of the early days, Mining and Energy Division of the Construction Forestry Mining and Energy Union, p 24
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histories also allow us to assess the social significance of a place which is an important part of the NSW Heritage Office criteria for assessing significance

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4. COAL MINING LANDSCAPES
The exploitation of coal created a number of significant changes both to the landscape and to the social environment that has left a permanent mark within the region The coalmines in the Illawarra have influenced the development pattern of suburbs that were formally villages directly associated with the mine or clusters of mines. This pattern of growth has been repeated with each mine in the early European development of the area. Within each of the mines, the facilities are laid out to achieve maximum economic viability and with the introduction of new and innovative technologies the layouts have been altered to accommodate these changes. Often redundant machinery has been removed to make way for the new equipment, but some machinery has been left on site due to the cost and difficulty involved in their removal or may have instead been integrated into the new operations. Each coal mine was established for economic gain and when this failed the mine was closed either permanently or temporally. Often mines were reopened when new technology made it economically viable or when the price of coal increased. For example, the Metropolitan Mine was upgraded in the 1970’s when the technology and the landscape were altered to allow the mine to remain economically competitive. This meant that many of the structures were replaced with newer technology and the valley floor was raised to its present level. These historical changes are a record of the operation of the mine, forming a cultural landscape and, can be better understood if considered together with the social history.

Figure 6 - Metropolitan Colliery c. 1900, Charles Harper, Illawarra Images, Wollongong City Library. Strategic Management Plan For Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra O.H.M. Consultants

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Figure 7 - The same site today showing the changing landscape and structures.

Figure 8 - The original Illawarra rail tunnels, now abandoned and not directly associated with the Metropolitan Coal Mine have become part of the overall cultural landscape for the mine site. Photograph by Bill Huuskes

4.1. UNDERGROUND FABRIC
Underground fabric must be considered differently to above ground fabric at mine sites. It is often abandoned and left underground when the mine closes. Therefore these areas of the mines are often dangerous to access and document. Underground fabric is made up of both the mine structure itself and moveable items such as machinery, tools, transport and crib facilities.
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The mine would typically include 1. Shafts 2. Timber props and roof bars etc 3. Rail tracks 4. Pipes 5. Crib rooms 6. Stables Moveable items would typically include 1. Hand tools 2. Skips 3. Horse saddlery 4. Mechanical cutting and loading machines etc. 5. Conveyers 6. Fairways 7. Personal items i.e. Crib Tins, Water Bottles.

4.2. ABOVEGROUND FABRIC
They typically include (together with their contents); 1. Bath houses 2. Power generation 3. Coal washing facilities 4. Winding house 5. Ventilation Shafts 6. Powder & Detonator Magazine 7. Repair shops 8. Office 9. Dams 10. Portals 11. Coke ovens 12. Mine Ventilating Fans and Rooms 13. Coal transport 14. Coal storage Bins & Stockpiles 15. Inclines 16. Stables 17. Blacksmiths workshop 18. Gardens (formal landscaping)

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4.3. OFFSITE FABRIC
Offsite, these mines had associated villages, which had all the standard facilities of any town of the era but would have the following facilities peculiar to a coal town. These would include: 1. Paths to and from the pit 2. Ambulance facilities These were/are at all mines /Mine Rescue Stations 3. Graves 4. Memorials 5. School of Mining, Mechanics Institutes etc. 6. Union halls or lodges 7. Managers and employees residences The evaluation of these components, as part of the cultural landscape, allows for a holistic approach which assesses all criteria, including the historical, technical, social, built and landscape significance. The resultant affect of this evaluation process is that possibly there is less pressure to the “retain everything approach” hoping to preserve the truly significant items, moving to an approach that retains a higher level of information across the community. In combining oral histories, historical research with site surveys we will build a landscape that includes items such as tracks, pubs, along with the icon structures at the Pit-head. This allows us to interpret the whole story often incorporating other memories from the community, use the information to design walking tracks and maintain the social significance in the community that visitors to the area can also comprehend.

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5. STATEMENTS OF SIGNIFICANCE

5.1. COMPARITIVE SIGNIFICANCE OF COAL MINING IN THE ILLAWARRA
A comparative analysis of coal mines in the Wollongong LGA and the Illawarra has determined that the Illawarra is the best preserved coalfield in New South Wales. Due to its geographical location, in a narrow stretch of land between the Illawarra Escarpment and the Pacific Ocean, and coupled with the pressure of a growing population, immediate protective measures to preserve its mining heritage are encouraged. For the purpose of this comparative analysis, three coal mining districts in New South Wales were investigated Wollongong Lithgow Newcastle Although there are other coalfields in NSW, these three districts were all originally developed in the same era. All used underground mining and all developed a village system with associated supporting industries. The topography of the Illawarra escarpment has produced coastal plain mines which are similar to those in Newcastle and hillside mine sites similar to the Lithgow region. However it has also been responsible for the development of a particular pattern of urban development in the Illawarra along a narrow coastal strip. In Newcastle the topography has not restricted the pattern of urban development in the same manner. Wollongong still has working mines close to the heart of the city whereas Newcastle has one working mine left near the city and its participation in the coal industry is mainly through its exporting capabilities for the greater Hunter region. Each of the districts is still actively involved in producing coal of differing quality although Wollongong is the only district still relying almost solely on underground mining methods. Each district has remnant structural and cultural landscapes developed over similar periods in time by the coal industry and these have formed strong and celebrated cultural values. Although all districts share some similarities in their working histories such as the fight for better working conditions, each district has developed as a result of their particular geological conditions. The location of the coal mines to the urban centre of Wollongong make them unique in NSW as most coal mines in the other districts have moved further away from their original locations. In the Wollongong district, communities have a long and shared history with the local coal mines and this is further enhanced by their close proximity.
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Due to the geological conditions, seam access and location, the Wollongong coal industry has maintained its underground methods of coal mining where in other districts there has been a tendency to move to open cut where possible. The open cut method has had a drastic effect on the landscape where the underground methods have added a different cultural dimension to the landscape. The Illawarra Coal Mining district is highly significant at a State level.

5.2. INDIVIDUAL SITES
The following sites were investigated as part of the study using the NSW Heritage Office Guidelines and entered into the State Heritage Inventory (SHI) listing cards included in the second part of this report. They were investigated with the assistance of members of the Reference Group. Coalcliff Corrimal Colliery Bulli Colliery Elouera Colliery (formerly Wongawilli) Huntley Colliery Kemira Colliery Metropolitan Colliery Mount Kembla Mt Pleasant Colliery Nebo Colliery South Bulli

5.2.1. COALCLIFF COLLIERY (1877-1991) Coalcliff Colliery is significant for its long association with coal mining in NSW and the Illawarra as it was in continuous production from 1877 to 1991. By 1980 it was the largest underground mine in Australia producing 1.7 million tons of coal annually. The mine is significant for its association with employment and for providing investment that catalysed population growth and established the pattern of settlement at Clifton and later Coalcliff and the North Wollongong area. It is also significant for its connection with the jetty, which was constructed, washed away in storms on several occasions and the custom built colliers employed in nineteenth century. Some of the old workings that were connected to the jetty are still standing. The Coalcliff Colliery is significant for its connection with the Coalcliff Coke Ovens as it provided the coal, electric power and fresh water to the coke works, built in 1913 and is operational at this date. It is also significant for its connection with the South Coast Railways which provided transport to Belmore Basin/Wollongong Harbour. Two adit portals are still evident at sea level but these have been overshadowed by the construction of the Coalcliff to Clifton Bridge. A Plaque, with an historical interpretation of the site is currently being prepared. Other remains include the mine fan and boiler at the Jetty mine, the
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original brick power house at the Coalcliff mine site and the surface buildings at Darkes Forest.

5.2.2. CORRIMAL COLLIERY (1870-1986) This site is significant to the development of coal mining in the Illawarra for its association with the Southern Coal Company, who owned the mine between 1888 and 1902. (note here that SCC was reconstituted in 1902 to become known as the Corrimal Balgownie Collieries The SCC built the first commercial battery of beehive coke ovens in Illawarra; the coke works was known as the Australian Coke Making Company (ACMC) which was located adjacent to the SCC railway and Government railway at Five Islands Road Unanderra. The No1 Ventilation Shaft was sunk in 1908 (and last used in 1962), was restored at great expense by BHP Collieries in the 1990’s and stands in isolation and inaccessible to the public on property under the control of Sydney Water to the west of the Mt Keira to Wilton Road. This shaft was used primarily as an upcast air shaft for the first mechanical mine ventilation fan and later as an air intake or downcast shaft when the No2 shaft was sunk and replacement mine fan installed. Both shafts were provided with mine winders for access to and from the mine workings.

5.2.3. BULLI COLLIERY (1861-1988) The cluster of Bulli mines is very significant to the history of the Illawarra and was the site of a major mining disaster resulting in the death of 81 miners and affected most families in the area. The Bulli Mine Explosion Monument and the Bulli Museum at the railway station have been erected to preserve the memory of this tragedy. The main mine was the site of a major modernisation scheme in the 1940’s after its purchase by AIS and was operated by state of the art equipment. The excavation of the cross measures drift began in 1944 below the main portal and was driven by Federation labour, whereas at Kemira, a similar drift was driven by AWU labour following a very bitter demarcation dispute between the Miners Federation and the AWU. A number of tunnels and mines existed in the area. The underground workings of the original Bulli mine were serviced by portals at the seam outcrop. In the 1950’s these portals were abandoned as access men and materials handling and replaced by a cross measures drift with its portal lower down the mountain. Modern mine administration buildings and coal handling facilities were erected adjacent to the portal and provided the support needed to transport men and materials in and out of the mine and to receive and handle the coal mined and hauled from underground through the drift by diesel locomotives. The cluster of Bulli mines is also very significant to the history of Illawarra as the area on the adjacent escarpment is where Captain Westmacott first attempted to mine coal in the Illawarra but was thwarted by the Australian Agricultural Company’s monopoly over coal mining in the Colony. The mine is also significant for its association with the coke industry as the Bulli Coke Works provided coke to the BHAS smelters at Port Pirie and some was exported to San Francisco.

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The site is significant as a cultural landscape with remaining items such as portals, air shafts, a head frame, embankments and gardens.

5.2.4. ELOUERA COLLIERY (FORMERLY WONGAWILLI) – 1870 The Wongawilli colliery is significant for its association with Wongawilli “Bank Book” Hill and Wongawilli Village residential area as evidence of the evolving relationships between mines, mining companies and their workers, and of the joint ownership of the mine and the associated steel industry. The Wongawilli colliery was a major supplier of coke and coal in the NSW steel industry, first to C & G Hoskins steel works at Lithgow and from 1938 onwards to the steel works at Port Kembla. At this site the pillar extraction method later known as the Wongawilli method of coal extraction was developed from 1958 onwards. This method was adapted and used where practicable throughout the Illawarra and in other coal fields in Australia. Apart form innovative mining techniques, the colliery saw the introduction of a transport system from within the mine to the base of the escarpment with the longest coal haulage incline in the world established in 1936 and an inclined man transport train established in 1940. It was also one of the collieries where the very first model Joy 4JCM (continuous miner) was used in regular production in Australia. This mine was the site of the first installation in the world of a conveyor designed to lower coal 191m in elevation at a rate of 600 tph Run of Mine (ROM). The site is significant for its history of shared facilities and use with the Wongawilli village and the special associations and meanings for residents and people who have worked in the mine. The Wongawilli Progress Association is actively involved in keeping ……. Now in its final years of operation, the Wongawilli site provides the operational centre for the Elouera mine that combines Wongawilli with Nebo and Kemira. BHPbilliton ceased mining in June 2005 whilst keeping the mine in an operable condition for reopening by others under a leasing arrangement. Significant items still in situ include the original Powerhouse building, incline, tipper house, landscape and portals.

5.2.5. HUNTLEY COLLIERY (1946-1989) The site is significant in the course of NSW and Illawarra’s history because it shows evidence of the key historical theme of mining from 1946 to 1989 in the evolution of land use and character in the Illawarra region. The Huntley Colliery is also significant for its association with the supply of coal to the local domestic market in early days and later to the Tallawarra Power Station for the supply of power to NSW from 1955 – 1989.The ownership of the mine was to change several times throughout the life of the mine and included the Waugh Bros. the Joint Coal Board and the Electricity Commission of NSW. All remaining equipment was auctioned on closure of the mine.

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5.2.6. KEMIRA COLLIERY (1855-1991) At the old Mt Keira mine site the original 1857 tunnel entrance has been preserved and is being physically protected. The original brick chimney and flue of the boiler house is still standing and should be retained. These are of significant local heritage value as they mark the starting point of commercial coal mining in the Illawarra. The brick powder and detonator magazines are still in place and are in a stable condition and should be retained as evidence of an earlier phase of coal mining in the region (mid nineteenth century), together with the remnant gardens and stone walling. All evidence of twentieth century mining has been removed and as a result the integrity of the site diminished. BHPbilliton has carried out an extensive rehabilitation of the site with the construction of a stream cascade and a re-vegetation of the site.

5.2.7. METROPOLITAN COLLIERY (1886- STILL OPERATING) The Metropolitan Colliery is an important place in the Illawarra’s and the State’s history because it is one of the earliest established and longest running coal mining operations in Australia. Whilst still an operating coal mine it contains a collection of buildings with remnant workings and structures - the pit pony stables underground and the Koepe Winder aboveground, which form part of the present day colliery. The existing fabric demonstrates the evolution of coal mining in the region. Metropolitan colliery is possibly the most intact colliery in the region demonstrating investment in technical innovation and the coal mined here for export to Japan is of exceptionally good quality, which is the main reason for its continued success. The site as a whole is important in demonstrating Illawarra’s history because it was important in providing the employment and investment that influenced population growth and established the pattern of settlement of Helensburgh Township and the North Wollongong area. Note also Metropolitan rail tunnels here

5.2.8. MOUNT KEMBLA (1883-1970) The Mount Kembla Colliery site is significant for its association with the Kembla Heights village, a purpose built company village, as evidence of the evolving relationship between mines, mining companies and their workers and for its association with the Mount Kembla Mine Disaster 1902, the worst mining disaster in Australia. Many reminders of the disaster are found in the town and surrounding area and the memory of the disaster holds an important place in the memories of the local residents which was demonstrated in the formation of the Mount Kembla Mine Disaster Centenary Commemoration Committee in 2001. The Mount Kembla community is a rare example of a community that is actively involved in coal mining and in the preservation of their mining heritage, with the continued attendance of thousands of people annually to the Mt Kembla Mining Heritage Festival organised by the Mount Kembla Mining Heritage Committee. Their desire to preserve the social heritage alongside the physical fabric has been clearly demonstrated in the publication of numerous volumes of written material from plays, poetry, prose to historical works.

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The Mount Kembla Colliery was at one time the largest and most important colliery on the south coast and was one of the first collieries to construct a jetty of any proportion and rail line (part of which is still in use today) from Dendrobium. It was also the first mine to introduce longwall advancing with early coal cutters and one of the first mines in the Illawarra to have its own electric power generating plant. Large rail gauge wagons were used on the incline, instead of the more traditional small gauge skips. One of the rail gauge wagons has been kept as a monument in Mt Kembla village. A fine example of a pit pony stable can still be found in situ at the mine site. The colliery is significant for its association with the trade union movement in the Illawarra as it was the site of active unionism. For its history of shared facilities and use with the Kembla Heights Village which was built to house mining families and the special associations and meanings for residents and people who have worked in the mine.

5.2.9. MT PLEASANT COLLIERY (1861-1955) Mt Pleasant was the second mine established in the Illawarra after Mt Keira and is closely linked to the history of this mine. Lahiff exhibited considerable ingenuity using the surplus power from the self acting incline to haul coal from within the mine to the mine entrance and return the empty skips into the mine. The site retains many significant relics of earlier phases of mining from loading staithes at Belmore Basin, the route of the railway line to the harbour to the furnace shaft which still serves the Bulli seam and remains open to the present day. These are all significant elements of the Illawarra’s landscape. Sections of the tramway route have been reused as a walking and bike trail. The importance of the site to the local community is evidenced by the fact that the site is cleared periodically by volunteers from the Balgownie School Mining Museum and is used for educational purposes by schools in the Illawarra in conjunction with the museum.

5.2.10.

NEBO COLLIERY (1946-1993)

This site is significant as it was the first mine to be opened as a fully mechanised mine in 1947. It was a green field mine development and its surface facilities and mining plant were of a very modern design to facilitate a fully mechanised mining operation. The site is significant for its association with Mt Kembla village and the surrounding area and for its relationship between mines, mining companies and their workers and the joint ownership of the mine and associated steel works. It is also significant for its association with the new Dendrobium Mine for which its facilities were chosen to be refurbished to support the operations of the new mine.

5.2.11.

SOUTH BULLI (1887 – STILL OPERATING)

CMP completed Godden Mackay Logan 2004 The South Bulli Colliery is significant in the Illawarra as it is one of the earliest and longest running coal mining operations in the region and in the State.
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The site also displays the key historical theme of mining from 1887 to the present day in the evolution of land use and character in the Illawarra region. – Local significance The site is significant for its association with the development of mining as it is one of the earliest established and longest running coal mining operations in the Illawarra and NSW. The colliery contains some of the oldest structural remains in the state such as the 1887 portals, rail track alignments and lamp room (now crib room and first aid station) The colliery holds the Australian record for underground coal extraction (between 1887 and 1990. During the 100 years of operations, the extraction of coal significantly changed the topography of the area on the escarpment and over 5 million tonnes of reject material from the washery has been placed in the immediate area. Other collieries of significance which have been considered for the study but no separate State Heritage Inventory sheets have been prepared for them are; Avondale Colliery (1884-1992) South Clifton South Clifton Shaft Mine (1891-1920) Port Kembla 2 – (1933-1960) South Kembla A brief history of each of these mines has been prepared by Ron Cairns, Don Reynolds and Geoff Mould. These are included in the Appendix. Any evidence of pit top remains has also been noted.

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6. STATUTORY AND NON STATUTORY COMPLIANCE

6.1. OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTS
This section considers how the significance of the selected mine sites gives rise to some specific requirements in terms of their future use and management. In conservation planning, these requirements are generally considered in terms of the “constraints” or “opportunities” which arise as a result of the character and composition of the cultural significance of the place. The significance of the Illawarra Escarpment cultural landscape lies in its combination and diversity of natural, social, technical and historic attributes forming the cultural landscape. It is this complexity, which must be safeguarded to ensure that the cultural significance of mining history in the Illawarra is retained. To ensure that this complexity can be understood, and that conservation, management and interpretation of the mines provides the tools people need to appreciate this cultural significance. This must be undertaken in a sustainable manner so that the sites of significance can be retained so the benefits can be appreciated in the long term for research and social purposes. At present, redundant mine sites have been retained as part of the Illawarra Escarpment Reserve or part of a remediation program with the removal of many of the cultural significant items before they are fully understood or appreciated by the wider community such as Kemira. While cultural and community values have been recognised, these have not been a focus for active management and enhancement. The natural heritage values of Illawarra Escarpment are very high and require ongoing protective strategies, which are not part of this report, and only the mine sites have been covered in detail. However, to enhance the understanding of mine sites as part of a cultural landscape, in line with current Heritage Act policies, more active management strategies dealing with cultural and community values must be undertaken. The brief for this study specified an investigation of the interpretation opportunities that might be appropriate for the significance, location and community context of Wollongong and this is discussed in detail in Section 11. Developing means of enhancing the experience of visiting the Illawarra will not only create opportunities for cultural tourism, but will also help to maintain and build upon the social and community values of mine sites within the Illawarra Escarpment, as will be discussed further below. A range of community groups is currently active in caring for the heritage of specific mining sites on the Escarpment and this contributes to their cultural significance. These relationships should be maintained and built upon in terms of participatory and consultative management processes as well as the creative development of new ways of linking the community with their local mines and associated sites. The following legislation is pertinent to the management of historic sites;

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6.2. FEDERAL GOVERNMENT STATUTORY OBLIGATIONS
6.2.1. ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION ACT 1999, This Act came into effect in July 2000, has established a new and nationally consistent framework for environmental assessment of new projects and variations to existing projects, based on consultative agreements between the Commonwealth and State and Territory Governments. Issues related to mine closure are an important consideration in the assessment process for exploration and mining proposals. The Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) protects the environment, particularly matters of National Environmental Significance. It streamlines national environmental assessment and approvals process, protects Australian biodiversity and integrates management of important natural and cultural places Appropriate planning and adequate provision for mine closure are issues to be addressed by both the regulators and the minerals industry across Australia. Australian State and Territory Governments (and in some cases local government) are responsible for the regulation and management of mine closure and rehabilitation requirements on industry. All States and Territories have mine closure policies based on site-specific post-mining rehabilitation plans developed by companies for approval by the respective mining agencies in each jurisdiction. Mine Closure Plans are required and administered by the Department of Primary Industry in New South Wales and are under review, they should include the recommendations of this report.

6.3. STATE GOVERNMENT STATUTORY OBLIGATIONS
The Department of Primary Industries – Mineral Resources (DPI-MR) is the principal regulatory body for the mining industry in NSW. Mining titles and operating approvals are issued by DPI-MR under the Mining Act 1992. DPIMR is responsible for the regulation and enforcement of environmental and rehabilitation performance through the conditions of these titles. A fundamental responsibility of DPI-MR is to ensure that land disturbed by mining is rehabilitated to a high standard and returned to a safe, environmentally stable and acceptable post-mining land use. Contemporary environmental standards require that any disturbance is minimised, that commitments made in the EIS (if applicable) and lease conditions are met, and that disturbed land is progressively and effectively rehabilitated. While agencies such as the Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) exercise their regulatory roles to licence or control the immediate environmental impacts of mining activities, rehabilitation is solely the province of DPI-MR. The primacy of the Department in this role is underwritten by provisions of the Mining Act 1992. The role of DPI-MR in heritage matters is limited to the responsibility to ensure that the potential heritage impacts of any operational or rehabilitation activities
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approved by DPI-MR have been adequately assessed. As part of this process, there is scope for DPI-MR to ensure that appropriate measures are in place to prevent or satisfactorily mitigate any adverse impacts. DPI-MR representation on the Illawarra Coal Mines Interagency Group (ICMIG) can be used to coordinate the regulatory approach to heritage matters in the operation and rehabilitation of mines in the Illawarra.

6.3.1. NSW HERITAGE ACT, 1977 The NSW Heritage Act 1977 is administered by the NSW Heritage Office and it requires that all assessed significant cultural heritage be protected at either a State or Local Level of significance. The Act allows for the protection of archaeology, fabric, moveable items and landscapes. Items of State Significance are entered onto the State Heritage Register. (SHR) Inclusion on the SHR means that these sites have been previously assessed to be of State significance and that Heritage Council consent is required for works affecting listed places and promotes heritage. Section 170 of the Act covers sites in Government ownership and the relevant agency must maintain a register of heritage assets as well as maintain the significance of these items. S170 items of State Significance are entered on the State Heritage Register. Section 4(1) of the Heritage Act 1977 defines a “relic” as: “Any deposit, object or material evidence relating to the settlement of the area that comprises New South Wales, not being an Aboriginal settlement, and which is 50 or more years old.” This section (s4(1)) applies irrespective of whether the site or item has been listed on a heritage register. Section 139 states that: 1) “a person must not disturb or excavate any land knowing or having reasonable cause to suspect that the disturbance or excavation will or is likely to result in a relic being discovered, exposed, moved, damaged or destroyed unless the disturbance or excavation is carried out in accordance with an excavation permit.” “a person must not disturb or excavate any land on which the person has discovered or exposed a relic except in accordance with an excavation permit.” If a site is listed on the State Heritage Register or is the subject of an Interim Heritage Order, approval to excavate is required under s60. If a site is not listed, an excavation permit is required under s140. Similar requirements apply to sites listed under Local Environmental Plans (LEPs) or Regional Environmental Plans (REPs)

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6.3.2. NATIONAL PARKS AND WILDLIFE ACT, 1974 Department of Environment and Conservation, Parks & Wildlife Division (PWD). The management of cultural heritage is regulated through the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974 (the Act). This Act contains blanket provisions protecting non-indigenous archaeological relics. Aboriginal cultural heritage, natural heritage values and the management of reserved lands are regulated through the Act. The PWD Land Management Regulations also protect. cultural material, more than 25 years old, found on NPWS land that has been assessed as culturally significant and requires a Review of Environmental Factors (REF) for any work undertaken at that site. The Act also requires the preparation of a Plan of Management (POM) for reserved lands. Under Part 5 of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979, the NPWS is required to assess the environmental impact of any proposed works or developments.

6.3.3. ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING AND ASSESSMENT ACT, 1979 Parts 4 and 5 of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 require that heritage matters are considered as part of the environmental impact assessment of proposed activities requiring approval under the Act. Following commencement of the Act, most new coal mines in the Illawarra would have required a Development Consent from the Department of Planning under Part 4, although some activities were approved by the Department of Primary Industries-Mineral Resources under Part 5. Part 3A of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 is now applicable to most coal mining activities and explicitly states that: "The following authorisations are not required for an approved project (and accordingly the provisions of any Act that prohibit an activity without such an authority do not apply): an approval under Part 4, or an excavation permit under section 139, of the Heritage Act 1977". Under Section 5 of the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 there is an obligation; (a) to encourage: (i) the proper management, development and conservation of natural and artificial resources, including agricultural land, natural areas, forests, minerals, water, cities, towns and villages for the purpose of promoting the social and economic welfare of the community and a better environment, (ii) the promotion and co-ordination of the orderly and economic use and development of land, (iii) the protection, provision and co-ordination of communication and utility services, (iv) the provision of land for public purposes, (v) the provision and co-ordination of community services and facilities, and (vi) the protection of the environment, including the protection and conservation of native animals and plants, including threatened species, populations and ecological communities, and their habitats, and
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(vii) ecologically sustainable development, and (viii) the provision and maintenance of affordable housing, and (b) to promote the sharing of the responsibility for environmental planning between the different levels of government in the State, and (c) to provide increased opportunity for public involvement and participation in environmental planning and assessment. Regional Environmental Plans (REPs) cover issues such as urban growth, commercial centers, extractive industries, recreational needs, rural lands, and heritage and conservation. REPs are made under the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 and provide the framework for detailed local planning by councils.

6.3.4. MINING ACT 1992 The Mining Act 1992 contains minimal reference to heritage matters, although a number of sections have previously been viewed as negating aspects of other applicable legislation. Section 237: "In deciding whether or not to grant an authority or mineral claim, the Minister or mining registrar is to take into account the need to conserve and protect the features of Aboriginal, architectural, archaeological, historical or geological interest in or on the land over which the authority or claim is sought." This section (s237) has no real effect on operating mines with a pre-existing mining title. Section 65: "If a mining lease is granted over land for which an appropriate development consent has been given: any condition (being a special purpose condition within the meaning of Division 2 of Part 2 of Schedule 1) imposed on the development consent by a consent authority, or by a body hearing an appeal from a consent authority, is void, and the development consent (to the extent only to which it relates to the use of the land concerned for the purpose of obtaining minerals) is taken to have been given free of the condition." This section (s65) would apparently invalidate any heritage-related conditions imposed on a mine as part of a Development Consent issued by the Department of Planning or Wollongong City Council, however s65 will soon be removed from the Mining Act 1992 as a consequence of pending amendments to the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979. There is no effect on the requirements of the Heritage Act 1977 or National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974. Section 74: "While a mining lease has effect: nothing in, or done under, the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 or an environmental planning instrument operates so as to prevent the

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holder of the mining lease from carrying on mining operations in the mining area, and to the extent to which anything in, or done under, that Act or any such instrument would so operate, it is of no effect in relation to the holder of the mining lease. This section does not exempt the holder of a mining lease from obtaining any consent under the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 that the person is required to obtain in connection with the erection of buildings, the opening of roads or the subdivision of land." This section (s74) would apparently invalidate any protection afforded by a heritage listing under the Wollongong LEP, however s65 will soon be removed from the Mining Act 1992 as a consequence of pending amendments to the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979. There is no effect on the requirements of the Heritage Act 1977 or National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974.

6.4. LOCAL GOVERNMENT STATUTORY OBLIGATIONS
Wollongong Local Environmental Plan 1990 The Wollongong Local Environmental Plan (LEP) 1990 is the principal planning instrument for the City and has been prepared under the . Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979. The LEP guides what development is permitted in different parts of the City through land use tables which corresponds to the zoning of each parcel of land. The LEP also identifies subdivision standards, floor space ratio and lists heritage items in the City. The LEP has been amended over 220 times since gazettal in 1990. The LEP is currently subject to a number of minor amendments and is undergoing a major review. The LEP is accompanied by a series of maps which indicate the zoning of land and the location of heritage items. Electronic copies of the maps are not currently available from Council but can be viewed at http://www.iplan.nsw.gov.au/ and then follow the links to find the zoning maps for Wollongong. Heritage Development Control Plan - Wollongong LGA - details the controls relating to heritage items, heritage conservation areas and development near heritage items. This Plan is intended as a “companion” document to the City of Wollongong Local Environmental Plan 1990 (LEP 1990). LEP 1990 is the legal document which provides Council with the necessary powers to administer heritage matters, and which contains a full schedule of all Wollongong’s protected heritage places. This plan refers in part to several different types of heritage places which are protected by LEP 1990. This includes buildings, works, relics, trees, conservation areas and archaeological sites, but excludes Aboriginal sites and places. Aboriginal heritage is the subject of a separate development control plan.

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The main purpose of this Plan is to explain Council’s policies and objectives in relation to buildings and landscapes which are listed as heritage items, or which are within heritage conservation areas. This Plan should be used as a guide by owners of Heritage Items who are contemplating carrying out maintenance work or alterations to their property. The Plan also provides advice on heritage conservation matters by detailing a set of objectives and guidelines which generally refers to the scale, form, building materials, landscaping and the siting of new works in relation to the existing built elements and environment. These objectives and guidelines seek to provide advice on means to extend the economic and/or social viability of those buildings having historical qualities whilst respecting the original architectural styles of the buildings and surrounding areas.

6.5. NON STATUTORY CONSIDERATIONS
Burra Charter The most recognised non-statutory consideration for heritage management is the Australia ICOMOS Burra Charter, which has established standards, principles, procedures and practices of heritage conservation. The Burra Charter notes that places of cultural significance enrich peoples' lives, connecting them to community and landscape, to the past and to lived experiences. They are historical records–tangible expressions of Australian identity and experience which tell us about whom we are and the past that has formed us and the Australian landscape. The Burra Charter advocates the conservation of places of cultural significance for the present and future generations. It favours a guarded approach to change whereby only as much is done as is necessary to care for a place and make it useable, so that cultural significance is retained. The Burra Charter also notes that all aspects of cultural significance should be respected. If a place includes fabric, uses, associations or meanings of different periods or different aspects of cultural significance, then emphasising or interpreting one period or aspect at the expense of another can only be justified if removed or diminished is of slight cultural significance, and that which is interpreted is of much greater cultural significance. Australian Natural Heritage Charter, World Conservation Union The Australian Natural Heritage Charter notes that Conservation means all the processes and actions of looking after a place so as to retain its natural significance and always includes protection, maintenance and monitoring. Institution of Engineers Plaque Program The Program is managed by Engineering Heritage Australia (EHA) through its Commemorative Plaquing Sub-Committee. Significant historic engineering works are those that have been judged to be valuable to a group of people, or have contributed something of value to the nation, a region, or to the practice of engineering. This could include works derived from overseas.
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The term "works" is most frequently used to refer to engineering items such as locomotives, bridges or computers. It can also mean places or sites, objects, equipment, artefacts, writings, drawings, photographs or other engineering items, including moveable items. Sites may include locations of former significant engineering works, which have since been demolished. National Trust The National Trust (NSW) is an organisation that maintains its own heritage register and acts as a lobby group for the protection of heritage sites. It does this through lectures, tours, committees and holds a position on the NSW Heritage Council. Its heritage register is used to promote sites of cultural significance but has no statutory function.

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7. DEFINING THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE
Landscapes have an important place in Australian culture and are valued for the diversity of associations they hold. Designing and locating developments in such a way as to protect landscape values is important to many members of the community. The recognition and management of cultural landscapes where extensive exploitation of the land has taken place is common across Australia and includes ongoing practices. To retain the significance of these landscapes the following philosophy was developed for pastoral lands by DEC in the unpublished discussion paper “Pastoral Lands and the NPWS Estate” by Rodney Harrison. The concept “cultural landscape” is well established in cultural heritage management and is still being realised in Australia rather then individual items. Many definitions of cultural landscapes rely on the level to which landscapes are altered by human use or presence. A similar definition has recently been developed for use in the management of cultural landscapes in the Australian Alps National Parks. “A cultural landscape is a physical area with natural features and elements modified by human activity resulting in patterns of evidence layered in the landscape, which give a place its particular character, reflecting human relationships with and attachment to that landscape.” 9 This focus on physical fabric is part of the larger problem of a fabric-based approach to cultural heritage management in NSW. A more expansive definition is provided by John Barrett: “A cultural landscape is... the entire surface over which people moved and within which they congregated. That surface was given meaning as people acted upon the world within the context of the various demands and obligations, which acted upon them. Such actions took place within a certain tempo and at certain locales. Thus landscape, its form constructed from natural and artificial features, became a culturally meaningful resource through its routine occupancy”. 10 The attachments are formed by people to places through their routine habitation and use of these places. Although these definitions differ in emphasis, they share a focus on the transformative nature of human action within the context of the natural environment. Clearly defined landscapes are designed and created intentionally, and include formal gardens and parklands and associated structures and monuments.

Lennon, J and Matthews, S (1996), Cultural Landscape Management: Guidelines for Identifying, Assessing and managing Cultural landscapes in the Australian Alps pp6 10 J Barrett (1999), “The mythical landscapes of the British iron age’, in A. B. Knapp and W. Ashmore (eds), Archaeologies of Landscape: Contemporary Perspectives, Blackwell, Oxford and Massachusetts pp 253-65 51 Strategic Management Plan For Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra O.H.M. Consultants

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7.1. MANAGEMENT OF THE COAL MINE LANDSCAPES OF THE ILLAWARRA
The mining of coal has contributed greatly to the economy of the Illawarra and continues to the present day. It has resulted in a long, varied and ongoing contribution to the mining heritage of the region. Abandoned mine sites, remnant structures and associated infrastructure can be found on almost every part of the Illawarra escarpment. These are often considered to be an environmental hazard and are removed from the landscape. However, old mine sites are an integral part of the Illawarra’s cultural heritage and should be treated with the same respect as the other historic features of its’ past. Rather than destroying mining sites, the preservation of their fabric together with the significance they hold for the local communities, offers opportunities for education, research, appreciation and tourism. An archaeological, structural and architectural ‘fabric-based’ approach to historic heritage assessment and management has meant that we have been unable to explore and manage the significant social attachments of former mining workers, mining communities to mining heritage places, towns and landscapes. Using the NSW Heritage Office Guidelines and the EP&A Act sites have been assessed for their cultural significance to find a sustainable methodology for retaining any buildings and structures. Many of the sites are built on shelves cut into the escarpment with spectacular views to the ocean. There is an opportunity here to promote the industrial heritage remaining on these sites and this opportunity should not be lost. Many remediated sites still have evidence of mining activity such as formal gardens, portals, air shafts and embankment walls, to name a few, but few have substantial buildings or iconic structures remaining that can be understood by the public. Sites that once had coal mines and are now to be developed for other uses, should retain as much of the original significant fabric as possible. This would need to be supplemented by an interpretation which would include the social history aspects of coal mining using tools such as the internet, plaques, street naming, commemoration celebrations etc. Larger structures and buildings should only be retained if they are of true significance to the site and a long-term management plan developed for them. If they are redundant to the industry, many of the buildings could be adaptively reused as a sustainable method of heritage management. Generally, unless a structure or building can sustain long-term low maintenance, be adapted for reuse or hold a very high cultural significance factor, it should not remain on site, as other obligations need to be met. These include the removal of risks to the public from dangerous and contaminated sites. Opportunities for reuse by other industries, government agencies and individuals should be canvassed prior to any demolition. Provisions made through the assessment of cultural heritage sites and community consultation processes set down by the NSW Heritage Office and the Dept. of Primary Industry should clearly identify these structures and allow for a clear management of them in the long term. These provisions should allow a mine owner to leave a site free of residual obligations. This can be achieved by clearly identifying the management strategy at an early stage rather then when a mine has closed.
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It is recommended that we maintain a high standard of assessment of the significance of historic heritage fabric, but also develop a program of assessment that focuses on the relationship between memory and attachment and the significance of both tangible heritage items and intangible values in the landscape. This is best achieved through an oral history program and regular documentation at key events such as the introduction of new technology. One important way of acknowledging the value and significance of the knowledge held in former mining areas would be to build on current initiatives of the Reference Group and to develop local community groups based on historic village/ mine places. Assessment of the significance of mining heritage items cannot be made in the absence of an assessment of the context and place in the spatial or social system of those items. Organically evolved landscapes are the result of a particular economic or administrative effort that subsequently develops in response to the natural environment. Ashmore and Knapp11 have taken these definitions a step further, and have developed interpretive descriptors to distinguish between them. They recognise four categories of cultural landscapes: constructed, conceptualised and ideational landscapes. A series of themes were developed to take into account these theoretical and terminological considerations. These themes were: Landscape as memory Landscape as identity Landscape as social order Landscape as transformation These themes seek to recognise the many different active ways in which humans engage with, and have their lives ordered by landscapes. They provide a set of themes for thinking about how people may have conceptualised landscapes in different ways and provide and understanding for a new model for the management of these sites today. The Mount Kembla Memorial Pathway has been designed using this concept to interpret the cultural landscape. See Section 11.1.3. The coal industry in the Illawarra is ongoing and therefore old mines will continue to close as new mines are developed. Assessments will be required eventually for all the mines and it would be advantageous if the cultural values are recorded while they are still in operation. It is recommended that assessment of mining heritage is made with reference to the landscape, context and interrelationships of items. It is not enough to assess a mining heritage item in isolation from its environmental, spatial, technological, economic or social context. Nor is it enough to assess the ‘natural’ values of former mining landscapes without reference to their ‘cultural’ values.

11

5H. Cleere (1995), ‘cultural landscapes as world heritage, Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites, 1: 63—8. 6 In Knapp and Ashmore, op cit Strategic Management Plan For Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra O.H.M. Consultants

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7.2. OPERATIONAL/NON OPERATIONAL MINES
Mines that are still operational or in maintenance mode should be subject to the provisions of the EP& A Act allowing Wollongong City Council to list the site or part of the site on its Local Environmental Plan (LEP) if it is of Local or State Cultural Significance. Many of the privately operated coal mines in the Illawarra have already had an assessment carried out and have had Conservation Management Plans prepared. The recommendations of the Conservation Management Plans should be incorporated onto the State Heritage Register.

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7.3. RECOGNISING COAL MINING LANDSCAPE COMPONENTS
The following components of the coal mining landscape have been identified in order to demonstrate their importance in the overall cultural landscape.

Transport Routes - including to and from the mine and can include horse, human rail, road & mechanical

Figure 9 - Coal conveyer, Wongawilli Colliery

Figure 10 - Man transporter & incline, Wongawilli Colliery Strategic Management Plan For Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra O.H.M. Consultants
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Boundary demarcations, property boundaries, shelves

Figure 11 - Fence of rolled formed steel sections at entrance to old “A’ Pit

Figure 22 - A shelf cut into Wongawilli Hill near the portal entrance.

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Vegetation Hedges, forest, clearings

gardens,

shade

trees,

logged

Figure 13 - Circular driveway with garden bed and landscaped entrance at 1940’s Bulli Mine site

Figure 14 - Stand of palms, entrance driveway, Kemira Colliery

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Buildings, structures and objects

Figure 15 - Former Powerhouse, Wongawilli

Figure 16 – Mine Car Dumper House, Wongawilli

Figure 17 - Incline Drift Haulage House and Koepe Winder, Metropolitan Colliery Strategic Management Plan For Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra O.H.M. Consultants

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Markers, monuments, buildings eg structures and houses

Figure 18 - Mt Kembla Cemetery Headstone and Memorial, Windy Gully

Figure 19 -.Rail Bridge over the Princes Highway at Bulli

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Clusters Groups of mines and buildings or other physical features, e.g. portals, air shafts etc.

Figure 20 - Mine Portal, Bulli “A”

Figure 21 - Air Ventilation Shaft Kemira Colliery

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Archaeological sites Sites of historic activitiesfoundations, surface and sub-surface remains

Figure 22 - Graffiti on portal entrance, Kemira

Figure 23 - Kemira Dry Stone Embankment Walls Strategic Management Plan For Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra O.H.M. Consultants
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Small-scale elements Individual elements such as dams, gates, paths inclines, gardens. These collectively may form boundary demarcations or mark circulation networks

Figure 24 – Coal Cutter, Elouera /Wongawilli Colliery

Figure 25 - Air reservoir later used as a water tank, Kemira Colliery

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8. ISSUES
The following issues were identified for the future management of coal mining heritage in the Illawarra; All landscapes contain both natural and cultural heritage values and it is impossible to conceptualise them in isolation. These values are not in competition, but are inter-dependent. Therefore, a strategic approach to managing mining sites should be undertaken. A new model has been developed to assist in this process. This section develops recommendations for the appropriate conservation and management of mining landscapes in the light of the information presented. Key concepts in the new model of mining heritage are as follows; • A study of the tangible heritage of the mining industry at a landscape level shows the way in which mining heritage fits together to evidence mining as a land use system creating a cultural landscape rather than a collection of items. The links between places in the system are just as important to understanding mining as the items themselves. • The heritage of the mining industry is both tangible and intangible: it resides as much in memory, history and people’s attachment to landscapes as it does in bath houses and Pit-heads etc.(Pit-head is not a commonly used term “mine surface” or “the mine” are the most common) • The heritage of the mining industry is contained in the landscape. Cultural modifications to natural landscapes are also part of mining heritage. • Coal mining is an active and ongoing industry in the Illawarra and operating mines form part of the cultural heritage landscape. From the research and site visits conducted as part of this report, the following issues have been raised: Site management Interpretation on & off site Information management A new peak body That the 11 mines be nominated for the State Heritage Register Responsibility for private and public owners of these sites A new funding arrangement This can be incorporated in a new model which removes uncertainty and provides a clear way forward for the community, government and mine owners. The financial costs or benefits have not been developed as part of this report but it is recommended that all stakeholders contribute to a common fund to maximise the values across the region.

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9. A NEW MODEL
A new model for preserving heritage values associated with coalmining is proposed. This model recognises the different stages of a mines operating history and full life cycle. Coalmines sites in the Wollongong LGA fall into four main categories; 1. Operating mines 2. Non-operating with structures (this includes non-production mines but still in active maintenance management control) 3. Closed 4. New Use It is possible to develop a strategy to manage the heritage values for each of these mine categories allowing for an easier transition from operational to new use when a mine closes. This would allow for a longer-term plan to develop by moving the initial research and assessment emphasis to when the mine is operating rather then when closed. This would also allow for the mine owners to establish a predetermined plan for closure while the community has been included in the process of documenting and assessing the significance. Many operating mines have prepared Conservation Management Plans, these should follow the guidelines of the New South Wales Heritage Office and the basis of this report. When completed they should be available to the public and lodged with the Heritage Office. Vision Statement Coal mining is an ongoing and vital part of the region’s heritage. This heritage should be preserved in a sustainable manner to allow the industry to continue while conserve the historical contribution it has made to the state. A new planning model is required for Illawarra because: Need for certainty by all stakeholders Community concerns for preservation of mining heritage Arising from a holistic approach to preservation of cultural landscape Meet Heritage Act obligations and other statutory obligations Funding The emphasis of the model is to: Move the recognition and assessment of heritage values from closedown stage to operational stage for each mine Have a whole of landscape approach to assessment of the heritage values Preserve items recognised at a state and local level of cultural heritage by including them on the State Heritage Register and Local Environment Plan Provide for more onsite interpretation
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Provide for more off site interpretation The Model should: Deliver clear procedures for mine owners and authorities to follow, eliminating costly and time consuming negotiations Create a common fund to assist in the delivery of the research preservation and interpretation of significant aspects of coal mining history. The Wollongong City Council is possibly in the best position to administer this fund. Establish Peak body Establish an archive

9.1. WHAT IT MEANS
Changes to mine closure procedures that will consider all the values attributed to the sites and include community consultation A recognition of heritage values now rather than at close down stage Responsibilities are clearly defined for: – – – – A sharing of cost between the mine owner and new developer/owner by the establishment of a common fund A recognition of other stakeholders that have an interest in the preservation of this heritage A Peak body to coordinate and administer the common fund Coordinating and, at the same time, preserving local communities autonomy in understanding of their heritage

9.2. THE BENEFITS
While some coal mines are still in active production, many have had all surface fabric removed. The memories associated with these mines still remain and are a vital part of the history of the region and form part of the cultural landscape. The importance of coal mining heritage is recognised across the Illawarra and there are shared benefits in establishing new procedures in all stages of each mines life. If a “New Model” is adopted, it would require: A Peak Body to coordinate the research, assessment, preservation, education and interpretation of coal mining A common fund to assist all the communities, mangers and stakeholders involved in coal mining heritage in the Illawarra Known details and costs for coal mine owners and the Dept of Primary Industry A greater resource of archival material to be established off site

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Coordinated planning that can be implemented at an earlier operational stage that would prevent loss of important information and significant tangible items

9.3. PROPOSED NEW MODEL
During the course of this project one of the recognised difficulties for the community has been the break between the closing of the mine, historic research and recording of each mines contribution to the area and cultural landscape. With a strong regional interest in the significance of the coal industry in the Illawarra, a number of research activities have been undertaken in the attempt to fill this gap. Historically, mines are closed permanently or temporarily (maintenance) for economic reasons. This situation will not change. There is interest in both the technological and social aspects of the industry and these two aspects come together in the actual operation of a coal mine. It would be best recorded in real time as we now have the means to affectively video mines in operation particularly underground and to carry out oral histories. This can only be carried out while the mine is in operation. All mines have unique features in their operations brought about initially by the actual geological formation that the mine is exploiting. This is particularly important in the mines with access to older workings. Particular attention should be made to the built and landscape components of each site as there are many opportunities to adaptively reuse some of the buildings and structures as well as landscaping/garden features retained. More recently, the emphasis for management of the environmental aspects of mine closure and decommissioning has shifted towards the idea of planning for closure. Mine closure is a continuous series of activities that begins with preplanning prior to the project’s design and construction and ends with the achievement of long-term site stability and the establishment of a self-sustaining ecosystem. Not only will the implementation of this concept result in a more satisfactory environmental conclusion, but it can also reduce the financial burden of mine closure and rehabilitation. This concept has been incorporated into a national standard referred to as Strategic Framework for Mine Closure – ANZMEC 2000. At issue is the development of an effective and efficient approach to the funding of closure that enables mine rehabilitation and other environmental objectives to be achieved and also facilitates and encourages industry to comply with the requirements of Government and the community. Strategic Framework for Mine Closure – ANZMEC 2000 provisions allows for community consultation for mine closures. A review of these procedures should include the provision for the assessment and recording while the mine is open and review the final outcome for the particular site. The review would enable the community to enhance the significance of each site by incorporating reuse and interpretation of the cultural landscape. This in theory should not be at any extra cost to the mine owner then currently is experienced. Structures deemed as culturally significant and retained should become the responsibility of the new owners
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This would provide clear directions for the mine owners and the community in the future management and development at each site.

9.4. POLICY
Policy 1 This report and the recommendations should be considered for endorsement by the Reference Group, NSW Heritage Office, Department of Primary Industries and Wollongong City Council. This report should be made available to the public with copies held at all Wollongong City Council Libraries. The assessment and management options for coal mines should be assessed using the cultural landscape model. All items assessed as State Significant will be nominated to the NSW Heritage Office for inclusion on the State Heritage Register. A number of recommendations have been made regarding individual sites (see SHI Sheets) All items assessed as significant should be included in the Wollongong City Council Local Environment Plan Heritage Schedule. A number of recommendations have been made regarding individual sites (see SHI Sheets)

Policy 2 Policy 3 Policy 4

Policy 5

Policy 6 All items should be assessed prior to mine closure and significant items should be retained and interpreted. Adaptive re-use of significant items should be a priority. Policy 7 That a permanent Peak Body be formed to replace the Reference Group on a permanent basis which will be made up of at least a member from; Wollongong City Council Department of Primary Industries Mine owner Department of Environment & Conservation Sydney Catchment Authority Community advocates, representing Helensburgh, Bulli, Mt Kembla and Dapto

Policy 8 The Peak Body must coordinate and advise all decision making regarding; Research Assessment of heritage significance Education Co-ordinate interpretation Off site interpretation Manage a trust fund for the above Archival recording

Things the Peak Body cannot do are
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Policy 9

Manage sites Protect sites Do on site interpretation

These things are done by the owner or manager of the site. A permanent grant fund be established for use in the Wollongong City Council Area to promote coal mining heritage to be administered by WCC and the Peak Body as a Trust.

Policy 10 The fund should be financed by contributions from Community Enhancement Programs that will be established when any mine owner negotiates with the Government for a new Development Application, (or sooner as an act of goodwill). These funds will have a set component for mining heritage projects across the Wollongong City Council area and for local community programs. Policy 11 The peak body’s role is to endorse any of the submissions made in response to coal mining heritage in the Illawarra. Its response will be given to the relevant planning agency for consideration. Policy 12 A re-assessment of the cultural landscape to be carried out to ascertain if there are any remaining items such as structures, plantings, formal gardens, embankment walls etc on sites outside of the scope of this study. Policy 13 A permanent Mining Archive be established and coordinated by WCC. Policy 14 As part of an overall recognition, a plaque should be placed at each pit-head. The plaques should perform three main functions: Identify all previous mine names. Identify the mine and years of production at the site. Be linked to a register to form an on-line register with more in depth information and form the basis of walking tracks.

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PROPOSED NEW MODEL – FLOW DIAGRAM Jurisdiction Department of Primary Industries

Stage 1 – Operating Mine

Peak body Wollongong City Council

Stage 2 – Stand by/Maintenance Mode

Stage 3 – Shut Down

Obligations – Owner/Leasee Full documentation of the site including; archival recording of the functioning site, above and below ground oral histories site plans and archives Assessment of the site; identification of structures to be retained community consultation funding of Community Enhancement Programs Obligations of the leasee and owner should be the same and should include; that all procedures for stage 1 have been carried Remediation of the site which includes preservation of the cultural landscape

Stage 4 – New Owner

Use assessment from stage 1 to develop the site and should include; planning, including incorporation of remnant gardens, structures, paths, inclines etc into new plans site interpretation street naming walking tracks etc

Department of Primary Industries Wollongong City Council New South Wales Heritage Office Peak body Department of Primary Industries Wollongong City Council New South Wales Heritage Office Agencies such as RTA, SCA and DEC which have an operational interest Peak body Wollongong City Council New South Wales Heritage Office Peak body

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10.

FINAL OUTCOMES FOR STAKEHOLDERS

10.1.

MINE OWNERS

1. All mines with access to workings should produce an underground film of previous workings and current operations 2. Implement an active oral history program 3. Conservation Management Plan produced for each mine before active production ceases and include public participation 4. Establishment of Community Enhancement Programs with any new Development Applications

10.2.

DEPT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRIES

1. Review community consultation procedures 2. Review and audit compliance with sign off agreements for remediation of sites with individual mine owners to allow them to leave sites with structures of cultural significance still in place. 3. Encourage adaptive reuse over the removal of significant mine fabric. 4. Review cultural heritage aspects of Mine Closure Plans

10.3.

WOLLONGONG CITY COUNCIL

When a previous mine site is rezoned for other uses, the Council should consider the following planning option; 1. Retain standing built fabric that meets significance criteria 2. All Development Applications for the rezoning or adaptive reuse of significant structures should include maintenance and interpretation provisions 3. Encourage adaptive reuse of buildings 4. Retain formal mine gardens 5. Street naming 6. A central repository is required for the storage and easy access of archives and research material 7. Develop a trail network across the escarpment 8. Inclusion of the eleven mine sites into the Wollongong City Council Local Environment Plan.

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10.4.
1.

NSW HERITAGE OFFICE
Inclusion of state significant mines onto the State Heritage Register

10.5. THE DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT AND CONSERVATION
‘DEC is responsible for managing cultural heritage items on land that it manages and is also responsible for the approval and regulation of works to those items. All works to heritage items must comply with statutory responsibilities set out under the NSW Heritage Act, 1977, the National Parks and Wildlife Act, 1974 and the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act, 1979 and DEC Historic Heritage policies. Current DEC policy states that the stages to achieve best practice cultural heritage management are planning, design and documentation, approval/s, implementation and ongoing management, cyclical maintenance and monitoring and evaluation. For the mining sites in the Illawarra Escarpment State Conservation Area, this staged approach is in its initial stages. Conservation Management Plans will be developed for the PK2 and the Mt Kembla sites. The Conservation Management Plans will include reference to adaptive reuse, interpretation, mining stakeholders and this document is to ensure consistency. As a result of geotechnical instability, unrehabilitated mine sites, coal waste emplacements, land instability and risks to public safety, a risk assessment of the mine sites and consequent stabilisation of the sites and structures would need to be undertaken prior to making any sites available to the public.

10.6.

ALL

1. Establish a structured Peak Body to administer the recommendations in this report. 2. Map all known sites on GIS System 3. Develop a trail network across the escarpment 4. Develop a plaque program across the escarpment 5. Develop a Internet based web site to promote all the recommendations 6. Develop an interpretation plan for the Illawarra Coal Field 7. Provide housing and resources of archives 8. Funding

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11.

INTERPRETATION
The most effective way to coordinate the interpretation of coalmines is by having an active and ongoing tradition of coal mining as exists in the Illawarra region. Interpretation allows for visitors to the area to engage in this rich local history and can be used to educate, as well as guide, the visitor to historic sites. Interpretation can be through a number of methods both on site, off site as well as by virtual means. Funding for interpretation can be established by a number of grants available and by the establishment of Community Enhancement Programs. These programs can be funded by the mine owners or developers seeking approvals to reuse the land. Communities rightly presume a sense of stewardship. It is often this grass roots commitment that has been a catalyst for current research and planning initiatives. Individual residential properties often do not require the same level of public outreach, yet a systematic planning process will assist in making educated treatment, management and maintenance decisions. Wise stewardship protects the character, and or spirit of a place by recognizing history as change over time. Often, this also involves our own respectful changes through treatment. The potential benefits from the preservation of cultural landscapes are enormous. Landscapes provide scenic, economic, ecological, social, recreational and educational opportunities that help us understand ourselves as individuals, communities and as a nation. Their ongoing preservation can yield an improved quality of life and a sense of place or identity for future generations. Activities such as these must be supported to strengthen the historical bond within the community.

Figure 26 - 1902 Explosion commemoration in 2005 For example the memorial service on July 31st of each year to commemorate the tragedy at Mount Kembla Mine not only unites a community, gives faith to other communities but also demonstrates the difficult task of coal mining. Strategic Management Plan For Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra O.H.M. Consultants
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Interpretation is the process of providing the visitor with tools to experience the landscape as it existed during its period of significance, or as it evolved to its present state. These tools may vary widely, from a focus on existing features to the addition of interpretive elements. These could include exhibits, self-guided brochures, or a new representation of a lost feature. The nature of the cultural landscape, especially its level of significance, integrity, and the type of visitation anticipated may frame the interpretive approach. Landscape interpretation may be closely linked to the integrity and condition of the landscape, and therefore, it’s ability to convey the historic character and character-defining features of the past. If a landscape has high integrity, the interpretive approach may be to direct visitors to surviving historic features without introducing obtrusive interpretive devices, such as free-standing signs. For landscapes with a diminished integrity, where limited or no fabric remains, the interpretive emphasis may be on using extant features and visual aids (e.g. plaques markers, photographs, etc.) to help visitors visualise the resource as it existed in the past. The primary goal in these situations is to educate the visitor about the landscape's historic themes, associations and lost character-defining features or broader historical, social and physical landscape contexts.

11.1.

TOURS

There is the opportunity to conduct tours of mines as operated or self guided tours. Self-guided tours require maps, leaflets or guides of some description to be produced. The Internet would be valuable aid to accomplish this because the information could be added to or updated as required

11.1.1.

SELF GUIDED

The escarpment is of great beauty and possibly the best asset assisting the interpretation of Coal Mines in the Illawarra. It attracts a wider audience that is interested in both the natural and cultural landscape. The topographical nature of the escarpment, the reserve/park system and the cultural landscape make the opportunities endless for both site and schematic walking tours. A risk assessment and stabilisation program would have to be undertaken prior to introducing the public to these sites. Sites can be added to the tour as they are assessed and made safe. Then they can be made accessible with appropriate information available via the Internet linked to a plaque program or brochure.

11.1.2.

OPERATED

During the course of this research there have been many discussions about public tours of underground workings. The tourism potential of old mines has been recognised in many parts of the world. In Australia there are presently only five underground tourist mines and at many other mining museums, none of the tourist mines are operating coalmines. Mine tourist attractions range from simple interpretative sites and educational mines to walk-in or train operated underground tours.
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In the Illawarra there are a number of old mine sites that have tourism potential for both their cultural and natural significance. These mines would require substantial risk assessment and OH&S provisions carried out prior to visitation from the public. The location of a site is probably the main factor in governing success of a tourist venture so sites near the main areas of population would possibly be more successful. (e.g. Wongawilli or Coalcliff). The sites with the best visible remains are not necessarily the best from the tourism point of view. Visitors generally want to be actively involved during their visit and the fun factor must not be underestimated in designing tourist destinations of this nature. Ultimately, for many visitors the attractiveness to children is extremely important. Despite the importance of the fun factor, the need for conservation and general education has to be also considered. Part of the study into the options of a tourist coalmine, allowing visitation into the underground workings, the Wongawilli Mine was recommended as the appropriate site for a tourist mine. The Wongawilli Mine has been subject to a feasibility study12 commissioned by Wollongong City Council and BHPbilliton. Two tourist mines were visited to gauge the operational requirements and the effectiveness of a mine as a heritage destination. Wonthaggi State Mine in Victoria and Line of Lode at Broken Hill were visited and the following observations were made. Wonthaggi had closed its underground tourist operation due to OH&S issues and would require a 3 million dollar upgrade to allow it to comply before insurance companies would be willing to cover it. Line of Lode located in the centre of Broken Hill and prominent on the landscape was re-opened in 2002. It had been closed 3 times previously as a result of high operational costs. It employs 5 people on a part time basis at the mine and its close proximity to Broken Hill complements other tourist facilities in the area. The costs of the tours are $40 and $30 for children with a maximum of 45 people that can be taken on a tour. The tours are run once a day except in school holidays where they are run twice.

12

Reviewing the Proposal for a Tourist Coal Mine at Wongawilli, prepared for BHP Billiton and Wollongong City Council by Environmetrics and the Centre for Visitor Studies, July 2005 Strategic Management Plan For Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra O.H.M. Consultants

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Figure 27 - Line of Lode tour guide, Broken Hill

The tours are taken to the 425’ level of the mine and due to the nature of hard rock mining in Broken Hill gasses are not an issue. The need for artificial ventilation is not required significantly reducing operational costs. The tours are conducted by two retired miners and are very informative on a historical, social and technical level. The reaction of the visitors appeared to have a positive reaction to the tour. An element that was missing on the tour is that the mine was not operational in the true sense and while it demonstrated techniques no longer used, a fair amount of questions from the public were about current mining operations in Broken Hill. Due to the specific requirements of operating a mine, irrespective of the tourist potential, it must comply with all OH&S requirements. A comprehensive Risk Management Assessment would need to be undertaken before any approval would be granted to operate. The mine would require specific infrastructure be put in place for approval prior to operation. Discussions with the Sydney Harbour Bridge Climb, which has experience with the successful operation of public tours in high-risk areas, revealed an expenditure of approximately 20 million dollars in planning, approvals and safety equipment in the facilitation of those tours. While it does not sell itself as a heritage operation, its marketing is significantly linked to the cultural significance of the Bridge. It charges approximately $150 per person per tour, depending on the time of day and season. Any tourist operation must have proven sustainability and be economically viable in the long term. The best option for this on quality, heritage and cost basis may be to investigate running a tour in an operating mine by a coal producer using a specialist operator such as Bridge Climb.
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It would require a standard that would meet the expectations of the tourist and would demonstrate; both current operations and historical workings of the mine, be safety endorsed in every aspect and, would not rely entirely on tourist income to remain operational. This option would allow for the sharing of expenditure between tourism and the coal mining industry in the realisation of an experience of coal mining in the Illawarra region.

11.1.3.

INTERNET

The Internet is an ideal way to disseminate information and promote heritage of coal mining the region. The Internet site hosted by Brian Sheldon at http//:www.illawarracoal.com has specific information regarding the historical background of the coal industry in the Illawarra. It is a good source for supplying data and information for each mine site together with a chronology of events, a selection of images, transport and links to other sites. This web site specializes in technical and chronological history of coal mining in the Illawarra. The provision of another linked internet site would assist in disseminating information about interpreting, visiting and recording social aspects of each mine. This site could be linked to plaques, memorials, walking tours, school activities, oral history festivals and also as a contact point for past employees. The names of those killed at individual mine sites could be listed on the internet. The internet could also allow for a coal mining archive catalogue to be accessed for research by individuals and corporations interested in coal mining in the Illawarra.

11.1.4.

WALKING TRACKS

Much of the escarpment contains many significant cultural heritage mining sites and structures within the landscape. There is an opportunity to develop a walking trail throughout the escarpment on public and reserve lands connecting these sites. Some walking tracks have already been established but others need to be researched and constructed. The tracks could be established over existing historic pathways established by former routes used by ponies, rail and workers of the coal mining industry. An example of these routes have been researched and established in the Mount Kembla area through their oral history program. The walking trail would require plaques and memorials to interpret the connected sites. The example of a walking track being designed by UnbaCo Pty Ltd and Artlandish for the Mount Kembla Mining Heritage Committee is an excellent example of combining local social history with the cultural landscape. It uses former tracks established by coal mining in the area and has been funded by BHPbilliton as part of the Community Enhancement program for Dendrobium Colliery. This style of walkway could easily be incorporated into a Mine Closure Plans using funds already allocated by the mine owners for the sites rehabilitation. If this was to be carried out it would enhance and celebrate the cultural
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landscape as well as forming a respect between the community and the coal mining companies.

Figure 28 – A section of the concept drawings for the Mount Kembla Mine Memorial Pathway Designed by UnbaCo Pty Ltd and Artlandish for the Mount Kembla Mining Heritage Committee

11.1.5.

MEMORIALS

Memorials can be a focus for communities to exhibit the loss of life within their own community. All the memorials visited during the preparation of this study
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were external to the mine sites themselves and were located in the villages, cemeteries and churches. There would also some benefit in placing memorials at the mine sites as well to interpret the sites that have witnessed the loss of life. Memorials should only be used where there has been tragedy and should include: All names and dates of those who lost their lives. They should be of great enough profile to deliver the respect they deserve.

Figure 29 - Mt Kembla Anglican Church Memorial to the 1902 disaster

11.1.6.

MARKERS OR PLAQUES

In recognition of the Industry and personnel who worked at the coal mines a simple plaque is suggested. The early mines are the foundation of many of Wollongong suburbs showing the prosperity they each brought to the region. All the coalmines are major significance to the region and a simple marker should be placed at the pithead to identify the site. A standard plaque style should be developed that is vandal proof and gives the basic details of the coalmine. Each plaque would be numbered that links the site to corresponding details on the web page or brochure. This would give the visitor an opportunity to participate in an active engagement with the cultural landscape that coal mining has formed in the Illawarra. The placement of a plaque would allow for interpretation to be expanded and corrected at any time when further research has been undertaken. The place where a marker is positioned would stay static but as information comes to light it will allow updating via web based guides. This would allow visitors to design their walking route prior to the visit to the area.

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The markers should be robust and industrial to stimulate the industrial feel to the subject. Sub-themes to the plaque can easily be developed in local areas for sites associated with the mine and build on the cultural landscape to extend the trail.

11.1.7.

PLAQUE POLICY

All mines will have a plaque placed at or as near as possible to the pithead. The plaque would contain the following basic information: A number based on a chronological order of the mine Name of mine – subsequent names until closure All mines of high significance should be included in a longer term Oral/social Study to be used by the Local Studies Library – also identified as part of the Illawarra Escarpment Heritage Study Mines that have had loss of life during their operating phase should also have a memorial placed on the site.

11.1.8.

PLANNING

New owners of former coal mining sites should be made aware of any significant cultural features and be encouraged to incorporate these features into the new use as a form of interpretation. In an urban setting these may be simple ideas such as street naming, retaining formal gardens in common areas or making iconic structures a focal point of the development. Items such as the rail bridge and right of way at Bulli adapted as a cycle path is a good example of this practice already occurring. Each site will have differing circumstances and the development proposal on these sites should include a strategy for interpreting as well as a contributing to the preservation through the common fund.

11.1.9.

ARCHIVES

A number of coal mining archival resources have been established in the area but are in a perilous situation as they are not in a permanent repository and without any controlled conditions. These resources are significant in content and volume and in many cases they possibly are the last remaining documentary evidence of many of the coal mining activities in the area. An archive specialising in coal mining in the Illawarra should be established to house significant information that is presently housed in a number of locations. The archive should be permanent and have an archivist assist in establishing the archive. The archive should follow excepted standard guidelines and allow research in the long term be more accessible to the public.
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The archive could be incorporated with other similar resources in the area such as local history collections. The archive should have an online catalogue and could be linked with other related activities such as walking tours etc. The Wollongong City Council Library is possibly in the best position to coordinate this service.

11.1.10.

PUBLIC LIABILITY ISSUES AND RISK MANAGEMENT

The mining sites as they leave the operational stage should have a risk assessment carried out once a heritage assessment has been undertaken. The management of any risk should not predetermine the heritage significance. It is recognised that there is public risk associated with many of the heritage mining sites in the region. The management of that risk is essential and should be considered to be of high priority. Major safety and liability issues arise from the presence of abandoned mine workings in the Illawarra. This is particularly evident at older sites that have not been subject to environmental stabilisation and from the instability of built remains as well as the instability of escarpment landforms in general. A risk management study of all mining remains in the Illawarra should be undertaken. The terms of reference for that study should include the following Identification and mapping of all known sites Identification of all risks. These can be from physical features (uncapped shafts, tunnels, voids, cliff tops, unstable structures) or environmental (e.g. contamination). An assessment of the significance of risks, including a consideration of the severity or magnitude of the risk and the likelihood of it occurring. Development of risk management options The integration of other relevant management policies fire management policies, cultural heritage policies, and conservation policies. Development of risk management policies and recommendation of risk management activities. The co-ordination of the rehabilitation of disused mines is carried out by the NSW Department of Primary Industry, Mineral Resources under the NSW Governments Derelict Mined Lands Rehabilitation Program. Remediation that flows from Risk Assessment of mining sites should allow for the stabilisation of identified historic structures in accordance with heritage assessments conducted for that site. The capping of shafts, tunnels or adits also needs to taken into consideration as part of the conservation of fabric of heritage significance. Gratings that cover, but do not obscure or destroy, original shaft portals are preferable. However where stability of shaft openings is an issue this may not be practical. Shafts will need to be identified and assessed individually by expert personnel.

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12.

REFERENCES
A number of key groups interested in coal mining heritage have been established in the Illawarra region. These need to be encouraged and assisted, rather then amalgamated, as they have local or specialist expertise that may be lost if their autonomy is not retained. They include; Local history groups Local museums Retired specialists – Reference Group Wollongong Library - Local Studies Collection Individual Conservation Management Plans www.illawarracoal.com - Web site An extensive collection of items (archives) has been collected by the AusIMMHC (Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Heritage Committee) is currently being stored at the Southern Mines Rescue Station. This collection should be deemed vulnerable and needs a permanent and accessible home.

Sources of records about coal mining in the Illawarra There are many sources of records about coal mining and its heritage including books, journal articles, heritage studies, owners records, government agency files, private collections, community organizations , museums and libraries.

The following books, publications and notes are useful references for research into the mining heritage of the Illawarra escarpment and have been helpful in the preparation of this study; 1. Local Heritage Studies

The Illawarra Escarpment, Draft Preliminary Heritage Assessment, Stage 1, prepared for Wollongong Council in conjunction with Planning NSW, Mayne-Wilson & Associates and Meredith Walker Heritage Futures in association with Godden Mackay Logan Pty Ltd. Heritage Assessment – Kemira Colliery, Mount Keira NSW, for BHP Collieries, March 2000, Meredith Hutton. Historical Study of Wongawilli Village, Wongawilli / Elouera Mine and Surrounding Land by Glynis Cummins in 2003. Volume 1 together with Volume 2, Wongawilli Heritage Study 2003, Study Report by Meredith Walker, Glynis Cummins, Michael Lehany and Penelope Pike. These two documents give a great deal of local knowledge surrounding the Wongawilli Colliery. South Bulli Colliery, Washery Office, Statement of Heritage Impact, Report prepared for South Bulli Colliery ,Godden Mackay, June 1996. South Bulli Colliery – Proposed Works, Godden Mackay Logan – Heritage Impact Statement, 2001. Strategic Management Plan For Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra O.H.M. Consultants
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Reviewing the Proposal for a Tourist Coal Mine at Wongawilli, prepared for BHP Billiton and Wollongong City Council by Environmetrics and the Centre for Visitor Studies, July 2005. Tourist Coal Mine: Preliminary Site Assessment. Implementation Report Kellog, Brown &Root, Feb 2003 Tourist Coal Mine: Case Studies. Discussion Paper, Environmetrics Report Kellog, Brown &Root, Feb 2003. Tourist Coal Mine: Preliminary Site Assessment. Site Assessment Report Report Kellog, Brown &Root, March 2003. Wongawalli Tourist Coal Mine Feasibility Study: Site Assessment Report Report Kellog, Brown &Root, April 2003. Wongawalli Tourist Coal Mine Feasibility Study: Visitation, Fianancial and Economic Working Paper, Report Kellog, Brown &Root, May 2003. Wongawalli Tourist Coal Mine Feasibility Study :Draft Final Report Kellog, Brown & Root June 2003

2.

Heritage Guidelines

Mining Heritage Places Assessment Manual, M Pearson and B McGowan, Australian Heritage Commission and Australian Council of National Trusts, 2000 New South Wales Heritage Office Guidelines, NSW Heritage 2001 Australia ICOMOS, The Burra Charter: The Australia ICOMOS Charter for the Conservation of Cultural Significance, Australia, (revised) 1999

3.

Books and journal articles – a list prepared by Don Reynolds on 25 March 2005

Andrews, C. Coal, Department of Mines, 1929. Australian Dictionary of Biography. (Wollongong Local Studies Library RBC/AUS. Australian Iron & Steel Pty Limited, Southern Collieries. June 1961. (Wollongong Local Studies Library LR 622.33/AUS) Australian Railway and Historical Society, February 1938. A story and sketch map by C.C. Singleton and Gifford Eardley of the railway from Bulli Colliery to the Bulli Jetty. Australian Railway and Historical Society, October 1938. Or Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin No 12. October 1938. Sketch Maps of the Mount Pleasant Coal & Iron Company railway from the mine to Belmore Basin. Australian Railway and Historical Society, November 1940. Or Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin No 37, November 1940 A Sketch Map of the Mount Keira Colliery from the mine to Belmore Basin. Australian Railway and Historical Society, April 1941. Or Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin No 42. April 1941. A Sketch Map showing the Bellambi Coal Company’s railways from the mines to Bellambi Jetty. It shows details of the South Bulli Colliery and Model Colliery’s railways. Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin No 47, 1941. Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin No 48, October 1941. A Sketch Map Strategic Management Plan For Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra O.H.M. Consultants
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showing the Mount Kembla Coal Company and Southern Coal Company’s railways from their mines to Port Kembla. Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin No 56, June 1942. A story by C.C. Singleton and Sketch Map of the Metropolitan Coal Company’s railways. Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin No 99, January 1946. Sketch Maps of the Corrimal Colliery’s railways and the railways at the coke ovens at Unanderra. Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletins. N.b. copies of these Bulletins since 1950 are held by the Wollongong Local Studies Library. Bayley, W.A., Black Diamonds, History of Bulli District New South Wales. Illawarra Historical Society, 1989. This has details of the coal mining activities in the Bulli area. (Wollongong Local Studies Library ).

Birmingham, Judy; Jack, Ian & Jeans, Dennis. Australian Pioneer Technology, 1979. (Wollongong Local Studies Library LR 609.94/BIR) Bolton, Kevin R. Urban Beginnings- Development of the Colliery Villages of Northern Illawarra, 1858 – 1905. Chapter 4 of Urban Illawarra, edited by R. Robinson, 1977. (ISBN 0 909752 30-3). Cousins, A. The Garden of New South Wales, A History of the Illawarra & Shoalhaven Districts 1770 –1900. 1948.(Wollongong Local Studies Library SLR 994.46/COU.). Danvers Powers, F. Coalfields and Collieries of Australia, 1912. Department of Mines Annual Reports. Department of Mineral Resources. Minefact July 1997.” A fact sheet titled 200 years of mining – coal. Eardley, Gifford. The Bulli Coal Mining Company N.S.W. Australian Railway Historical Society, February 1954. (WCC Local Studies Library LR385.36 EAR) Eardley, Gifford. Transporting the Black Diamond, Book 1, Colliery Railways of the IIllawarra District, NSW (Central Section), Traction Publications, 1968. This is a very good description of the colliery railways, rolling stock, sketch maps and histories of the various mines covered. (Wollongong Local Studies Library LR 385.09944 EAR). Eardley, Gifford. His unpublished draft copy of Transporting the Black Diamond, Book 2, Colliery Railways of the Illawarra District, NSW. (Northern Section) c.1968. (WCC Local Studies Library LR385/ EAR ????) This draft has been consolidated by PhillipClarke with no photographs of sketch maps. (Wollongong Local Studies Library LR 385 CLA).This draft has also been retyped and edited by Stuart Saywell. Ellis, M.H. A Saga of Coal. 1969. Published by Angus & Robertson Ltd for the Newcastle Wallsend Coal Company to mark the centenary of that company in 1958. This book is a detailed history of the Newcastle Wallsend Coal Company Ltd but contains details of Bryant’s and Clarke’s discoveries of coal at Newcastle and Illawarra respectively. It also describes the coal mining activities of the Australian Agricultural Company in some detail. Fleming, A.P. The Pioneer Kerosene Works at American Creek, Illawarra Historical Society, 1967. (Wollongong Local Studies Library LR 665 5383 FLM). Harper, L.F. Geology and Mineral Resources of Southern Coalfields, 1915, Department of Mines. (Wollongong Local Studies Library LR 622. 12/HAC. Harper, L.F. The Coke Industry of New South Wales, 1916, Department of Mines. Strategic Management Plan For Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra O.H.M. Consultants
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Herben, Carol. Mt Kembla 1902 Mine Disaster Commemoration Cemetery Walks. An interesting record of those who died during the disaster and the location of their graves. Hoogendoorn, Captain W. World Class Roadstead to Port. 1999. ISBN-646-37616-0. Published to mark the Centenary of the port of Port Kembla. Has useful information on the early coal loading facilities and railways at the port. (Wollongong Local Studies Library LR 994.46 WOR. Illawarra Pioneers, Illawarra History Group, Vol. 1 Pre. 1900, Vol. 2 Pre.1920. (Wollongong Local Studies Library LRQ 929.3/ Ill, (1),) Jervis, J. Illawarra: A Century of History, 1788 –1888, Royal Australian Historical Society, 1942. This has numerous references to coal mining in Illawarra.

Wollongong Local Studies Library (LR 994.46/JWR).
Lee, Henry. ‘Rocked in the Cradle’: The Economy, 1828 – 1907. Chapter 3 of A History of Wollongong. Edited by Jim Hagan & Andrew Wells. (ISBN 0 86418 446 8), 1997. Good information on the founding of the Mount Keira Colliery. Wollongong Local Studies Library LR 994.46/HIS) Longworth, Jim. The Coal Cliff Colliery Adit and Jetty Tramway, 1797 to 1910. Vol. 167, Light RailwaysI, October 2002. Martin, C.H., Hargraves, A.J.H., Kininmonth, R.J. & Saywell, S.M., History of Coal Mining in Australia. (Wollongong Local Studies Library LR 622.23/HIS). McCarthy, Ken. Editor of Gazeteer of Industrial Sites. Produced by the Illawarra Industrial Archaeology Society in about 1979. A very good reference of newspaper and journal references to industrial sites in Illawarra, including coal mining, coke ovens and railways. (Wollongong Local Studies Library LR 333.336/GA2). McCarthy, Ken. Industrial Heritage. A chapter in Illawarra Heritage an Introduction to a region. Edited by Stephen Dovers Environmental Heritage Committee, Wollongong, 1983. ISBN 0 9592480 0 5. Contains a very good time scale of colliery and jetty development within Illawarra. (Wollongong Local Studies Library LR 919.446/ILL). Morison. D.N. Coal Mining in New South Wales, 1797 – 1925. In Chemical Engineering and Mining Review, 5 July 1925, p. 397 – 400. This a good reference to the beginning of coal mining in the Colony at Newcastle. Its references to the Australian Agricultural Company are most useful. Mould, Geoff. A Brief History of the Mount Keira Tramline. Illawarra Historical Society Bulletin November/December 2000. pp 84 – 91. This is a good timescale story of the development of the Mount Keira mines, the inclines, the railway to Belmore Basin. It also details the changes made to the mine and its infrastructure after it had been taken over by AIS. It mentions the closing down of the mine’s incline after the commissioning of the Kemira drift. (Wollongong Local Studies Library LR 994.46/ILL). Mount Kembla Colliery Disaster 1902 – Report of Royal Commission. (Wollongong Local Studies Library LR 622.8/NEW). Pearson, M & McGowan, B. Mining Heritage Places Assessment Manual, National Trust & Australian Heritage Commission, 2000. A very useful reference to all types of mining with photographs, maps, sketches and a listing of mining terminology. Piggin, S and Lee, H. The Mount Kembla Disaster, Sydney University Press, 1992. A useful reference to the history of the Mount Kembla colliery, its railway and jetty. It covers the disastrous mine explosion, the official inquiry and its effect on the region in great detail. (Wollongong Local Studies Library LR 363.119622334 PIG). Reynolds, D.K. The Railways of West Dapto, BHP Billiton Illawarra Coal, 2001. Strategic Management Plan For Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra O.H.M. Consultants
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(ISBN 0 646-41856-4). A story of a railway built to haul coal from a coal mine in the escarpment behind West Dapto. It also details Hoskins Wongawilli colliery and railway and the use of these railways by the South Kembla colliery. (Wollongong Local Studies Library LR 385.54/REY) Saywell, S.M. Discovery of Coal in Australia, Mineral Heritage Sub-Committee, Illawarra Branch, Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. A very informative booklet describing the discoveries of coal by white man in the Colony. Sellers, Gordon, The Illawarra Coalfield – A Brief History to 1905. A paper delivered to the Aus.I.M.M. Conference, Illawarra, May, 1976. Singleton, C.C. Railway History of the Illawarra, Illawarra Historical Society, 1969. (Wollongong Local Studies Library LR 385/SIN) Southern, J.L.N, A Railway History of the Illawarra, BHP Papers, 1978. It provides details of the railways in Illawarra with some mention of collieries, jetties and coke ovens. (Wollongong Local Studies Library LR 385/SOU) Southern, J.L.N. The Collieries and Coalfields of Central Illawarra, Unpublished notes, 1954 and 1961. Spires, R, History of Mount Keira Colliery 1857 – 1984. This a very good reference to the history of the Mount Keira mines, it also has a brief history of the Mount Pleasant mine. (Wollongong Local Studies Library LR 622.334/SPI) Spooner, E.S, MLA. The History and Development of Port Kembla, 1938. A paper presented the Engineering Conference of the Institution of Engineers. Contains comments on the coal loading jetties in Port Kembla harbour. (Wollongong Local Studies Library LR 994.46 SPO). Stone, K.C, A Profile History of Mount Kembla, 1974. A good general reference to the Mount Kembla area including the Kerosene Works, the Mount Kembla Mine, the mine disaster, the railways and the village generally. (Wollongong Local Studies Library LR449.46/STO) Swinney, A.G.J. The Collieries, Coalfields and Minerals of New South Wales, Australia, 1884. (Mitchell Library 338.2/S) The Cyclopedia of New South Wales, 1907. Southern Coal-Fields, pp. 201 – 209.

A very useful reference to the various Illawarra collieries of the time including Southern Coal Owners Agency, Mount Kembla Colliery, Mount Pleasant Colliery, Osborne-Wallsend or Mount Keira Colliery, Coalcliff Colliery, Metropolitan Coal Co. of Sydney Ltd, Bellambi and South Bulli Collieries, Corrimal-Balgownie Colliery and Bulli Colliery. (Wollongong Local Studies Library SR 994 . 4003/CYC) A more comprehensive bibliography of mining in Australia can be found at the following websiteAustralian Mining History Bibliography – available at http://www.ecom.uwa.edu.au/research/links/australian_mining_history_association/bibliography . This bibliography was compiled by AMHA by Mel Davies, University of Western Australia, 1998 and provides a comprehensive bibliography of mining in Australia. The bibliography has focused primarily upon published books and journal articles.

4.

Oral Histories House, Lisle, 40 Years in the Dark: A Life Spent Working in the South Coast Coal Mines, An Autobiogrphy, Wollongong City Reasearch Library Oral histories held in the library of the University of Wollongong

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Moore, Fred (ed), Paddy Gorman and Ray Harrison, At the Coalface: The human face of coal miners and their communities: An Oral History of the early days, Mining and Energy Division of the Construction Forestry Mining and Energy Union, Sydney, 1998. Roberts, Faye and Horne, C. Robin, 'In search of a legend: an Australian mining village's view of its past', in Journal of Australian Studies, no. 4, June 1979, pp. 70-85.

5.

Other sources of useful information on the coal mining heritage in the Illawarra include;

Reports by government agencies; "Blue-Book" entries; reports in Parliamentary Papers, etc. Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW Company records, BHPbilliton records at head office in Melbourne

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12.1.

APPENDIX A

List of recorded items on DEC National Park & Reserve Land
item_id shi_id item_name 6230 3909964Air Shaft Chimney 2149 6217 6218 6219 6220 6213 6210 6211 2146 6228 6215 6223 2144 6216 6231 2147 6221 6224 6229 6212 6225 6232 2148 6227 2145 item_type Element Section 170 item_status AGD 56 AGD 56

3905859Bulli Mine Airshaft Remains 3909951Cottage No.1 3909952Cottage No.2 3909953Cottage No.3 3909954Cottage No.4

Element Section 170 AGD AGD AGD AGD 56 56 56 56 AGD 56 56

Element Section 170 Element Section 170 Element Section 170 Element Section 170

3909947Lunchroom/Amenities

Element Section 170 AGD AGD

56

3909944Mine Adit No.1 Element Section 170 3909945Mine Adit No.2 Element Section 170 3905856Mt Kembla Mine Remains Complex

Section 170 AGD AGD 56

AGD 56 56

56

3909962Mt Kembla Pony Stables Element Section 170 3909949Office And Laboratory Element Section 170 AGD

3909957Pit Pony Stables Element Section 170 3905854Pt. Kembla No.2 Mine Remains

Complex

Section 170

AGD

56 56 56 56

3909950Rail Tracks; Building Slabs And Other Remains 3909965Remnants Of Original O'Briens Road 3905857Remnants Of Original O'Briens Road 3909955Road From Rail Bridge To Mine 3909958Slab From Former Pole Yard 3909963Slabs And Clearing 3909946Substation/ Bathhouse 3909959Tennis Court

Element Section 170 AGD Section 170 AGD AGD 56 56

Complex

Element Section 170 AGD AGD 56 56

Element Section 170 Element Section 170 AGD AGD 56

Element Section 170 Element Section 170 AGD

Element Section 170

3909966Tom Thumb Mine Remains 3905858Tom Thumb Mine Remains

Complex

Section 170 AGD AGD 56

AGD 56 56

56

Element Section 170 Section 170 AGD

3909961Two Closed Mining Adits Complex

3905855Two Closed Mining Adits Element Section 170

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6226 6222 6214

3909960Water Supply Dam 3909956Water Supply Pipeline 3909948Workshop

Element Section 170 Element Section 170 AGD

AGD AGD 56

56 56

Element Section 170

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12.2.

APPENDIX B

MINING HERITAGE PLACES ON THE ESCARPMENT The following sites have been gazetted on the Wollongong City Local Environment Plan BULLI COLLIERY Bulli Colliery Bulli Colliery Bulli Colliery Bulli Colliery

-

No 2 original sinking head Old Bulli furnace shaft Old Bulli pit top (portal) Shaft 1 excluding fan from Nebo (West of Princess Hghy

COALCLIFF COLLIERY Coalcliff Colliery – entrance portal in cliff Coalcliff footbridge at station Coke Ovens CORRIMAL COLLIERY Corrimal Colliery -

Haulage braking system Line of later incline Line of old incline No 1 shaft surface structures No 2 fan structure-Rehabilitation of No2 Shaft site completed 10/2005-RAC No 2 shaft excluding fans –Ditto as above Ventilating fan No 1 Winding equipment No 1 Winding wheel Corrimal No 1 headframe Corrimal powerhouse

METROPOLITAN - HELENSBURGH Metropolitan Colliery Metropolitan Colliery – No 4 tunnel (Illawarra Railway) Metropolitan Colliery – No 5 tunnel (Illawarra Railway) Metropolitan Colliery – Shaft 1 head frame Metropolitan Colliery – Shaft 2 fan evasee Cemetery Charles Harper Monument and Park Community Hall Company Houses Cottage Cottage Cottage Cottage Cottage Cottage Cottage Cottage Wildys

Parkes Street

Frew Avenue Parkes Street Parkes Street 4-10 Junction Street 12 Robertson Street 12 Foster Street 5 Hay Street 135 Parkes Street 15 Hay Street 16 Robertson Street 20 Robertson Street 16 Hay Street

KEMBLA HEIGHTS Site of Mount Kembla Mine Working Harry Graham Drive Mine Air Shaft Harry Graham Drive Mine Manager’s House Jones Street Miner’s Club Room and terrace of cottages Cordeaux Road Strategic Management Plan For Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra O.H.M. Consultants

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Post Office and General Store (former) Windy Gully Cemetery MOUNT KEMBLA Mount Kembla Mine Portal Cottage General Store Headmaster’s residence House House Mine Manager’s House Mount Kembla Hotel Mount Kembla Resevoir Public School & Principal’s Residence Site of Pioneer Kerosene Works Slow’s Cottage Soldiers’ & Miners’ Memorial Church & Cemetery Including Mine Disaster Memorial St Clement’s Roman Catholic Church Stinson’s Cottage SOUTH BULLI South Bulli Colliery South Bulli Colliery

Cordeaux Road

Harry Graham Drive 2 Kirkwood Place Cordeaux Road school grounds 315 Cordeaux Road 321 Cordeaux Road Harry Graham Drive Cordeaux Road Cordeaux Road Cordeaux Road American Creek, Cordeaux Road Cordeaux Road

Cordeaux Road 310 Cordeaux Road

- Bellambi Creek Dam - Concrete base - Main portal - Mines office (former) - Old washery - Portal for ventilation

OTHER MINING SITES South Clifton Colliery powerhouse Miner’s cottages - Scarborough Pit pony stables - Port Kembla No 2,

Lawrence Hargrave Drive Farmborough Heights

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12.2.1.

APPENDIX B2.

Geoff Mould, Items of Historical Mining Significance in the Illawarra Escarpment and Foothills, 2003. ABANDONED MINE SITES Coalcliff Colliery Two adit portals at sea level Remains of fan and boiler at sea level Illawarra Coke Works (still operating) Some surface buildings at pit top. Bulli Colliery No 1 Shaft No 2 Shaft – Headframe and winding equipment No 3 Shaft Old Bulli Mine Pit Top – 2 portals all fenced or bricked up Remains of Pit Town South Bulli Colliery (Still Operating) Main Portal 1887 Ventilation Portal 1918 Bellambi Creek Dam Various shafts, including man riding shaft Corrimal Colliery No 1 Shaft and headframe (restored by BHP) Winding equipment Ventilation fan No 2 Shaft including fan structure Rehabilitated 10/2005 Portals and buildings Coke Works Mount Pleasant Line of incline Original portals Original screen foundations on incline “New screen foundations above Balgownie Line of truck, Parrish Avenue Bathroom foundation Foundations of engine house and boiler house Furnace shaft and chimney, Balgownie seam Portal, Bulli seam Portal Balgownie seam Stone bridge Mount Kembla Extended Colliery Line of incline Main portal (collapsed) Collar of fan shaft Kemira (Mount Keira) Main portal 1857 Two powder magazines Stone wall behind old demolished haulage engine Flue and chimney old haulage engine building Foundations of 1927 bathroom Line of incline Mount Kembla Colliery Strategic Management Plan For Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra O.H.M. Consultants

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Sit of Pioneer Kerosene Works (now buried) Furnace shaft chimney off Soldiers Road Remains of colliery pit top Pit pony stables Top of old furnace shaft Kembla Heights mining village Miners cottages Windy Gully (club now burnt down) Mount Kembla Disaster Memorial Church and graveyard Mount Kembla Disaster Memorial South Kembla Colliery Wongawilli seam fan structure (no fan) Elouera (old Wongawilli Colliery) Incline including man riding equipment Conveyor and transport portals Fan and structure including fan portal Old office buildings (Power House) RAC

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12.3.

APPENDIX C

LIST OF COLLIERIES IN THE ILLAWARRA AREA Prepared by Geoff Mould Colliery Category 2 Aitchison’s Tunnel Benjamin’s Tunnel Other Names Prospects Wonga Balgownie Wongawilli American Creek Seam Bul Bal Won AMC Won Won Bul Bul Bal Won Bal Bul Bul Bal Bul Bal Won Ton Bul Bul 1888 RT 12 Seams Dates RT or Drawing No.

Later Port Kembla

Biggar’s Tunnels

Later incorporated into Wongawilli

1887 1889

Bruce’s Tunnel Central Illawarra Hayward’s Block Greater Wollongong Lang’s (Wongawilli)

1909-1910 1910 1888 1907 – 1911 1917 1911 1910-1912 1921

RT 94

Wiley’s Tunnel

RT 39 M 20759 RT 45 RT 534 RT 138 RT 125

Lang’s (Balgownie) Kembla Grange Kembla Harbour Ocean (Dapto)

Rose Hill Southern Coal Company

Later North Bulli

1884 1888-1889

Colliery

Other Names

Seam

Metropolitan Coalcliff Darkes Forest South Clifton Shaft South Clifton Tunnel North Bulli No 1 North Bulli No 2 Bulli Main North Illawarra No 1 North Illawarra No 2 North Illawarra No 3 Austinmer Extended

Extension of Coalcliff

Bul Bul Bul Bul Bul Bul Bul Bul Bul Bul Bul Bul

Dates (When Known) Opened Closed 1888 Operating 1887 1991 1970 1991 1891 1912 1902 1947 1884 1885 1885 1923 30/05/19 13/08/83 23/03/26 23/11/73 01/06/74 1890 1896 25/06/63 31/12/43

Abandonment Plan or Drawing No RT 8 RT 694846 RT 748 RT 12 RT 13 RT 56 RT 97 RT 90 RT 109 RT 102 RT 89
93

Austinmer Austinmer Central

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South Coast No 1 Excelsior No 1 Excelsior No 2 Bulli Pass Bulli No 3 Bulli Old Bulli Hill End Bulli New Tunnel Bulli No 4 Broadhead’s Tunnel Blackball Hale’s Woonona Taylor & Walker South Bulli Co Model Bellambi South Bulli “A” South Bellambi Broker’s Nose Corrimal Corrimal No 2 Mount Kembla Extended Mount Kembla Extended Mount Pleasant No 2 Mount Pleasant No 1 Mount Pleasant Mount Keira Mount Keira Mount Keira Port Kembla Works Tom Thumb Mount Kembla Pioneer Kerosene Nebo Port Kembla

Bul Bul Bul Bul Bul Bul & Bal Bul Bul Bul Bal Bul Won Bul Bul Bul Bul Bul Bal Bal Bul Bul Bal Bal Bul Bul Bul Bal Bal Bul Won AMC Bul Bul Bul Won Bal Won AMC Bal Won Won Woo Won Bul Bul Won Woo Bul

Bulli Steam Excelsior B Corn Beef

C 1933 1905 1914 1878 1943 1902 1861 1861 1883 1909 1904 1857 1861 1885 1889 1901 1905 1975 1884 1870 1922 1909 ? 1886 1861 1950 1848 1856 1946 1899 1967 1883 1865 1947

30/09/45 1946 25/03/62 1902 1908 1988 1988 1898 1886 1914 1911 1863 1864 1901 1901 Operating 1982 30/06/81 1886 1986 1926 1934 1934 1934 1886 1955 1856 1991 1950 1902 1971 1970 1873 1993 1910

RT 93 RT 582 RT 39 RT 716839 RT 119 RT 2 & 3 RT 697 RT 110

Part of Bulli Part of Bulli

Central Bulli Taken over by South Bulli Co. Taken over by South Bulli Co Taken over by South Bulli Co

RT 117

RT 14

RT 14A RT 705 RT 743 RT 743 RT 7 RT 7 RT 114 RT 51 RT 43 RT 44A RT 44 ? RT 49 RT 769 RT 126 RT 706 RT 47 RT 107 RT 156 RT 700

Owens Balgownie Owens Balgownie

Albert Mine Kemira post 1955

Oil Shale Elouera Previously Benjamin’s

Port Kembla No 2 Illawarra Dombarton Dombarton Open Cut South Kembla

1933 1922 1929 1967 1950

1964 1925 1935 1970 1955 1933

Wongawilli

1916

1977

RT 65 RT 65 RT 65 RT 703 A RT 172 RT 4 RT 4 RT 4 RT 45 A
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Became Elouera Avon Huntley No 1 Huntley No 2 Avondale Tongarra Yellow Rock Notes: Bul Bal Won AMC Ton WOO Bulli Seam Balgownie Seam No 2 Wongawilli SeamNo 3 American Creek No 4 Tongarra Seam No 5 Woonona Seam No 6 No 1

Won Won Won Ton Won Ton Won Ton Won

1916 1946 1952 1884 1903 1970

1991 1990 1990 1983 1983 1964 1988

RT 45 RT 723 RT 181 RT 137 RT 80 A RT 80 RT 88 RT 88 A RT 178

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12.4.

APPENDIX D

The following maps of the Illawarra Collieries within the Wollongong LGA were prepared with the assistance of G Mould and show more detail than those contained within the report.

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12.5.

APPENDIX E

The following is a summary of historical information relating to individual mines and was prepared by G Mould and D Reynolds. AVONDALE COLLIERY The first record of mining at Avondale was reported in the 1884/5 Department of Mines Annual Report (DOMAR). That Report noted that in 1884 six “prospecting mines” were being driven and included all seams except the top one, the Bulli seam and in 1885 prospecting had been suspended. In the 1990 DOMAR the Department Geologist T.W.E. David visited an area on J.B.Watts property Portion 31, Parish of Wongawilli and reported entering a tunnel in the top seam, found an exposure of No2 seam and a collapsed tunnel in the No3 seam. He also reported having found a collapsed tunnel lower down in what he called the 7ft seam (This was more likely the Tongarra or No5 seam) The 1903 DOMAR reported that prospecting had commenced again with one man working and in the following year four men were involved and Mr.P.Bryen had been appointed as the Permit Manager. No work was reported in the 1905 DOMAR but in the 1909 through 1911 DOMAR mining was reported to have been carried out with an average of ten men employed. Bryen and Gillis were recorded as the owners of the operation and C.E.Bird the manager. It had been intended to make surveys to erect plant and construct a rail line to the coast but nothing came of these plans due to a lack of capital and the failure to interest anyone in building the rail line. At this time three tunnels had been driven, two about 100 yds and one 40 yds in length. Drawing dated about 1890 show a rail line branching off to the southwest from the Illawarra Land and Harbour Corporation rail line leading to the proposed Ocean Steam Colliery in Portion 225 Parish of Kembla. This branch set off from about Portion 60 west of Dapto and terminated at the base of the escarpment on theMP1 lease held by Mr.J.B.Watts. This rail line was never built but there must have been some proposal to do so for the line to be shown on the plan dated 1890. Pattison Bryen tried again in 1919 but intimated that the mine could not be commercially viable without the construction of the rail line.An attempt was made to sell the undertaking to the Sydney Municipal Council but it appears that these negotiations failed. The 1990 and 1920 DOMAR’s indicate that no men were working on the property in those years. No further work was reported on the site until 1938 when Mr. George Brunero applied the Mining Wardens Court to enter Portion 55, Parish of Wongawilli owned by the Estate of Pattison Bryne. This Portion was adjacent to Portion 31 where mining operations had been carried out previously. Brunero opened the mine in 1938 in the No5 Tongarra seam using the board and pillar system and contract miners. In 1955 the mine ownership passed to Mrs.S.A.Brunero and in 1959 an agreement was made naming Mrs. Brunero as the new lessee in place of Messrs, Bryen, Luscombe, Perkins and Nevett.
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In August 1959 Brunero commenced mining in the No3 Wongawilli seam with both the Tongarra and the Wongawilli seam being worked simultaneously. The mining of the Tongarra seam ceased in 1970 and the Wongawilli seam in 1982. In 1977 the leases held by the mine were transferred to Avondale Collieries Pty Ltd. In the latter years of the mines operations the coal was mine using continuous miners and conveyor belts with coal mined dispatched by road. The reasons for the closure of the mine in 1982 were given as a lack of markets for the product. In 1987 the mining leases and freehold land were transferred to Huntley Colliery Pty Ltd. The Huntley Colliery closed in 1989 along with the mines principal customer the Tallawarra Power Station and mining was suspended at Avondale in August 1992. The entries to both the Huntley and Avondale mines were sealed in January 1993. Remains This mine site has not been visited at this time.

SOUTH CLIFTON COLLIERY To the south of the upthrow the fault raised the level of the Bulli seam to just above the South Coast railway line. Tunnelling began in 1912 about 1200 metres south of the shaft mine and the new screens were connected to the sidings and coke works by a new rail line. A small steam loco was originally used to haul the duff coal from the screens but this proved ineffective and was replaced by horse traction. According to Judith Carrick it opened in 1907 and closed in 1948.). In the 1949/50 Joint Coal Board (JCB) Annual Report the JCB had carried out investigations at the mine and whilst the Colliery had estimated reserves of 7 million tons the mine was in such a state it was unlikely it could maintain its existing output of 400 tons per day. A major rehabilitation of the mine and adoption of a mechanised system of mining was needed to lift the output to the targeted production of 750 tons per day. The owners of the mine did not have the financial resources to carry out the work proposed by the JCB who concluded that a solution could be to provide financial assistance to the Company or purchase its shares. Both these options would involve protracted negotiations so the Board decided to assume control of the mine to enable the rehabilitation to commence without delay. To get on with this work production was reduced to 230 tons per day and miners were taken off coal and used to prepare the mine, which had been seriously neglected in the past, ready for mechanisation. It was anticipated that mechanised mining would commence toward the end of 1950 and output would steadily increase after that date. At the end of the above reporting period it was noted that negotiations with the mine owners had not been concluded and the mine was under the control of the JCB with the Southern District Mining Engineer Gordon Sellers appointed as Controller of the mine on behalf of the JCB.
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SOUTH CLIFTON SHAFT MINE The Bulli coal seam outcropped at the coastal cliffs at Cliff Town, later called Clifton, about 160 feet above sea level. A Mr John Williams set up a new mine at this location for the North Illawarra Mining Company; a shaft was sunk 150 feet deep on the seaward side of the main railway line near the now closed South Clifton railway station. According to Judith Carrick the South Clifton (Scarborough) mine opened in 1891) Access to the workings was via a tunnel at the outcrop level (Presumably the shaft was to be used for coal haulage only where it was close to the railway. The tunnel was for man and material access only.) Messrs Saywell and Wilson purchased this new mine in February 1891 and a second shaft was sunk west of the railway. This new shaft was used for used for coal winding and a steam winder, power plant and were built around the shaft. (Possibly Saywell & Wilson purchased the mine before the mine went into operation and before the shaft had a headframe and winder installed. Were the second shaft, winder, power house and sidings located adjacent to level crossing and very old buildings now visible on the western side of the railway just before the Scarborough / Coalcliff tunnel?). The original shaft was retained for ventilation purposes and a fan fitted. Thomas Saywell and others opened the Ringwood Colliery near Bundanoon in 1884; the mine went into liquidation in 1885 after a disagreement with the lessor and Saywell purchased all the surface plant, skips and portable equipment. Saywell and Wilson went on to open the old Taylor and Walker mine at Bellambi in 1885 and no doubt used what, equipment ex Ringwood, was suitable for his Bellambi mine. No shaft was needed for the Saywell and Wilson Bellambi mine. So it is presumed that Saywell adapted the Ringwood headframe for use over the South Clifton shaft. At Ringwood the headframe extended out over the edge of a cliff and the “shaft” was out in the air on the face of the cliff. A battery of 66 beehive coke ovens was installed in 1900. The company was reconstituted as Saywell’s Colliery Company Limited in 1903. The mine used 15 cwt skips and good mining conditions were encountered, but the extraction area was limited by a large upthrow fault. Underground rope haulage was used in the mine. The shaft mine was closed in 1920 due to the exhaustion of accessible reserves.

PORT KEMBLA NO 2 In 1914, William Wiley was involved in the setting up of the Mt Kembla Extended Coal and Coke Company on the old Southern Coal Company property and acquired Portions 70, 71, 72, 158, 159,173 and 155 in the Parish of Kembla County of Camden. In 1928 these portions were transferred to Illawarra Coke Company (the ICC) and included Portion 311 (Beatson) and 156 (Hurry), together with the residue of Portion 5. The ICC mined the No 6 Woonona seam in the period 1929 to 1933 and in 1933 the colliery was sold to the Port Kembla Coal Company and was renamed the Port Kembla No 2 Colliery. According to DOMAR records the mine ceased operations in 1936.

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In 1941, the Broken Hill Associated Smelters Company took over the collieries leases to mine the Wongawilli No 3 seam and to carry out some minor exploratory work in the No 2 Balgownie seam The main mine entries to the Wongawilli seam were driven in Portion 173 with the workings concentrated in a band generally to the north east of the mine entries (shown on the survey plan of the mine in the period 1941-1947). Evidence of contract mining from 1942 to 1960 show a change from the board and pillar shapes of the contract mining system to those adopted for Continuous Miner and Shuttle Car operations. The contract miners cut and filled the coal mined into skips where it was hauled to the surface by horse. In the mid 1950’s a modified system was introduced where the coal was cut and loaded by the miners onto scraper chain conveyors that delivered the coal to a flexible belt conveyor system and on to the surface. Following a fire in 1960, in which one man lost his life, the hand mining operations were abandoned and a continuous miner, pick up loader and shuttle car was installed. A battery operated shuttle car transported material used to support the mining operation from the surface to underground. This mine was one of the most efficient mining operations in the industry. The mines underground workings extended to the north and west under Mount Kembla and adjacent to the Nebo Colliery workings. When the mine first began operations the skips brought to the surface by horse were attached

SOUTH KEMBLA COLLIERY The lease was initially obtained for MP8, Parish of Kembla, County of Camden by W.R. Styles and know as Ocean Steam Coal Company some time prior to 1890. Some prospecting was probably carried out at that time but an operating coal mine had not been established. About 1890 the Ocean View Coal Company was purchased by the Illawarra Harbour & Land Corporation (IH&LC) who planned to open the mine and connect it by a standard gauge railway to Lake Illawarra. They intended by build a harbour, jetty and channel across the Lake to accommodate ocean going ships to export the coal. They also acquired numerous properties adjacent to the mine site on the escarpment to accommodate the infrastructure needed to get the coal from the mine to the railway. Minor prospecting of the seam was undertaken but the coal did not meet expectations and the company, and other associated ventures, were liquidated in June 1909. The railway had been completed but not used to haul coal. About 1910 the IH&LC leases were acquired by A.J. Fleming who undertook considerable prospecting and mining of the Wongawilli seam and attempted to find capital to develop the mine or sell the mine to someone who would develop it. H.W. Buck, who held the adjacent MP7 lease, acquired the MP8 lease from Fleming and formed the South Kembla Coal and Coke Company. He built a skipway from near the mine portal in Portion 125 to the screens and bins in Portion 225 and mined the Wongawilli seam in Portion125. In 1923 he mined the Tongarra seam in Portions 125 and 262. He also rehabilitated the old IH&LC railway from Portion 225 to a junction on the AIS railway from their Wongawilli colliery to the NSWGR line at Brownsville.

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In 1932 Cam Bros purchased the assets of the South Kembla Coal and Coke Company and traded under the name of South Kembla Colliery until 1933 when the mine was sold Australian Iron & Steel who integrated it into their Wongawilli Colliery. All the surface equipment of the South Kembla operation was removed and most of it was scrapped. Remains The escarpment in the area is heavily timbered and the undergrowth is thick, access to the higher areas is very difficult. Evidence of adits into the coal seam are still visible in Portions 125 and 262. The two Wongawilli seam portals and one furnace shaft entry above the seam is in use as intake airways to Elouera Colliery and one entry includes the remains of a mine fan and building used by Wongawilli to ventilate the mine in the period 1952 – 1972. The portal entry and underground workings of the Tongarra seam are in a collapsed state. Evidence of the skipway can be detected in the undergrowth. Pieces of the haulage wire rope and other minor pieces of metal and timber supports can still be seen along the skipway. There is no evidence of the remains of the screens and bins in Portion 225. Remnants of the stone wall abutments of the rail bridge over Forest Creek are still visible; the steel deck on the bridge is probably from the 1930s operations. Evidence of the earthworks associated with the IH&LC railway from Portion 225 to Lake Illawarra can still be seen in a number of locations.

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13.

SHI LISTING CARDS

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NSW Heritage Data Form
ITEM DETAILS

Name of Item Other Name/s Former Name/s Item type (if known) Item group (if known) Item category (if known) Area, Group, or Collection Name Street number Street name Suburb/town Local Government Area/s Property description Location Lat/long Location AMG (if no street address) Owner Current use Former Use Statement of significance

Bulli Collieries

Complex

Mine Machinery and Relics Mining and Mineral Processing

Hobart Street Bulli Wollongong City

Postcode

137m above sea level – old pit top area 55 m above sea level – cross drift mine site area Latitud Longitude e Zone Easting 0306640 – Old Northing 6199346 – old pit pit top area. top area 0307239 – 6199493 – cross Cross measure measure drift site drift site Department of Environment and Conservation National Park – Historic Heritage Mining The cluster of Bulli mines is very significant to the history of the Illawarra as it was the site of a major mining disaster in 1887,resulting in the death of 81 miners and affected most families in the area. The Bulli Mine Explosion Monument and the Bulli Museum at the railway station have been erected to preserve the memory of this tragedy. The main mine was the site of a major modernisation scheme in the 1940’s after its purchase by AIS and was operated by state of the art equipment. The excavation of the cross measures drift began in 1944 below the main portal and was driven by Federation labour, whereas at Kemira, a similar drift was driven by AWU labour following a very bitter demarcation dispute between the Miners Federation and the AWU. The cluster of Bulli mines is also very significant to the history of Illawarra as the area on the adjacent escarpment is where Captain Westmacott first attempted to mine coal in the Illawarra but was thwarted by the Australian Agricultural Company’s monopoly over coal mining in the Colony. The mine is also significant for its association with the coke industry as the Bulli Coke Works provided coke to the BHAS smelters at Port Pirie and some was exported to San Francisco. The site is significant as a cultural landscape with remaining items such as portals, air shafts fans, a head frame, embankments and gardens. State x 1 Local

Level of Significance

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DESCRIPTION Designer Builder/ maker Physical Description

“A” Pit - The entrance to the original mine portal still remains on site – it is however partially obscured by vegetation and access is difficult. The GPS locations are #157; 0306640 E; 6199345 N; 137m above sea level. Stone and brick retaining walls also obscured by vegetation. All pit top structures have been removed. Steel bridge that carried the railway over the old Princess Highway acts as a gateway and welcomes visitors to Bulli. Fence onto site on upper level is “strap” commonly known as “Skelp” which came from the steelworks at Port Kembla. (Skelp was a product from the skelp- mill and it was processes into various saleable products). The entrance to the 1940’s Old Bulli Colliery off Hobart St, follows a driveway with sandstone retaining walls and remnants of the original colliery garden (with Cupressus sempervirens, Phoenix canariensis and other ornamental plantings still remaining. A fishpond, circular garden bed and flag pole at the entrance to the Bulli Cross Measure are also remnants of the colliery landscaping. The GPS location is reading #160: 0307239 E; 6199493 N; 55m – Entrance to Bulli cross measure). The three portals at the original Old Bulli Colliery site are still intact and should be preserved. The entrance to the Cross Measure Bulli Drift is sealed and remains visible along with the concrete floor foundations of the Administration, Workshop and Bathhouse Buildings. A number of artefacts from the old incline have been collected and are on display at the Grevillia Park. There is nothing left of the old “B” Pit. A lattice headframe is still intact and located at No 2 Shaft behind the escarpment. The only bridge left standing is the steel bridge that carried the railway from the mine over the Princes Highway; that was painted and acts as a roadway overpass for pedestrians and a gateway sign post welcoming visitors to Bulli. The Fan House for the mine is still in situ. (BHP Site 62)

Physical condition and Archaeologica l potential Construction years Modifications and dates

All pit top structures have been removed and the old portals and sandstone retaining walls are in poor condition at the site of the old “A” Pit. However the concrete footings at the lower level provide evidence of the original structures and archaeological potential for further study of the site. Some of the original landscaping and vegetation of the colliery garden still remain. Start year 1861 Finish year 1988 Circa

1861 the first tunnel (the ‘A’ Pit) was driven into the seam at an elevation of 400 feet above sea level. A standard gauge continuous rope incline was built from the mine to the bottom of the escarpment, the standard gauge 2

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tracks continued on along a gentle downhill slope to the jetty near Sandon Point. In 1878, a second mine known as the Bulli Coal Company’s “B” Pit was established in the escarpment some distance to the north of the initial mine. This mine also had a continuous rope incline to lower the coal to screens and bins at the bottom of the escarpment. In 1883 a new tunnel was built to improve haulage and ventilation from the surface. In1887 the Balgownie seam was opened a short distance to the south of the original mine. The abandoned ‘B’ Pit was reopened in 1891 and was renamed the Bulli Pass Coal and Coke Company. In 1887 the gravitational railway was replaced by locomotive haulage. In 1889 the Bulli Coke Company established a battery of 54 beehive coke ovens adjacent to the Bulli Coal Mining Company’s railway line. In 1937 AIS took over ownership of the colliery and modernisation plans were initiated and included the erection of a 33 kV transmission system to supply low cost power to its collieries from the Port Kembla steelworks and the sinking of the No2 shaft to improve the ventilation of the mine were completed. In the late 1940’s construction commenced on a site lower down the mountainside on a new Administration, Bathhouse, Workshop and Stores buildings and the driving of a cross measure drift to intersect the underground workings. These facilities were required to support the movement of men and materials through the drift to rail coal from within the mine through the new drift to a Coal Handling Plant comprised of a Bradford breaker and large circular steel coal storage bin. New railway sidings were provided at the coal storage bin and an elevated railway was provided, running parallel to the existing line, to rail sidings east of the main rail line. New steel bridges were provided for the line to cross the old Princes Highway and the Government’s South Coast railway. After the Bulli Colliery closed AIS removed all recoverable equipment from underground and the surface and demolished all buildings, coal processing and storage facilities, embankments and railways. Further comments

3

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Historical notes

HISTORY These notes have been prepared from Gifford Eardley’s The Bellambi and Bulli Coal Mining Company Railway article in Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin No 463 of May, 1976, pages 89 to 111 inclusive. In 1839 Captain Westmacott applied to open a coal mine in the Bulli area but was prevented from doing so by the monopoly held by the Australian Agricultural Company over all coal mining in the Colony. Prospecting was no doubt going on in the area as it was known that coal deposits did exist. In 1859 the Bellambi and Bulli Coal Company was formed and 600 acres of coal bearing land was purchased from Dr O’Brien and others; a Bill authorising the incorporation of the company was passed in August 1861.Mines Department records exist to show that Dr. O’Brien had already driven an exploratory tunnel on his land in 1858 and had produced 2000 tons of coal. Initially it was planned to build a jetty for shipping the coal at Bulli, an alternative scheme of shipping the coal out of Port Bellambi was considered but was abandoned due to considerable opposition by Thomas Hale. In 1861 operations began at the Bulli mine with the driving of a tunnel into the seam at an elevation of 400 feet above sea level, this was in Portion 76 Parish of Woonona. A standard gauge continuous rope twin track incline was built from the mine to the bottom of the escarpment, the standard gauge tracks continued on along a gentle downhill slope to the jetty near Sandon Point. The mine was officially opened on 2 June 1863. The Illawarra Mercury on 28 January 1863 gave a detailed description of the incline, the railway and the jetty, it refers to the company as the Bulli Coal Company; possibly that was the name used when the company incorporated in August 1861. The jetty when initially built was 680 feet long and extended out into open sea. Initially the full coal trucks gravitated down the slope to holding sidings near the jetty, the empty trucks were horse hauled back to the bottom of the incline. In about 1867 a small steam locomotive was procured to replace the horses for hauling the empties back to the incline. This initial mine became known later as the “A” Pit. In August 1878, a second mine known as the Bulli Coal Company’s “B” Pit was established in the escarpment some distance to the north of the initial mine. This mine also had a continuous rope incline to lower the coal to screens and bins at the bottom of the escarpment. In this instance, a narrow gauge three rail skipway was provided with a four rail passing loop in the centre of the incline. The coal was hauled from the bins in standard gauge trucks to join the standard lines to the jetty. Problems were experienced in the “B” Pit, the seam being much disturbed by volcanic action and it was closed down some 7 years after opening. Another small mine was opened (by who and when) a little distance south (of the B” Pit) and known as the “Corn Beef” mine. The coal was transported to Ò the top of the “B” Pit incline by a tramway along the outcrop. The Corn Beef mined a partially cindered coal and we have a mine workings plan that show mining of the area that began in 1902 and ceased in 1908 and a reopening 4

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and mining in the 1940’s. A Pit” had 3 main tunnels “B Pit” was to the north and had two tunnels Bulli No3 = Corn Beef was to the west of “B” Pit was to the north Bulli No4 was south of “A” Pit More notes on Bulli B Pit Reopened in 1895 under new owner and called Bulli Cooperative Steam Coal Co. Changed hands again in 1896 by George Adams and worked until 1902. Remained idle until WW2 when purchased by Excelsior Coal Co in 1946 who extracted pillars until 1961when it finally closed and was known as Excelsior “B” By June 1887 the South Coast Railway was in operation between Clifton and Wollongong. The new railway crossed the Bulli Coal Mining Company’s railway by means of a level crossing. For safety reasons the crossing had to be fully interlocked and signalled on both lines. The double tracks were replaced by a single track at the level crossing and the wagons had to be loco hauled from the incline to the jetty, not gravitated to meet the requirements of the State Rail Authority. There were numerous individual disputes in the 1880s and at one stage the union withdrew its labour and the company introduced strike-breakers. On 23 March 1887 a major explosion occurred in the Bulli mine, which resulted in the death of 81 miners. This effected most families in the Bulli area and feelings were very high in the community. The company was seriously chastised in the judicial hearing that followed. The explosion proved to be a disaster for the Company, as the mine could not be worked. A lot of the Bulli mine’s customers switched to the newly opened Bellambi Coal Company’s mine. Furthermore, the Country was under considerable financial stress and what funds were available were being directed to relieving a major unemployment problem. In 1889 the Bulli Coke Company established a battery of 54 beehive coke ovens adjacent to the Bulli Coal Mining Company’s railway line. They were able to take duff (screened) coal from a large dump of that material existing at the mine; this gave the mine a small outlet for this otherwise waste product. The coke was shipped to Port Pirie for the BHP blast furnaces at Broken Hill and, some was shipped to San Francisco where it was highly regarded. Tenders were called by the Bulli Coal Mining Company in January 1890 for the provision of an interconnection between the Bulli mine’s railway and the Government’s South Coast railway. This interconnection was made on the eastern side of the South Coast line with the south facing branch joining the main line almost under the Point Street road overbridge. Exchange sidings were provided parallel with the mine’s railway. The Bulli Coal Mining Company granted Messrs Williams and Garlick permission to reopen the abandoned Bulli “B” Pit. The Bulli Pass Coal and Coke Co began operating the mine on 11 February 1891to supply natural 5

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coke, formed by volcanic action on the coal seams, to the NSW Tramway Department for fuel for their steam operated trams. The new company were to use the facilities of the Bulli Coal Co to ship their coke from the Bulli jetty with the first shipment-taking place on 2 June 1892. Disputes arose between the two companies over the above facilities not being made available when required. The Bulli Pass Coal and Coke Co closed its mine during November 1894. The “B” Pit was then operated spasmodically by a variety of owners. A Mr Evans operated it in 1895 under the name of Bulli Steam Coal company, in 1896 it became the Bulli Co-Cooperative Steam Coal Co and later in the same year George Adams took it over and operated it until 1902 when it was finally closed. The Bulli Coal Mining Co called tenders during 1893 for the purchase of their coal mining property and the equipment associated with the mine. In March 1895 Mr George Adams, of Tattersall fame, purchased the whole undertaking with the aim of working it in conjunction with the coke ovens he had previously acquired. This tends to indicate that the Bulli Coke Co Limited was and independent company that was purchased by Adams prior to his purchasing the Bulli Pass Coal Mining Co. As mentioned above Adams operated the Bulli “B” Pit until 1902 when it was closed down. In April 1907 very heavy seas severely damaged the Bulli jetty with a number of coal wagons and 130 tons of coal and several lives being lost. It took a considerable time to repair the jetty and the company was forced to export its coal from Port Bellambi, Wollongong Harbour and Port Kembla. Again in July 1912 heavy seas severely damaged the jetty when the outer 200 feet of the jetty was lost. Repairs were made to get the jetty back into service. Boiler plant had been installed at the Bulli Colliery for some years to power steam engine drives for various items of equipment and in about 1916 a steam engine driven 50 cycle AC generator of 400 kW was installed to supply electrically driven equipment and lighting on the surface and underground. In December 1937 Australian Iron & Steel (AIS) purchased the Bulli Colliery and Coke Works. The AIS Company was at that time undergoing major expansion in its steelmaking operations that would significantly increase its demands for coal. It had only just acquired the Mount Keira and Mount Pleasant coalmines near Wollongong. AIS planned to make a significant expansion to the Bulli mine to increase its output and improve its efficiency. The effects of World War 11 slowed down the implementation of these plans and it was not until the late 1940’s that expansion was able to progress at the proposed pace. Once AIS had acquired the mine virtually all the coal produced was railed to Cringila via the South Coast and Port Kembla rail lines; as a result the Bulli Jetty was seldom used (Corrimal Colliery used it at times) and the jetty gradually fell into disrepair. An early task that was initiated by AIS as part of its colliery modernisation plans was the erection of a 33 kV transmission system to supply low cost power to its collieries from the Port Kembla steelworks. Erection of the transmission lines began in November 1939 with supply being made to Bulli 6

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Colliery on 3 March 1940. This allowed the Bulli power generation plant to be closed down. In fact some of the boiler and steam engine driven generating equipment were relocated to BHP’s Cowarra gold mine, near Bredbo, in 1939.In 1940 the No 2 Ventilation Shaft was sunk behind the escarpment o improve the mine ventilation system and to provide a means of dismantling and lowering the first items of mining equipment into the mine to be reassembled and commence the mechanical cutting and loading of coal. One of the tasks was commenced before the war effects took hold (1944) was the start of providing a completely new entrance into the mine’s workings from a much lower elevation above sea level, this entrance was the beginnings of the Bulli Drift. Work on the drift began 17 April 1944. This tunnel was driven through varied strata including sandstone, some 12,600 feet, rising gradually at a grade of 1 in 139 until it struck the No 1 or Bulli coal seam well beyond a known upthrow fault and in the area set aside to commence the mechanisation of the mining operations. This was a long term job and once the equipment was assembled to begin tunnelling, very little engineering equipment was needed until the tunnelling was completed in June1953. In 1950, major modifications commenced with the construction of new administration buildings for the Bulli colliery on a new surface site; a new Coal Handling Plant was erected to accept coal railed through the Drift to the surface and included a mine car dumper, Bradford breaker, a conveyor and a large circular steel coal storage bin. New railway sidings were provided at the coal storage bin and a new railway was provided, running parallel to the existing line, to sidings near Sandon Point. New steel bridges were provided for the line to cross the Princes Highway and the main South Coast railway. New workshops, change house, offices, etc were provided adjacent to the Drift Portal All this construction was carried out while the existing mining operations and coal handling operations continued to be conducted from the original mine site. The bulk of the modernisation work at Bulli was completed by about November 1953. The existing railway system, including the incline, which was not required, was removed and the area tidied up. The equipment at the old mine level was removed, some was recycled to other AIS coal mining sites, while that not wanted was scrapped. There was a major replacement of larger and increased capacity underground mining and transportation equipment and with the original rolling stock moved where practical to other company mines. In 1967, 6 men died in a fire that occurred in the 8 Right Panel of the mine. The No3 Ventilation Shaft was sunk and a fan installed to provide the increased ventilation of the mine workings being developed toward the Appin area. (AIS progressively modernised the mine with state of the art equipment. A shortwall mining unit was installed in 1975 but was abandoned later in that year for geological reasons). Work commenced on the sinking of a No4 Shaft in 1986 located near the Bulli to Appin Road. After completing some sinking this project was abandoned in that same year when the decision was made to commence the closure of the mine. The Bulli Colliery finally closed in 1987 when the mine became uneconomical 7

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to operate as the production units were too far from the surface. In the period from 1909 to 1914 there were three other small mines in the same area as the Bulli mine. Bulli No 4 was just south of the main No2 tunnel and worked the Balgownie seam between 1909 and 1914; the mine was in Portion 76, Parish of Woonona and used furnace shaft ventilation. William Spinks and Broadhead’s tunnels were small separate exploratory operations located to the north of the Bulli Mine, but no details are known of these operations. After the Bulli Colliery closed AIS removed all economically recoverable equipment from underground and on the surface, demolished all the surface buildings including the Coal Handling Plant and rail storeage bin and lifted and removed all the surface rail track work.

THEMES National historical theme State historical theme 3.4.3 – Mining

Mining

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Historical significance SHR criteria (a)

Historical association significance SHR criteria (b)

APPLICATION OF CRITERIA Important in the course of NSW state and Illawarra history because: • Captain Westmacott first attempted to mine coal in the Illawarra but was thwarted by the Australian Agricultural Company’s monopoly over coal mining in the Colony. • The mine formed part of the modernisation plan by AIS to increase supply of coal. Although the mine was purchased during WW11 development was delayed due to the war. • Long association with the site of the major mine disaster in 1887, resulting in the death of 81 miners. It is also the site of more recent accident (in 1967) when 6 men lost their lives in a fire at the face. • For its association with the history of the Miners Federation. • For its association with the development of mining in the Illawarra and NSW and particularly with the developments in coal mining techniques from the earliest years of mining on the escarpment. The mine is significant for its association with • George Adams who operated the mine from 1896 to 1902. George Adams also owned the Tattersall’s Hotel.

• Aesthetic significance SHR criteria (c) • Social significance SHR criteria (d) •

The remnants of the landscaped garden are an example of an initiative during the 1960’s and 1970’s to present the collieries in a more favourable light to the local community and still retain many of the original features of that era.

The mine is significant for its long association with the residents (and former residents) of the township of Bulli and for its meaning with those people. For its association with Miner’s Federation membership as unionism and activism was an important aspect of working life for the workers at Bulli across the state. AIS operated this modernised mine with state of the art equipment. They also experimented with longwall mining on this site but this was soon abandoned due to unfavourable geological conditions. During WW11 they mechanised their own mines and began to manufacture coal loaders, cutters and locos under licence.

• Technical/Res earch significance SHR criteria (e)

Rarity SHR criteria (f) Representativ eness SHR criteria (g) Integrity

The remaining headframe at No 2 Shaft and fan at No 1 Shaft are rare to the region.

The site makes up an interesting cultural landscape incorporating portals and gardens. The head frame and fan house are located behind the escarpment. 9

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Heritage listing/s

HERITAGE LISTINGS Illawarra REP No.1 1986 Woollongong LEP 1990

INFORMATION SOURCES Include conservation and/or management plans and other heritage studies. Type Author/Client Title Year Repository Don Reynolds, Geoff Bulli Collieries 2005 Authors Written Mould and Ron Cairns, AusIMMHC. Eardley, Gifford. The Bulli Coal Mining 1954 Local Studies Library Written (WCC) Company N.S.W. LR385.36 EAR Australian Railway Historical Society, February RECOMMENDATIONS THE Bulli cluster of mines are a significant site and should be included as cultural landscape on the State heritage Register & Wollongong LEP The site should be protected and any plans to develop the site should avoid the removal of remnant structures. The site makes up an interesting series of walks on the escarpment and should be promoted for its natural and cultural attributes. All gardens and plantings should be preserved. Any new development affecting the area be subject to a CMP and master planning. SOURCE OF THIS INFORMATION Strategic Management Plan for Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra

Recommendatio ns

Name of study or report

Year of study or report

2005

Item number in study or report Author of OHM Consultants study or report Inspected by NSW Heritage Manual guidelines used? This form completed by M Landau, D McBeath

Yes x Date

No 2005

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Image caption Image year

A Pit: No 1 & 2 tunnels Mine Pit Top Area circa 1936 1936 Image by J C Southern Image copyright holder

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Image caption Image year

Mine Bath House

1936

Image by

J C Southern

Image copyright holder

12

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Image caption Image year

Pit A remnant gardens

2005

Image by

D McBeath

Image copyright holder

13

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Image caption Image year

Transport road, probably haulage foundatons

2005

Image by

D McBeath

Image copyright holder

14

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Image caption Image year

Site of office and workshop, bath house and lamp room at 1940’s mine site

2005

Image by

D. McBeath

Image copyright holder

15

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Image caption Image year

Fence of rolled formed steel sections at entrance to old pit near the cul de sac on Sandhurst Street “A’ Pit roadway 2005 Image by D McBeath Image copyright holder

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Image caption Image year

Fish pond at 1940’s mine site

2005

Image by

D. McBeath

Image copyright holder

17

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Image caption Image year

Circular driveway with garden bed and landscaped entrance at 1940’s mine site 2005 Image by D. McBeath Image copyright holder D. McBeath

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Image caption Image year

Railway bridge over Princes Highway at Bulli

2005

Image by

D. McBeath

Image copyright holder

D. McBeath

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ITEM DETAILS Name of Item Other Name/s Coalcliff Colliery

Item type Complex (if known) Item group (if known) Item category Mine Machinery and Relics (if known) Area, Group, Mining and Mineral Processing or Collection Name Street Cliff face to ocean number Street name Street name OR direction from nearest town if non-urban. Suburb/town Coalcliff./Clifton Postcode Local Wollongong City Government Area Property description Location Latitude Elevation: 80m Longitude Lat/long If not at a street address Location Elev 80 Easting 313092 Northing 6208582 m AMG If not at a street address Owner Current use No longer in use Former Use Mining Statement of Coalcliff Colliery is a significant for its long association with coal mining in NSW and the Illawarra as it was in continuous production from 1877 to 1991. significance By 1980 it was the largest underground mine in Australia producing 1.7 million tons of coal annually. The mine is significant for its association with the employment and for providing investment that catalysed population growth and established the pattern of settlement at Clifton and later Coalcliff and the north Wollongong area. It is also significant for its connection with the jetty which was constructed but eventually washed away in storms and the custom built colliers employed in nineteenth century. The Coalcliff Colliery is significant for its connection with the Coalcliff coke ovens as it provided the coal, electric power and fresh water to the coke works, which were built in 1913 and are still operational. It is also significant for its connection with the South Coast Railways which provided transport to Belmore Basin/Wollongong Harbour Level of Significance State x Local 1

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DESCRIPTION Designer Builder/ maker Physical Description There are two mines at Coalcliff being; 1. Jetty mine 2. Shaft Mine Jetty Mine Today only two adit portals remain at sea level together with the remains of the fan and boiler. Shaft mine Powerhouse with some remaining structures at Darkes Forrest All surface structures, except the original brick power house and some conveyors at the mine site adjacent to the South Coast Railway Line have been demolished. The nearby coke works continues to occupy part of the site that verges on the mine. The mine site is being rehabilitated. A residence that once served as the colliery manager’s home is unoccupied and is dilapidated and vandalised. The openings in the outcrop facing the sea at the old Jetty Mine site have been sealed and are currently overshadowed by the construction of the Coalcliff to Clifton Bridge. The Roads and Traffic Authority who are responsible for the construction of the bridge have given due consideration to the placement of pylons in respect to this historic site and have indicated that appropriate plaqueing of the site at the completion of the bridge will be carried out with an historical interpretation of culturally significant values. Start year 1877 Finish year 1991 Circa

Physical condition and/or Archaeologica l potential

Construction years Modifications and dates

In October 1910 the new winding shaft was commissioned and in 1911 a DC power station was built provide surface and underground lighting and to power for electrically driven mining equipment. A very extensive rail siding was established with half of the coal mined going to the NSW Railways. The last shipment of coal from the jetty was made in 1912. The Coal Cliff mine expanded rapidly and by 1919, 337 men were employed underground. In 1920 a cross measure drift driven eastward from the winding shaft was commissioned. During 1926/27 major alterations were made to the mine’s electrical system with the direct current system being changed to a 50 cycle alternating current system. In 1935 and again in 1938 a new plant went into service. In 1971 a new upcast ventilation shaft 1,500 feet deep and a new drift conveyor 10,500 feet long went into service at a new mine at Darke’s Forest. Extensive modifications were made to the underground workings using mechanised mining. In the 1970s three additional ventilation shafts were sunk and fitted with axial flow fans.

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Further comments

This mine was inspected and photographed as part of the study.

Historical notes

HISTORY The Jetty Mine. The land in this area was originally taken up by Lewis Gordon in 1840 had been held by Sir Thomas Mitchell, and later his son, Campbell Mitchell. Campbell Mitchell found coal at a number of locations on his property and in 1872 commenced mining in a small way, however he did not have the capital needed to commence mining on a commercial scale. The main obstacle to setting up a mine was the lack of a road to anywhere near the coal seam. The property eventually passed into the hands of a group led by Alexander Stuart and in 1877 the Coal Cliff Mining Company was formed. They engaged Thomas Hale, the former owner of the Bellambi Colliery to help develop the new colliery. In April 1877 an adit was driven into the coal seam to prove the seam. Hale decided to build a jetty some 500 feet long into the Pacific Ocean. A timber slide was built to lower the wooden piles down to a convenient rock shelf below the adit; this shelf was awash at high tide levels and during heavy seas. A rough pathway was hacked down the cliff face from the southern side of the adit and ladders built to gain access to the adits and the rock shelf. Hale continued to build his jetty and develop his mine. The deck of the jetty up to the face of the cliff to form a large working platform to build a screen and bin, boiler plant, workshop, stores, stables, office, etc. The first shipment of coal left the new jetty in the “Eagle on 11 January 1878. The jetty was virtually unprotected and a very close eye had to be kept on the sky to allow the colliers to get to sea if a storm approached. A second adit was established into the mine for ventilation purposes and a furnace type ventilation shaft was built to the level of the present Lawrence Hargraves Road. In 1899 the shaft collapsed and a steam engine driven ventilation fan was provided. The company had houses built at what is now Clifton to accommodate their staff and employees; they called the location Cliff Town. Alexander Stuart and Company took over the Coal Cliff company in1876. A violent storm in June 1878 washed away a substantial section of the outer part of the jetty; other storms in 1881 and 1904 caused considerable damage. The jetty was not used to ship coal after 1912. The jetty and shipping problems and problems due to geological problems inside the mine proved to be financially disastrous for Alexander Stuart and he died in 1886. His other partners in the venture in 1890 formed the Coal Cliff Coal and Land Company Ltd to take over the colliery. With the opening of the Government’s South Coast Railway between Sydney and Wollongong in June 1887 Alexander Stuart’s Coal Cliff colliery faced strong competition from the other Illawarra collieries that had the option to transport their coal by rail to Wollongong or Sydney. 3

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In 1892 Ebenezer Vickery gained control of the Coal Cliff mine but the demand for coal continued to decline due to the 1895/1896. In 1902 the ownership of the mine was transferred to E. Vickery and Sons Limited and in 1909 it became The Coal Cliff Collieries Limited. These changes were only legal moves with the ventures firmly in the hands of the Vickery family. When Ebenezer Vickery initially took control of the Coal Cliff mine he planned to go ahead with Stuart’s earlier plan to sink a shaft mine adjacent to Stoney Creek on the escarpment and the new South Coast Railway. Coal Cliff Collieries Limited. Shaft mine The Coal Cliff Collieries Limited was formed in 1909 taking over the leases and assets of the original Coal Cliff company. The aim was to develop a mine that was efficient and profitable. While the new mine was being built the Jetty Mine remained in operation and direct interconnection between the two mine’s workings was made. The surface plant for the new mine was very modern and the latest technologies were adopted. In October 1910 the new winding shaft was commissioned and in 1911 a DC power station was built provide surface and underground lighting and to power for electrically driven mining equipment. A very extensive rail siding was established with half of the coal mined going to the NSW Railways. The last shipment of coal from the jetty was made in 1912. In 1913 the Illawarra Coke Company Limited began to build a battery of 50 very modern beehive coke ovens on the western side of the South Coast Railway. Although the Illawarra Coke Company Limited and the Coal Cliff Collieries were two separate companies the Coal Cliff colliery provided the coal, electric power and fresh water to the coke works. The coke works was under the control of H.O. Hyde, the first coke was produced in December 1914. The Coal Cliff mine expanded rapidly and by 1919, 337 men were employed underground. The capacity of the winding shaft to handle the men and material as well as the coal was proving to be a major problem. In 1920 a cross measure drift driven eastward from the winding shaft was commissioned; this allowed access for men and materials as well as acting as an additional downcast airway. During 1926/27 major alterations were made to the mine’s electrical system with the direct current system being changed to a 50 cycle alternating current system. In April 1928 Vickery & Sons called in their old consultant D.A.W. Robertson to carry out an audit of the company’s operations. He recommended that considerable capital expenditure should be made to improve man hour productivity and additional locomotives for the underground workings. Major industrial unrest during the period 1929 to 1931 and the Great Depression delayed the implementation of Robertson’s recommendations, however in 1935 and again in 1938 a new plant went into service. Shortages of materials, shortages of funds and more industrial unrest during World War 11 again held up progress. After the war progress in the upgrading of the mine and introducing mechanisation was slow. In 1954 Kembla Coal & Coke Pty Limited purchased the Coal Cliff mine and planned a major upgrade of the mine. At one stage it was the largest 4

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underground coal mine in Australia employing 988 men for an annual production in excess of 1.7 million tonnes. As the workings developed further westward the Coal Cliff mine began to lose its economic viability. In 1971 a new upcast ventilation shaft 1,500 feet deep and a new drift conveyor 10,500 feet long went into service at a new mine at Darkes Forest. The mine had its own washery, workshops, offices and change house. Extensive modifications were made underground workings using mechanised mining. In the 1970s three additional ventilation shafts were sunk and fitted with axial flow fans. In 1991 the Darkes Forest mine was closed. It had reached the western limits of Coal Cliff’s reserves. Thus after 114 years of operation the Coal Cliff mines were finally laid to rest. 1911 foundation stone for School of Arts laid – miners worked on this project THEMES National historical theme (if known) State historical theme (if known) Mining

Mining

Historical significance SHR criteria (a)

Historical association significance SHR Criteria (b)

APPLICATION OF CRITERIA This site is important in the course of the Illawarra’s and the state’s history because; • It was in continuous production from 1877 to 1991. By 1989 it was the largest underground mine in Australia producing 1.7 million tonnes of coal annually and employing 980 men. • Important in course of Illawarra and NSW’s history because of its connection with the South Coast Railways which provided transport to Belmore Basin/Wollongong Harbour. • Important for providing employment and investment that catalysed population growth and established the pattern of settlement at Clifton and later Coalcliff townships and the north Wollongong area. • Both the mine and associated coke ovens played a key part in the economic health of the locality and many families were (for many generations) dependent on the work provided by both. Coalcliff Colliery had a peripheral association with a number of notable identities on the New South Wales coast, such as Alexander Stuart who later became premier of New South Wales (1883-1885) and Ebenezer Vickery, a prominent NSW merchant and capitalist, who acquired an interest in seven coal mines. He was the chairman of the Mount Kembla Coal and Oil Company and was appointed to the Legislative Assembly of NSW in 1887. He was also very active in the Methodist Church in NSW. The mine portal – The coke ovens – form a striking and unusual industrial landscape which has been designed to fit in with the site’s location and landform. They continue to be defined and dominated by their unique escarpment location and the site 5

Aesthetic significance SHR criteria (c)

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has become a characteristic identifying feature of the area. This is best appreciated in relation to its close proximity to the railway. The mine is significant for its long association with the residents and former residents and for providing employment to generations of people now living in the local and wider Wollongong area. The mine experienced varying degrees of union activity – 6 month strike 1910 and later in 1929/30. The mine workers were supported by their families and the local community such as the Women’s Auxiliary and this demonstrates their close ties with the community together with their involvement in the construction of the School of Arts with the foundation stone laid in 1911. Remnants of welsh board mining together with Schiele mine vent fan provide research potential into historical methods of mining in the Illawarra – local significance

Social significance SHR criteria (d)

Technical/Res earch significance SHR criteria (e)

Rarity SHR criteria (f)

This jetty mine is rare in that it was the only example of a mine in Australia opening directly onto the ocean from a cliff.

Representativ eness SHR criteria (g)

Integrity

Heritage listing/s

HERITAGE LISTINGS Illawarra REP No. 1 1986 Local Environment Plan 1990 SHI Listing number 2700066

INFORMATION SOURCES Include conservation and/or management plans and other heritage studies. Type Author/Client Title Year Repository History McDonald, McPhee, City of Wollongong 1991 SHI Rodgers, Conarcher, Heritage Study Fullarton 6

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Written

Don Reynolds, Geoff Mould and Ron Cairns, AusIMMHC.

Coalcliff Colliery

2005

The authors

RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendat Include in plaque program Protect remnant structures ions Archaeological potential should be investigated. Include on SHR

SOURCE OF THIS INFORMATION To be completed if this form is part of a heritage study or report Name of Study Strategic Management Plan for Historic Coal Mining Sites Year of of the Illawarra or report study or report Item number in study or report Author of O.H.M. Consultants Study or report Inspected by NSW Heritage Manual guidelines used? This form completed by M Landau, D McBeath Yes x Date 2005

2005

No

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Image caption Image year

Coaldliff Colliery and Jetty

c. 1910

Image by

Image copyright holder

Wollongong City Library

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Image caption Image year

Coalcliff Shaft Mine

1910

Image by

Image copyright holder

WCC

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Image caption Image year

Coalcliff Coke Ovens & Shaft Mine

1960

Image by

Image copyright holder

Wollongong City Library

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Image caption Image year

Coalcliff Jetty Mine portal

2005

Image by

Geoff Mould

Image copyright holder

11

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Image caption Image year

Jetty Mine portal

2005

Image by

Geoff Mould

Image copyright holder

12

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Image caption Image year

Jetty Mine Portal

2005

Image by

Geoff Mould

Image copyright holder

13

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Image caption Image year

Coalcliff Jetty Mine portal

Image by

Geoff Mould

Image copyright holder

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Image caption Image year

Welsh board

Image by

G Mould

Image copyright holder

15

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Image caption Image year

Schiele mine vent fan

Image by

G Mould

Image copyright holder

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ITEM DETAILS Name of Item Other Name/s Former Name/s Item type (if known) Item group (if known) Item category (if known) Area, Group, or Collection Name Street number Street name Suburb/town Local Government Area/s Property description
Location - Lat/long Location - AMG (if no street address) Owner Current use Former Use Statement of significance

Corrimal Colliery Corrimal Balgownie Colliery Complex

Mine Machinery and Relics Mining and Mineral Processing

Postcode Wollongong City Council

Latitude Zone Easting

Longitude

E 0298856

Northing

6185997

No longer in use Colliery

This is site is significant to the development of coal mining in the Illawarra for its association with the Southern Coal Company, who owned the mine between 1888 and 1902. (note here that SCC was reconstituted in 1902 to become known as the Corrimal Balgownie Collieries The SCC built the first commercial battery of beehive coke ovens in Illawarra; the coke works was known as the Australian Coke Making Company (ACMC) which was located adjacent to the SCC railway and Government railway at Five Islands Road Unanderra. The No1 Shaft sunk in 1908 (and last used in 1962) was restored at great expense by BHP Collieries in the 1990’s and stands in isolation and inaccessible to the public on property under the control of Sydney Water to the west of the Mt Keira to Wilton Road. This shaft was used primarily as an air intake shaft and access point for the mine.
State x Local

Level of Significance

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DESCRIPTION
Designer Builder/ maker Physical Description

GPS Coordinates. The portals in the Bulli No 1 seam: E 298856, N 6185997. Elevation 290 metres above seal level. The screens and loco shed: E 300594, N6185997. Elevation 82 metres above sea level.

Physical condition and Archaeological potential Construction years Modifications and dates Start year 1870 Finish year 1986 – colliery Coke ovens still operating Circa

On 7 November 1888 the Southern Coal Company (SCC) took over the leases and plant of the Corrimal Coal Company. The SCC quickly upgraded their new Corrimal mine to meet needs for coal. A major upthrow fault was intersected as the workings extended to the southwest and required to opening of a second entry to seam about 1 mile to the south to continue the working of that area. A new adit was made into the seam further to the south and a new incline was built from that mine to a new screening plant at the bottom of the incline. A two-foot gauge tramway was built between the two mines. Both the Bulli and Balgownie seams were worked. A new standard gauge railway was built from the new screening plant to join the Government lines at Corrimal. The SCC was reconstituted into the Corrimal Balgownie Collieries (CBC) in 1902 and they began building a battery of 40 very modern beehive coke ovens adjacent to Corrimal railway station. Corrimal Colliery mine began to purchase their power requirements from the PWD in 1945 instead of taking their supply from the coke ovens’ powerhouse. In March 1964 Australian Iron & Steel (AIS) purchased the Corrimal Colliery and by 1965 all coal mined was transferred through an underground storeage bin excavated on the boundary of Corrimal and Kemira mine leases on to the Kemira trunk belt conveyor system and on to the Kemira Coal Handling Plant via the Kemira Tunnel.

Further comments

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Historical notes

HISTORY In 1884 Thomas Bertram opened an adit into the escarpment, on behalf of the Broker’s Nose Coal Company behind what is now known as Corrimal. Initially bullock teams hauled the coal from the mine to siding at the newly opened Clifton to Wollongong railway line but they experienced trouble in having their coal handled at Belmore Basin which was controlled by two competitive coal miners. At this stage the rail line had not been opened through to Sydney, where markets existed. The mine was temporarily closed down. In November 1885 Bertram began erecting a battery of 7 beehive coke ovens and an incline was built from the mine to the coke ovens. In June 1887 the Government line was opened from Clifton through to Sydney. The Brokers Nose Colliery resumed operations in September 1888 and built a rail connection from their coke ovens to the South Coast Railway at Corrimal. This would allow them to rail coal or coke over the Government lines. In January 1889 the Corrimal Coal Company took over the Brokers Nose Coal Company. On 7 November 1888 the Southern Coal Company (SCC) took over the leases and plant of the Corrimal Coal Company because their newly built coal mine on the slopes of Mount Kembla had struck a major fault and was unworkable. The SCC urgently needed coal to meet their forward shipping orders through their jetty at Red Point (Port Kembla), they also needed duff coal for their new coke ovens, known as the Australian Coke Making Company (ACMC) adjacent to the SCC railway and Government railway near Five Islands Road Unanderra. The SCC quickly upgraded the Corrimal mine to meet needs for coal. They improved the incline from that mine to a new screening plant at the bottom of the incline. A two-foot gauge tramway was built along the mountainside between two mine entries to the mine created as a result of a major geological disturbance in the Bulli seam. Both the No 1 seam and the lower, four foot, seams were worked. A new standard gauge railway was built from the new screening plant to join the Government lines at Corrimal. In about 1890 Bertram’s 7 coke ovens at Corrimal were closed down. The SCC was reconstituted into the Corrimal Balgownie Collieries (CBC) in 1902. The CBC began building a battery of 40 very modern beehive coke ovens adjacent to Corrimal railway station. Waste heat was recovered from the ovens to generate the electric power needs of the coke ovens and the mine. They later supplied power to the local municipal council for distribution within the council area. The new coke ovens were opened in September 1912. The coke ovens of the Australian Coke Making Company at Unanderra were closed down in 1912 once the new Corrimal Balgownie Collieries’ ovens were opened. The existing Southern Coal Company’s Mount Kembla facilities, including railway line as far as the coke ovens fell into disuse when efforts to develop that new mine were abandoned.

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With the increased use of mechanised mining, the Corrimal Colliery began to purchase their power requirements from the PWD in 1945 instead of taking their supply from the coke ovens’ powerhouse. In 1954? the endless rope incline haulage was replaced by a friction hoist with 2x15 ton rail waggons delivering coal to a modern Coal Preparation Plant at the bottom of the incline. In March 1964 Australian Iron & Steel (AIS) purchased the Corrimal Colliery and by 1965 the incline haulage and Coal Preparation Plant had been abandoned and demolished. All coal mined was despatched to the Kemira Coal Handling Plant via the Kemira drift. Man access to the mine continued from the old Corrimal portal. The supply of power to the mine was provided from the Collieries 33Kv network. In 197 a Bulk Hoist Shaft Winder was commissioned following the sinking of the No3 shaft. This winder enabled the Corrimal /Kemira coal handling system to be abandoned with all coal produced at Corrimal wound to the surface at No3 Shaft for discharge into bins and transport by road truck to O’Brien’s Drift. AIS sold the Corrimal coke ovens to the Bellambi Coal Company in 1969 who in turn sold them to Kembla Coal & Coke (KCC) in March 1983. KCC owned the Coalcliff coke ovens. In April 1996 KCC sold both the Corrimal and Coalcliff coke ovens to the Illawarra Coke Company Pty Ltd who is still operating them today.

THEMES National historical theme State historical theme 3.4.3 Mining

Mining

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Historical significance SHR criteria (a)

APPLICATION OF CRITERIA Important in the course of NSW state and Illawarra history because: • Evidence of key historical theme of mining from 1890s to 1950s in the evolution of landuse and character in the Illawarra region – local significance • Long association with the iron and steel industry in NSW through ownership and as a major supplier of coke to the Corrimal Coke Ovens and the Port Kembla steelworks (onwards – a major employer and dominant industry in the Illawarra. – state significance • As a supplier of power to the local municipal council as waste heat was recovered from the ovens to generate the electric power needs of the coke ovens and the mine. They later supplied power to the local municipal council for distribution within the council area. • Evidence of relationship with the development of the village ..............and as one of the last mining villages to be established in the Illawarra. – local significance • For association with the Southern Coal Co and with the coke works – local significance. • See earlier notes on No1 Shaft

Historical association significance SHR criteria (b) Aesthetic significance SHR criteria (c) Social significance SHR criteria (d)

The mine is significant for its long association with the residents (and former residents) of the village and for its meaning with those people. – local significance. Significant to Wollongong and general Illawarra area for length of association through family and community and for the strong community spirit and attachment to the area. The associations relate predominately to the site’s long history as one of the primary employers and investment generators in the area. Coal mining is an industry which is traditionally associated with the labour movement and workplace safety issues and initiatives

The No3 Shaft Winder installation was the first application ever in the Illawarra area of a fully Technical/Research automatic Bulk Hoist Coal Winder significance SHR criteria (e) Rarity SHR criteria (f) Representativenes s SHR criteria (g)

Integrity

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HERITAGE LISTINGS
Heritage listing/s Illawarra REP No. 1 1986 Wollongong LEP 1990

INFORMATION SOURCES Include conservation and/or management plans and other heritage studies.
Type Written Author/Client Aus IIMMHC – Don Reynolds, Ron Cairns, Geoff Mould Title Corrimal Balgownie Colliery Year 2005 Repository The authors

RECOMMENDATIONS
Recommendations Include on the SHR Plaque Program Be part of Oral history program

SOURCE OF THIS INFORMATION
Name of study or report Item number in study or report Author of study or report Inspected by

Strategic Management Plan for Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra
O.H.M.. Consultants

Year of study or report

2005

M Landau
Yes x Date

NSW Heritage Manual guidelines used? This form completed by

M Landau, D McBeath

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Image caption Image year

Line of Incline Tramline to Corrimal Balgownie Colliery Image by Image copyright holder

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Image caption Image year

Corrimal Portal Image by Image copyright holder

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ITEM DETAILS Name of Item Other Name/s Former Name/s Item type (if known) Item group (if known) Item category (if known) Area, Group, or Collection Name Street number Street name Suburb/town Local Government Area Property description Location Lat/long If not at a street address Location - AMG If not at a street address Owner Current use Former Use Statement of significance Mining The site is significant in the course of NSW and Illawarra’s history because it shows evidence of the key historical theme of mining from 1946 to 1989 in the evolution of land use and character in the Illawarra region. The Huntley Colliery is also significant for its association with the supply of coal to the local domestic market in early days and later to the Tallawarra Power Station for the supply of power to NSW from 1955 - 1989 and the Electricity Commission of NSW. A major investigation into the high incidence of lymphoma cancer at this site led to a major investigation and the establishment of a register to assist in tracking the incidence of all cancers among Southern District coal miners. Level of Significance State Local x Avondale. Wollongong City Lots 26 and 27 of Portions 57 and 273 Parishes of Calderwood and Kembla. Latitud e Zone Easting Longitude Postco de Huntley Colliery

Built

Mine machinery and relics Mining and Mineral Processing

Northing

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DESCRIPTION Designer Builder/ maker Physical Description There is no information available on the current state of the site

Physical condition and/or Archaeological potential Construction years Modifications and dates

No information is available on the current state of the site

Start year

1946

Finish year

1989

Circa

Mine opened July 1946. On 27 July 1951 the shares in the Huntley Colliery were purchased by the JCB for 10,5000 pounds and Huntley Colliery Pty Ltd was established. The development of a fully mechanised mine commenced and the date set by the ECNSW for the supply of coal to the station was September/October and later amended to June 1952. In 1953 – 1954 the pit top was developed and construction commenced on an outdoor storage area, temporary and permanent buildings and other concrete foundations. The coal from the mine was delivered by road to the power station and other customers. In 1967 a Coal Preparation Plant was installed on the plain below the mine site to produce a coking coal for domestic and export markets. In 1989 the power station and Huntley Colliery closed and an auction of all the colliery’s remaining equipment was held

Further comments

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Historical notes

HISTORY The Waugh Brothers William, Philip and Frank of Mt Kembla commenced the mining of the Tongarra seam at Avondale on 17 July 1946 and named the mine Huntley after the Waugh family’s connection with town of Huntley on the north island of New Zealand. The colliery holding plan was lodged with the Mines Department on 15 August 1946 and embraced Lots 26 and 27 of Portions 57 and 273 Parishes of Calderwood and Kembla. The Waugh Brothers were the proprietors of a trucking business based in Mt Kembla and the coal purchased from the Huntley mine was sold and delivered to domestic and light industry customers in the Illawarra. The output of the mine was approximately 100 tons per day. In October 1947 the NSW Department of Public Works sought the advice of the Joint Coal Board (JCB) as to the availability of coal for a new power station the state government planned to establish on the western foreshore of Lake Illawarra. The coal requirements for the Tallawarra station were estimated to increase form 65,000 tons in 1952 to 525,000 in 1959. The JCB advised that the coal from the Tongarra seam should be used to avoid using coking coal urgently required by the steel industry and the estimated coal requirements for the power station were beyond the capacity of any existing collieries in the immediate area. They also advised that there were suitable areas west of the power station site that had been prospected and drilled by the JCB and contained reserves that would meet the planned needs of the station for fifty years. The most convenient place of entry to these reserves was at Huntley Colliery. In anticipation of the construction of the power station, the JCB conducted some purchase negotiations with the Waugh brothers and expected these to be completed at an early date. The JCB was at the same time securing leases west of the Huntley mine and development plans were proceeding on the basis of an expected production from the mine of 400 tons per day in 1951 rising to 2,600 tons per day by 1959. The funds required from the Commonwealth government to develop the new mine project had not been granted as they were of the opinion that it was not their concern to fund a State owned operation which would serve only the people of NSW. Further discussions led to an agreement on the recommendations of the JCB between the Prime Minister and the Premier of NSW. The Commonwealth government would provide the funds with the proviso that both governments should discuss the future ownership of the mine at a later date. On 27 July 1951 the shares in the Huntley Colliery were purchased by the JCB for 10,5000 pounds and Huntley Colliery Pty Ltd was established. A company directorate was established which included a representative of the Electricity Commission of New South Wales (ECNSW). The development of a fully mechanised mine commenced and the date set by the ECNSW for the supply of coal to the station was September/October and later amended to June 1952. Messrs G.M. Hindmarsh, Superintendent of Australian Iron and Steel and S. Mc Kensey, Superintendent of Hebburn Ltd were engaged as consultants and rendered their services on a voluntary basis to complete the preliminary planning of the project. The mine continued to operate as a small mine while the major aspects of transforming the 3

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mine to a fully mechanised operation were being developed. The arrangements between the Company and ECNSW at that time provided that the latter would, within 2 years, take delivery of the coal by road from the mine. Alternate proposals for an aerial ropeway or belt conveyor form the mine to the power station were being developed. The 1952-53 Annual Report includes details of the continued development of the mine with the average daily production being 890 tons per day over a specified period and the planned future development of the mine in keeping with the coal requirements of the power station. The 1953-54 Annual Report noted that the mine was supplying coal for the *first generating unit that was now operating at the power station and the surplus coal produced was sold to private consumers. The mine was completely mechanised with conveyor belt haulage and produced coal from both the Tongarra and Wongawilli seams using two cutter loader units in the former and two continuous miners in the latter. *Note: Additional generating units were progressively added with the No6 unit commissioned in 1961 giving the station a total generating capacity of 320 Megawatts. During the life of the mine both the Tongarra and Wongawilli seams were worked at the one time. Access to the mine was through the Tongarra seam with an inclined drift linking up the two seams. In 1963 the Central Conveyor Haulage System was commissioned with coal produced in the Wongawilli seam being discharged into an inter-seam storage bin with the coal produced in both the Tongarra and Wongawilli seams leaving the mine by conveyor through a portal in the Tongarra seam to enter a Bradford Breaker , where the coal was sized and the included stone and tramp material removed prior the coal being crushed and loaded onto a decline conveyor for delivery to the Coal Preparation Plant located on the plain below. The Wongawilli seam workings were ventilated by a fan located behind the escarpment on top of a vertical shaft whilst the Tongarra seam workings were ventilated independently by a fan installed at the outcrop of the seam adjacent to the pit top. In 1953-54 the pit top area was being developed and construction had commenced on an outdoor storage area, temporary and permanent buildings and concrete foundations for the workshop and Administration Building. The coal from the mine was delivered by road to the power station and other customers with some improvements to the road up to the mine being planned in cooperation with the Wollongong City Council. The 1954 – 55 JCB Annual Report contained a review on the history of the mine and the Tallawarra Power Station and notes that on the 15th June 1955 Huntley Colliery was sold to the ECNSW. The development of the mine continued with the annual production reaching 1.038 million tons in 1966 (the first mine claimed to have achieved that level of production in Australia). Plans were in hand to introduce longwall mining but these plans never eventuated when the decision was made by the NSW Government to close the mine In 1967 a Coal Preparation Plant was installed on the plain below the mine site to produce a coking coal for domestic and export markets. In 1983 the demand for coal at Tallawarra Power Station was reduced as the result of a downturn in the demand for electric power and in 1989 both the Tallawarra Power station and Huntley Colliery were closed. 4

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THEMES National historical theme (if known) State historical theme (if known) Mining Mining

Historical significance SHR criteria (a)

APPLICATION OF CRITERIA Important in the course of NSW and Illawarra’s history because: • Evidence of key historical theme of mining from 1946 to 1989 in the evolution of land use and character in the Illawarra region- local significance • Association with high incidence of lymphoma cancer which led to a major investigation and the establishment of a register to assist in tracking the incidence of all cancers among Southern District coal miners. • Association with the supply of coal to the local domestic market in early days and later to the Tallawarra Power Station for the supply of power to NSW from 1955 - 1989, to the Joint Coal Board and the Electricity Commission of NSW. –

Historical association significance SHR Criteria (b)

Aesthetic significance
SHR criteria (c)

Social significance SHR criteria (d)

The mine is significant for its long association with the residents (and former residents) of the village for its meaning with those people – local significance

Technical/Resear ch significance SHR criteria (e)

The first mine to achieve a level of production of over a million tons of coal annually in 1966.

Rare Representativene ss SHR criteria (g) Integrity Low

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HERITAGE LISTINGS Heritage listing/s

Type Written

INFORMATION SOURCES Include conservation and/or management plans and other heritage studies. Author/Client Title Year Repository Aus IIMHC – Don Huntley Colliery 2005 Authors Reynolds, Ron Cairns and Geoff Mould

Recommendations

RECOMMENDATIONS Include as part of a plaque program Include in Oral history Program

SOURCE OF THIS INFORMATION To be completed if this form is part of a heritage study or report Name of Study or Strategic Management Plan for Historic Coal Mining Sites Year of of the Illawarra report study or report Item number in study or report Author of Study OHM Consultants or report Inspected by NSW Heritage Manual guidelines used? This form completed by M Landau, D McBeath Yes x Date 2005

2005

No

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Image caption Image year

Central Haulage System, Huntley Brochure Image by Image copyright holder

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Image caption Image year

Coal Crushing Plant, Huntley Brochure Image by Image copyright holder

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Name of Item Other Name/s Former Name/s Item type (if known) Item group (if known) Item category (if known) Area, Group, or Collection Name Street number Street name Suburb/town Local Government Area/s Property description Location Lat/long Location AMG (if no street address) Owner Current use Former Use Statement of significance

ITEM DETAILS Kemira Colliery Osborne-Wallsend (Mt Keira) Mine from 1857-1948

Complex

Mine Machinery and Relics Mining and Mineral Processing

Mt Keira Wollongong City

Postcode

222 m Latitude Zone Easting Longitude 0303415 Northing 6190737

BHP/AIS Company No longer in use Mining The Kemira Colliery is significant as the site of the first coal mine in the Southern Coalfields and it was the oldest operating coal mine in Australia when it closed in 1991. It retains evidence of the early historical phases of coal mining in the area. The site represents the evolution of the Illawarra coal industry which was quickly established once the Australian Agricultural Company’s monopoly on coal mining ceased. The colliery is significant as evidence of the evolving relationships between mines, mining companies and their workers and for the dramatic impact it had on the settlement pattern of the Illawarra. A distinctive pattern developed with the mines located on the escarpment serviced by a town with private and company housing. The mid 19th century occupation is represented by the sandstone portal and retaining walls, flue and chimney, the exposed building footprint of the end room of the boiler house as well as the archaeological potential of the pit top building sites and the mine incline. All of the 20th century buildings have

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been removed, although footprints of the buildings still exist. Level of Significance State x Local

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DESCRIPTION Designer Builder/ maker Physical Description Located to the south of the mine portal and nestled in a valley between Mt Keira and Mt Kembla is the Kemira Valley. This valley originally contained two major installations associated with operation of the mine when it became known as Kemira in 1954. BHP has carried out extensive rehabilitation work on the site with the construction of a stream cascade, a revegetation program and restoration of the 1857 tunnel entrance and stone retaining wall. The removal of the slack dump at Mt Keira and the maturation of the trees planted to beautify the site have partly obscured the visibility of the site All pit top structures have been removed. A Sandstone portal, workshop foundations and sandstone/masonry retaining walls are all that remain on site, together with the brick boiler house, chimney, flue and steel water tank. A brick retaining wall with sandstone capping survives along the slope to the west of the work shop area and this wall relates to the earlier boiler house. A brick flue extends up the slope at ground level from the site of the shed that housed the boilers to a square chimney stack. Powder and detonator magazines have been retained on site. The Kemira Tunnel and the Coal Handling facilities that supported the operations of the mine processed the coal delivered from the mine through the Kemira Tunnel and conveyed the product into a storage bin with wagon loading facilities. With the exception of the storage bin the Coal Handling plant has been removed and the Kemira Tunnel sealed to make way for the new Dendrobium Colliery Stockpile and rail loading system. The O’Brien’s Drift rail storage and loading bin and “through mountain” conveyor installed to handle coal produced at the AIS mines west of the escarpment has been mothballed and may find a possible use in the future. The mine portal site on Mt Keira has been rehabilitated and the powder and detonator magazines both in a stable condition remain along with the other items previously noted in above. Very little evidence of the old incline and the railway to Belmore Basin remains with the exception of the rail bridge over Smith’s Creek on the edge of Osborne Park on Cliff Road. Part of the eastern side timber abutment is still standing and is well identified in the recently refurbished heritage park Entrance gardens, embankment walls and avenues of trees are still evident. Start year 1855 Finish year 1991 Circa

Physical condition and Archaeological potential

Construction years Modifications and dates

No 1 seam higher up the escarpment was opened in 1857 and became known as the Osborne Wallsend (Mt Keira) Colliery. This mine adit was the site of the present tunnel. In 1859 a self acting incline was constructed from

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Further comments

the mine to a new depot. Ventilation of the mine was improved when a furnace shaft located on Geordie Flat was placed in service. Under ownership by AIS electric power was introduced in 1938 to the Mount Keira mine and the No1 Shaft ventilation fan located on Goondarin Creek, to enable coal cutters to be introduced to increase production and speed up the mechanisation of the Mount Keira mine. Pit top facilities at the mine were progressively upgraded and in 1948 included a start on the construction of the Kemira Tunnel, which came into service in 1955. The No1 shaft fan previously powered by a steam engine remained in service with the steam engine drive being replaced in 1938 with an electric motor drive. In the mid 1950s the No 2 Shaft was sunk approximately 4 kms west of No 1 shaft and the No1 shaft fan was transferred to this new site. At about the same time 2 shafts were sunk to the south west of the No 1 shaft on the banks of Goondarin Creek using the Calyx Drill. Two axial flow fans were installed on these shafts to improve the mine ventilation system. At the same time more advanced coal mining and handling equipment was installed and included coal cutters and loaders followed by continuous miners and shuttle cars, with the coal hauled in mine cars in one area of the mine to marshalling yards and in another to be rotary dumped into a shaft for reloading into mine cars. In both cases the mine cars were then hauled by diesel locomotive through Kemira Tunnel to the surface Coal Handling Plant. From 1955 no coal was brought to surface on Mt Keira but that mine entry was maintained to provide access for men and materials, bathhouse, workshop and administration facilities. In 1961 a conveyor belts were installed in the mine to increase efficiency and in 1965 a retreating longwall of British manufacture was installed to improve the economic viability of the mine. In 1991 with all the economically viable reserves of coal removed from the Colliery leases, the mine finally closed down in 1991. With the Cordeaux and Tower Collieries on the escarpment closed down, the Appin coal being diverted through the Westcliff system, the O’Brien’s Drift system has been closed down and placed in care and maintenance mode. Coal from the new Dendrobium Colliery is taken from the mine by conveyor belt and fed to a large stockpile in the Kemira Valley. A tunnel is formed through the bottom of the stockpile to accommodate a railway line

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HISTORY Historical notes Mount Keira This was the first successful mining venture on the southern coalfields and at the time of its closure it was the oldest operating coal mine in Australia. Mining began on Mt Keira in April 1849 when James Shoobert, a retired sea captain, received a grant of Crown land on Mount Keira and drove a tunnel into the No 3 seam in 1848. A rough track was driven through the bush to a point about 200 metres northeast of the bottom end of Mount Keira Road, where a depot was established. Ox carts were used to transport the coal from the mine to the depot. In 1849 he opened up the No 2 seam, higher up the slope; this was called the Albert Mine. The first load of coal was taken from Albert Mine by ox cart to Wollongong harbour, where it was loaded into the steamship William the Fourth in 1849. The horse drawn carts were led by a band, the mine owner James Shoobert and a procession of miners and townspeople followed. James Shoobert lacked the finances to develop the mine and in August 1856 it was auctioned and purchased by William Osborne. Henry Osborne was a major landowner in Illawarra and by the time Marshall Mount House was built, the Osborne’s land ownership exceeded 5000 acres. (The Osborne Wallsend Coal Mine, Bellambi and South Bulli mines were all located on land owned by Henry Osborne). Henry Osborne and William Robson opened up the No 1 seam higher up the escarpment in 1857 and it became known as the Osborne Wallsend (Mt Keira) Colliery. This mine adit was the site of the present tunnel, working the Bulli seam for the first time on record. It appears that the route taken to transport the coal form the new mine was along the track earlier pioneered by Shoobert. A furnace shaft was constructed at Geordie’s Flat, above the mine entrance to help overcome the problem of ventilation. A screen was built at the mine entrance and the large coal was taken down the track to the depot and the fine coal dumped over the bank as there was no market for this at the time. In 1859 an incline was constructed from the mine to a new depot near the present Gooyong Street. This incline was built in two parts. One part was 342 metres in length, while the other was 482 metres. Each part was of the three- rail type with four- rail passing section in the middle. The incline was self-acting with the full wagons going down hauling empty wagons going up the incline. A brake was used to regulate the speed of travel and to stop the incline if necessary. A rudimentary narrow gauge horse drawn gauge was built in 1859 from the bottom of the incline to a depot near the present day Beaton Park. The gauge of the incline was 3’-8 “ The tramway went from

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the mine portal to the base of the slope and then it continued across the coastal plain, through land owned by Osborne and the neighbouring Andrew Thompson. However C.T Smith did not permit access to Bustle Farm until the ‘Tramway Act of 1860’ forced him to allow the line to cross his land. The mining methods were very primitive with hand boring of the shot holes and the use of black powder for blasting. Henry Robson died in 1859 and the mine was leased to Robson and Company and in 1871 Frank Osborne, Henry’s son became manager, followed by Major Henry Osborne MacCabe. Frank Osborne was a surveyor and mining engineer and a highly respected citizen of Wollongong . Henry MacCabe was to play a prominent role in the rescue of miners in the 1902 Mount Kembla mine disaster and lost his life during the rescue.) In 1876 James Osborne and William Ahern began operating a small battery of four beehive coke ovens adjacent to the Belmore Basin using the waste fine coal from the Mount Keira Mine. Coke from these ovens was shipped to Tasmania in 1876, but due to difficulties with local iron ore they were closed down in 1891. Belmore Basin was not an ideal location for operating coke ovens due to the lack of space to expand and the problems created during heavy seas. In 1880 the Mount Keira tramway was converted to standard gauge and steel rails substituted for the steel capped wooden rails to allow steam locomotives to be used. A new screening plant, bins, workshops and sidings were built at the same time at the depot at the bottom of the incline to cater for the introduction of steam locomotives and the use of hopper type rail trucks in lieu of skips. By 1868 the government had greatly increased the capacity of Wollongong harbour by building a new well protected basin and modern coal staiths to speed up coal loading and the harbour was renamed the Belmore Basin. With the completion of the South Coast Railway between Sydney and Wollongong in 1888 the government began making connections between the private colliery lines to encourage mine owners to ship out of Wollongong. In 1889 the Mount Keira Acquisition Act was gazetted and the government took over that portion of the Mount Keira railway line between Illawarra Line and Belmore Basin. A triangular connection between the Illawarra Line and Mount Kembla line at Unanderra was also brought into operation. A major depression of the 1890s hit the Mount Keira Mine and in 1899 Ebenezer Vickery and Sons, owners of South Bulli Colliery bought the Osborne Wallsend Mine and soon after bought Coal Cliff Mine and in 1934 Mt Pleasant. Vickery appointed John McGeachie as Manager and in 1901 Jacob Carlos Jones became manager.

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J C Jones was the first manager to live in “The Bryn” a residence built in 1902 and located below the mine site. O J Ryan, a former Mine Superintendent for AIS collieries, currently occupies The Bryn. It was a legal requirement to provide housing for the Mine Manager, Mine Engineer and Colliery Clerk. In addition to the four residences, the company leased 30 cottages for 5 to 8 shillings per week and land was for the purpose of farming and orchards. Many of these company leases were located just above the pit top to the south in an area known as Geordie Flat. Only one of these cottages is known to survive. The area adjacent to the mine incline and tramway became known as Zlotskowski’s Farm during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Miners occupied the farm when there was work to be done. The miners and mine employees in general developed the residences of Mt Keira. One small weatherboard cottage remains and is occupied by a retired miners family, though large scale residential development has encroached during the past few decades. In 1937 Ebenezer Vickery & Sons sold the Mount Keira mine and all its assets to Australian Iron & Steel (AIS) having already sold the Mount Pleasant Colliery to AIS in late 1936. AIS also purchased the Bulli Mine from George Adams in December 1937 and this hurried acquisition of Illawarra coal mines by AIS was to significantly increase the coal company’s capability to meet the coal demands resulting from the increased iron and steel production planned after the BHP takeover and the perceived onset of another war. Prior to this the Wongawilli Colliery and purchases from other local coal mines supplied the total steelworks coal needs. Until this time, mining had been a highly manual job using pick and shovel. However one of the first steps undertaken by BHP was to establish secure company controlled power supplies to all three collieries. The old Mount Pleasant Powerhouse was rehabilitated in 1938 and an overhead line connection made off the Mt Pleasant line erected on the latter’s incline to provide electric power to the Mount Keira mine and the No 1 Shaft mine fan to enable cutters to be introduced to increase production and speed up the integration of the Mount Keira and Mt Pleasant mines. The onset of WW11, shortages of funds and materials and industrial disputations in the coal industry hindered AIS’s planned upgrading and modernisation of its collieries but limited work did progress. The erection of the 33 kV transmission line began in November 1939 and power supply was given to Mount Keira on 3 March 1940. AIS commenced the installation of BHP/AIS manufactured coal loaders and cutters into an area of the mien known as the “Bottom Side”. This area was adjacent to the Mt Pleasant workings and the equipment was brought in from the surface at Mt Pleasant

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in a dismantled condition to be assembled underground in Mt Keira. The equipment included cutters, loaders, battery locomotives and 5 ton drop bottom skips. A storage bin was constructed in the workings to enable the 5 ton skips to unload with the coal being delivered from the bin by a conveyor to 1 ton capacity skips attached to the endless rope haulage system for delivery to the surface. The endless rope haulage system was totally inadequate for a mechanised system of mining which, no doubt led to the decision to drive the Kemira cross measure drift. The orderly ventilation of the mine commenced using a furnace shaft located on what was known as Geordie’s Flat and a shaft was sunk behind the escarpment near the northern reaches of Goodarin Creek, a tributary of Cordeaux Dam. The shaft was furnished with a mechanical fan powered by a steam engine. A steam powered shaft winder was installed to enable coal to be raised to the surface from within the mine to fuel the steam boiler and provide access to the surface for maintenance and statutory inspections. It was normal practice for these remote installations to have the fan attendant and his family reside permanently at the shaft site. The steam engine drive for this fan was replaced with an electric motor drive when power was supplied to the mine in 1938 form the Mt Pleasant Powerhouse. The ventilation of the mine had been provided by a steam driven fan on No1 shaft with the shaft having been sunk probably in the 1920’s and the shaft on Goerdie Flat taken out of service or becoming an intake airway at about that time. The No`1 shaft was furnished with a mechanical fan powered by a steam engine the latter being replaced in 1938, with an electric motor drive. In the mid 1950s the No 2 Shaft was sunk approximately 4 kms west of the No 1 shaft and the No 1 shaft fan transferred to this new site and the No 1 fan converted to intake duties. This modification to the mine ventilation system was primarily designed to adequately ventilate the Bottom Side area of the mine. At about the same time, 2 shafts were sunk to the south west of the No 1 shaft on the banks of Goondarin Creek using the Calyx Drill. This drill was able to drill a 6’ diameter hole in a multiple of passes and then fracture and withdraw the resulting core in one piece. Two axial flow fans were installed on these shafts to improve the mine ventilation system. At the same time more advanced coal mining and handling equipment was installed, continuous miners, shuttle cars, loaders retrieved the coal and hauled it through the mine tunnels. In 1946 a new portal was driven into the Wongawilli coal seam at the pit top and to the south of the mine’s original portal into the Bulli seam. Mining operations proved difficult and the venture closed down. The storage bin and other equipment was removed and transferred to the Mt Keira and Mt Pleasant mines.

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In the period 1952-1954 fine coal from the old small coal or duff coal dump at Mt Keira was removed and taken by lorries to the Steelworks for use in the coke ovens and powerhouse. The colliery changed its name from Mt Keira to Kemira, a contraction of Kembla and Keira on 7 February 1955 on the commencement of the Kemira Tunnel To significantly increase output, the company decided to move away from the endless rope haulage system. Mechanised mining was to be practiced and coal was to be hauled in large wagons at much higher speeds by locomotives. To achieve this aim it was decided to build the Kemira Tunnel from a new portal in the valley of Brandy and Water Creek, later known as the Kemira Valley, into the workings of the Mt Keira mine. The driving of a portal in the Kemira Valley began in 1948. the tunnel was 17 feet wide by 10 feet hishg and rose at a gradient of 1:375 for 15,150 feet through the varying strata formations until it struck the Bulli No 1 seam. The tunnel was completed in 1955 and was to become the outlet for No 1 seam coal mined from the Mt Keira and Corrimal Colliery from 1967 to 1975 when the coal haulage systems of those two mines were linked together In 1961 the conveyor belt system was installed in the mine to increase efficiency. The conveyor carried the coal to a central collection bin where it was transferred to 10 tonne mine cars and hauled to the surface by 25 tonne diesel locomotives. The production bonus system was introduced at this time. British long wall equipment was installed in 1965 in response to an adverse change in the roof condition and it was the first successful application of mechanical retreat long wall mining in Australia. The diesel locomotive mine car system of haulage was replaced in the 1980’s with a belt conveyor system that delivered the coal directly to the Bradford or Coal in 1990 Handling Plant. A mining operation was established in the Wongawilli seam in 1990 and a 1:15 inclined drift from the 7 Right area of the mine . This provided access for men and materials and was designed to cross over the Kemira Tunnel and enter the Wongawilli seam. The mine entry at Mt Keira was retained as the principle means of access for men and materials to and from the workings. With the Kemira Tunnel system in operation, the Mt Keira incline was closed in November 1954. The old endless rope incline haulage bins and screens, subworkshops and the railway to the Illawarra railway were all removed after 95 years of service. In 1968 Tom Thumb Colliery commenced operations in the Bulli seam in

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Portion 113 immediately above the Kemira Tunnel. Coal from this mine was delivered to the Kemira Coal Handling Plant by a decline conveyor from the mine into a storage bin. A conveyor fed this coal to the Bradford Breaker for processing. The Tom Thumb Colliery closed in 1972 having extracted all the coal available in the available lease. The haulage of coal from the Corrimal Colliery which AIS acquired in 1964, through the Kemira Tunnel began in August 1967 and ceased about 1975, when the Corrimal No 3 shaft was equipped with an automatic bulk skip hoist and coal storage bin alongside the Mt Keira Road. The O’Brien’s Drift was built in 1964/65. This consisted of a truck receival building and hardstand area with a storage bin and vibrating belt feeders under the building and designed to load the coal onto a decline conveyor installed in a “through the escarpment” tunnel. The facility is located adjacent to and on the eastern side of Harry Graham Drive on the top of the escarpment. A decline belt conveyor, 5,400 feet in length with a fall of 1:4 runs from a drive house located on the western side of Harry Graham Drive, under that road the receival building, bin and belt feeders to accept and lower the coal down through the escarpment to a rail storage bin built next to the Kemira Colliery rail bin in the Kemira Valley. This coal haulage system was provided to accept the coal delivered road trucks from the Company’s Appin, Cordeaux and Tower Collieries and deliver it by rail to the steelworks. By 1982 with the down turn in the market demand for steel further retrenchments met with a Sit Down, when 13 employees refused to leave the mine for 16 days. A letter from the miners attracted national media attention and 2,000 miners stormed Parliament House in Canberra and an unsuccessful application was made to the Coal Industry Tribunal to have the retrenchments withdrawn. With all economically viable coal removed from the Kemira Colliery leases, the mine finally closed down in 1991.

THEMES National historical theme State historical theme 3.4.3 Mining

Mining

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Historical significance SHR criteria (a)

Historical association significance
Aesthetic significance

Social significance SHR criteria (d)

Technical/Res earch significance Rarity SHR criteria (f) Representative ness SHR criteria (g) Integrity

APPLICATION OF CRITERIA Important in the course of NSW state and Illawarra history because; • Evidence of key historical theme of mining from 1890s to the present day in the evolution of land use and character in the Illawarra region – local significance • Being the site where the first coal was extracted in Illawarra. • For its association with the remnants of the tramway alignment and cottages associated with the mine which demonstrates the distinctive 19th century settlement pattern of the Illawarra that focused on the coal industry. • At the time of closure, the Kemira Colliery was the oldest operating mine in Australia and retains the oldest mine portal in the Illawarra. • The site is associated with the districts first attempt at commercial coke production which was at Osborne/Ahern coke works, Belmore Basin. • The site is associated with landowners and industrialists who played a significant role in the evolution of the district and coal mining – Henry Osborne and James Shoobert. • The original trees (Phoenix canariensis), embankments and entrance gardens are highly significant cultural features remaining on site. • The site was the first to supply coal to Wollongong and this was recognised during the jubilee celebrations –local significance • The site has strong cultural associations with the local community and to a lesser degree to the broad coal mining community of the Illawarra region. The associations relate predominately to long history as a primary employer in the region; and • Significance because coal mining is traditionally associated with the labour movement and workplace safety issues and initiatives. The mine experienced varying degrees of union action throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries. National attention was gained in 1982 with the sit in over retrenchments and the march on Parliament House in Canberra. • The site is associated with technical advances in the coal industry including the first successful application of retreat long wall mining in NSW. • Retains the oldest mine portal in the Illawarra. The brick powder and detonator magazines still remain on site. The site represents the development pattern characteristic of Illawarra mines where pit top structures were built on a narrow terrace on the escarpment and the mine is connected to a port via a tramway The demolition of most of the structures has diminished the significance of this site. The entrance portal and sandstone retaining wall together with the explosive and detonator stores are the only remaining structures.

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HERITAGE LISTINGS Heritage listing/s

INFORMATION SOURCES Include conservation and/or management plans and other heritage studies. Type Author/Client Title Year Repository Meredith Hutton Heritage Assessment 2000 Wollongong Local Written Kemira Colliery Mt History Library Keira NSW for BHP Written AusIMMHC – Don Kemira Colliery 2005 Authors Reynolds, Ron Cairns, Geoff Mould RECOMMENDATIONS This site and the remaining structures should be preserved and interpreted. Re-use of the site should protect the remaining structures and provide an comprehensive interpretation. Include in plaque program Include oral history program Include in LEP Include on SHR SOURCE OF THIS INFORMATION Strategic Management Plan for Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra

Recommendati ons

Name of study or report Item number in study or report Author of study or report Inspected by

Year of study or report

2005

O.H.M. Consultants

NSW Heritage Manual guidelines used? This form completed by M Landau, D McBeath

Yes Date

No 8/25/05

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Image caption

TIMBER YARD

Image year

1957

Image by

R Cairns

Image copyright holder

R Cairns

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Image caption

Portal, Coles Crane and Cable Shop

Image year

1956

Image by

R Cairns

Image copyright holder

R Cairns

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Image caption

Timber Yard with portal in background

Image year

Image by

Image copyright holder

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Image caption

Embankment walls, behind Administration Building

Image year

2005

Image by

D McBeath

Image copyright holder

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Image caption

Horse drawn skip at the entrance to the mine site, near Rural Bush Fire Depot

Image year

2005

Image by

D McBeath

Image copyright holder

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Image caption

Avenue of palm trees at the former mine site

Image year

2005

Image by

D McBeath

Image copyright holder

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Image caption

Administration/Bathouse Slab

Image year

2005

Image by

D McBeath

Image copyright holder

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Image caption

Former reservoir used water storage for Bathouse.

Image year

2005

Image by

D McBeath

Image copyright holder

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Image caption

Rail tracks tin floor slab in workshopo the portal entrance

Image year

2005

Image by

D McBeath

Image copyright holder

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Image caption

Flue and chimney

Image year

2005

Image by

D McBeath

Image copyright holder

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Image caption Image year

Detonator and explosive magazine

2005

Image by

D McBeath

Image copyright holder

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Image caption

Mine portal and support as at 2005

Image year

2005

Image by

D McBeath

Image copyright holder

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Image caption

Portal graffiti

Image year

2005

Image by

D McBeath

Image copyright holder

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ITEM DETAILS Name of Item Other Name/s Former Name/s Item type (if known) Item group Item category Area, Group, or Collection Name Street number Street name Suburb/town Local Government Area Property description Location Lat/long If not at a street address Location AMG Owner Current use Former Use Statement of significance Metropolitan Colliery.

Complex.

Mine Machinery and Relics Mining and Mineral Processing

Parkes Street Helensburg. Wollongong City. Mine Site Elevation AHD: 123 metres Latitude Longitude

Postcode 2508

Zone

Easting 0314966

Northing

6215120

Private Colliery Colliery The Metropolitan Colliery is an important place in the Illawarra’s and the state’s history because it is one of the earliest established and longest running coal mining operations in Australia. This was the site of the first shaft mine in the Illawarra. Whilst still an operating coal mine, it contains a collection of buildings with remnant workings and structures - the pit pony stables underground and the Koepe Winder aboveground, which form part of the present day colliery. Metropolitan colliery is possibly the most intact colliery in the region demonstrating investment in technical innovation and the coal mined is for export to Japan and is of exceptionally good quality, which is the main reason for its continued success. The site as a whole is important in Illawarra’s history because it the colliery provided the employment and investment that influenced population growth and established the pattern of settlement of Helensburgh township. The site has cultural associations with the local community and the broader coal mining industry because of its long history, social and economic role in the area and its association with the labour movement. State x Local

Level of Significance

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DESCRIPTION Designer Builder/ maker Physical Description Powerhouse, No 1 head frame, No 2 shaft, Fan evasse, tunnel opening, portal and winder house, coal storage and washery, office and bath house, are all located in the same area. Pit pony stables are located underground. The No 3 shaft is located west of the F3 Freeway south west of the mine.

Physical condition and/or Archaeologica l potential Construction years Modifications and dates

While Metropolitan is currently operating as a modern longwall mine, there is still historical evidence of old mine workings. A pit pony stable together with timber support beams, old timber trolleys and assorted other items from earlier mining methods remain in situ underground. Therefore this site offers good potential for archaeological remains as these older workings and associated methods have been left in situ. start 1886 Finish year Circa The site has undergone continual modification as part of its mining operations but many of the original structures still remain. In 1890, the mine was connected to the Government Railway from a spur off the main line. Steam power was replaced in 1954 when a 3,600‘ drift replaced the downcast winder to bring the coal to the surface by conveyor belt. The No 3 ventilation shaft was sunk in 1975 and, in 1985, the Koepe winder installed in the No 2 shaft circa 1900 was modernised. Mechanised bord and pillar mining commenced in 1951and continued until 1995, when longwall mining was introduced as the principal method of producing coal.

Further comments

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Historical notes

HISTORY The first coal was extracted from the Metropolitan mine (originally owned by Cumberland Coal and Iron Mining Company) in 1887. At that time, Metropolitan was producing 10 trucks of coal per week with Charles Harper as the first manager In 1889, the Helensburgh railway station was opened and in 1890, the mine was connected to the Government Railway from a spur off the main line. From the start of operations up until 1951, coal was won by hand working with some mechanical loading introduced in 1940. Pit ponies were used with hand mining applied to haul the coal loaded by the miners into 1 ton capacity skips to the bottom of the shaft. Initially, at the face a shaft winder driven by steam power brought the coal skips to the surface in cages. This winder was converted to an electrically powered drive system in the 1950’s. In 1951 mechanised mining commenced utilising cutters, loaders and shuttle cars loading on to belt conveyors and discharging into small skips wound to the surface by the shaft winder. This method was used until 1954 when a 3,600’ inclined drift furnished with a series of conveyors and a direct rope slope haulage replaced the shaft winder and men and valuable access. A Coal Preparation Plant was installed in 1959. The mine was purchased by Australian Iron & Steel in 1965 and major alterations were made on the surface to expand the surface yard working area, increase the capacity of coal storage and rail loading facilities for washed coal and install equipment designed to minimise the impact of run off from the coal refuse emplacement located adjacent to creek systems feeding into the Hacking River system.

The No 3 ventilation shaft was sunk, adjacent to the F6 Freeway in 1975 and in 1985 the mechanical and electrical components of the No 2 shaft Koepe winder were modernised. The Koepe winder continues to be used today to lower and raise the miners to and from the mine workings. Rail mounted diesel powered Man Cars are used to transport the miners to and from the working places to the shaft bottom.
Mechanised bord and pillar mining commenced in 1951 and continued until 1995, when longwall mining was introduced to become the principal method of producing coal. Metropolitan is currently producing around 1.5 million tonnes per annum using the longwall system and two longwall development panels using the bord and pillar system of mining Some key dates in Metropolitan’s history are listed below: • 1886 Shaft sinking commenced • 1888 Mine producing 10 trucks of coal per week • 1889 Helensburgh railway station opened • 1890 Mine connected to government railway by siding • 1886-1951 Coal won by hand working. • 1900 (circa.) Koepe winder installed in No 2 shaft • 1925 Carbon dioxide outburst resulting in death of 7 miners • 1951-1995 Mechanised bord and pillar mining • 1954 3,600’ drift belt conveyor and slope haulage replaced shaft winder • 1959 Coal preparation plant commissioned • 1975 No 3 ventilation shaft sunk • 1995 Longwall mining introduced

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National historical theme (if known) State historical theme (if known)

THEMES Mining Economy – Developing local, regional and national economies Mining – Activities associated with the identification, extraction, processing and distribution of mineral ores, precious stones and other such inorganic substances.

Historical significance SHR criteria (a)

Historical association significance SHR Criteria (b)

Aesthetic significance

Social significance SHR criteria (d)

Technical/Res earch significance SHR criteria (e)

Rarity

APPLICATION OF CRITERIA The site as a whole is important in the course of Illawarra’s and the state’s history because: • Evidence of key historical theme of mining from 1886 to the present day and as one of the earliest established and longest running coal mining operations in Australia. – local significance • Evidence of the impact of coal mining on the pattern of urban development along the Illawarra escarpment and evidence of relationship with the township of Helensburgh. • For its association with the development of mining in the Illawarra and NSW with the introduction of new mining methods overlaying more traditional mining methods which still remain on site, both above and below ground. – state significance Metropolitan Mine had an association with a number of local identities on the Illawarra coast, and to a lesser extent, New South Wales as a whole, including Charles Harper who was one of the area’s leading coal miners and a leading community worker. He was the mines first manager and died tragically in a mine accident. Also important were Thomas Horan, first storekeeper and postmaster and Nurse Chadwick, a highly respected local midwife. Unlike most other mining sites in the Illawarra, Metropolitan is not visible on the escarpment but is situated in a valley on the outskirtsof the mining township of Helensburgh. This site has strong cultural associations with the local community, and to a lesser degree, the broader coal mining community of the Wollongong and general Illawarra area. The associations relate predominately to the site’s long history as an employer in the area and because coal mining is traditionally associated with trade union activism, workplace safety issues and initiatives. Helensburgh is fast becoming a dormitory town for Sydney workers This site has potential to yield information that would contribute to a further understanding of the local area’s coal mining cultural history. The site contains some of the oldest structural remains of coal mining activities in the state – state significance The presence of high levels of carbon dioxide at the Metropolitan Colliery resulting in an outburst on a fault in 1925 led to the death of 7 miners. As a result, the boring of large diameter drainage holes using suction pumps to remove gas was introduced with special boring machines being constructed for the purpose. This method formed the basis of gas drainage method which was introduced into other collieries - state significance While Metropolitan is currently operating as a modern longwall mine, there is still historical evidence of earlier mine workings. A pit pony stable together 4

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SHR criteria (f)

Representativ eness SHR criteria (g)

Integrity

with timber support beams, old timber trolleys and assorted other items from earlier mining methods remain in situ. It is also one of the longest continuously operated coal mines in New South Wales and is one of few operating mines located within an original mining community, apart from the Mt Kembla mine which is now incorporated into the Dendrobium Mine. Includes the only Koepe Winder in Australia – state significance While Metropolitan Colliery possesses some rare individual elements, it is one of many collieries in the region exploiting the coal seam of the Illawarra Shaft. It has a long history of extraction that has utilised various methods and technologies, some of which are still apparent at the site. Consequently, in that respect, it demonstrates change and adaptation over time, which is a characteristic of most colliery sites. The site demonstrates the elements and criterion listed above as it is still working in 2005

HERITAGE LISTINGS Heritage listing/s Local Gazette date: 7 Jan 00 Environmental Gazette no: 1/2000 Gazette Page: 69 Plan Author:

INFORMATION SOURCES Include conservation and/or management plans and other heritage studies. Type Author/Client Title Year Repository Written McDonald McPhee City of Wollongong 1991 SHI Rogers Conacher Heritage Study 1991 Fullarton Don Reynolds, Geoff 2005 The authors Written Mould and Ron Cairns, AusIMMHC RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendat Include on the State Heritage Register as one of the earliest established and longest running coal mining operations in Australia. This was the site of the ions first shaft mine in the Illawarra. Undertake an oral history program and document underground workings. Include on Plaque and oral history program Underground mine workings and associated fabric such as the pit pony stables should be fully documented and relocated if the mine closes

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To be completed if this form is part of a heritage study or report Name of Study Strategic Management Plan for Historic Coal Mining Sites Year of of the Illawarra or report study or report Item number in study or report Author of O.H.M. Consultants Study or report Inspected by M Landau, D McBeath NSW Heritage Manual guidelines used? This form completed by M Landau, D McBeath Yes x Date 2005

2005

No

Image

Pit top buildings including the No 2 Shaft and the original Fan House 6

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caption Image year 2005 Image by M Landau Image copyright holder

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Image caption Image year

Coal Washery

2005

Image by

M Landau

Image copyright holder

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Image caption Image year

Rail Loading Bins

2005

Image by

M Landau

Image copyright holder

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Image caption Image year

Underground Rail Locomotives

2005

Image by

D McBeath

Image copyright holder

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Image caption Image year

Incline Drift Haulage House – Koepe Winder

2005

Image by

M Landau

Image copyright holder

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Image caption Image year

Pit top yard

2005

Image by

M Landau

Image copyright holder

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Image caption Image year

Drift Haulage Portal Haulage and Loft

2005

Image by

D McBeath

Image copyright holder

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Image caption Image year

Metropolitan Colliery Circa 1900

C 1900

Image by

Charles Harper

Image copyright holder

Illawarra Images, Wollongong City Library

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ITEM DETAILS Name of Item Other Name/s Former Name/s Item type (if known) Item group (if known) Item category (if known) Area, Group, or Collection Name Street number Street name Suburb/town Local Government Area/s Property description Location Lat/long Location AMG (if no street address) Owner Current use Former Use Statement of significance Mount Kembla Mt Kembla No 1 Complex

Mine Machinery and Relics Mining and Mineral Processing

Harry Graham Drive Mt Kembla Wollongong City Council Postcode 2526

Latitude Elev 265 m

Longitude Easting 0299205 Northing 6188764

Department of Environment and Conservation Reserve Coal Mining The Mount Kembla Colliery site is significant for its association with the Kembla Heights village, a purpose built company village, as evidence of the evolving relationship between mines, mining companies and their workers and for its association with the Mount Kembla Mine Disaster 1902, the worst mining disaster in Australia. Ninety six men and boys were killed. Many reminders of the disaster are found in the town and surrounding area and the memory of the disaster holds an important place in the memories of the local residents which was demonstrated in the formation of the Mount Kembla Mine Disaster Centenary Commemoration Committee in 2001. The Mount Kembla community is a rare example of a community that is actively involved in coal mining and in the preservation of their mining heritage, with the continued attendance of thousands of people annually to the Mt Kembla Mining Heritage Festival organised by the Mount Kembla Mining Heritage Committee. Their desire to preserve the social heritage alongside the 1

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physical fabric has been clearly demonstrated in the publication of numerous volumes of written material from plays, poetry, prose to historical works. The Mount Kembla Colliery was at one time the largest and most important colliery on the south coast and was one of the first collieries to construct a jetty of any proportion and rail line (still in use today) from Dendrobium. It was also one of the first mines to introduce longwall advancing with early coal cutters and the fist mine in the Illawarra to have its own electric power. Large skip wagons were used on the incline, instead of the standard gauge which was unusual in the area (one had been kept as a monument in Mt Kembla village). A fine example of pit pony stables can still be found in situ. The colliery is significant for its association with the trade union movement in the Illawarra as it was the site of active unionism For its history of shared facilities and use with the Kembla Heights Village which was built to house mining families and the special associations and meanings for residents and people who have worked in the mine. Level of Significance State x Local

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DESCRIPTION Designer Builder/ maker Physical Description William Burrell Mt Kembla Coal and Oil Company The site has been substantially cleared with some incomplete sandstone retaining walls remaining. The stables erected in about 1954 are constructed of a steel frame and are clad in corrugated steel sheeting with an unusual construction using railway tracks. The floor slab of the bath house can be identified nearby, although it is partially obscured by overgrown vegetation. The area originally used as the mines pit timber storage yard and located next to Harry Graham Drive was reworked to create a picnic area by the Rotary Club of Unanderra in the mid 1980s and includes a marker with details of the mine and the 1902 explosion. Approximately 500 metres north of the site and beside the Harry Graham Drive is the site of a brick chimney furnace shaft dating from 1890s. ‘Until recent years the old kerosene track was still used as a shortcut down from Kembla Heights until the bush became impenetrable. The entrance to the mine remained visible for many years as did the remains of the bridge over the creek”. The mine managers cottage (manager of old Pioneer Kerosene works) still stands below the old mine and is situated at Slow’s Corner’ (A Profile History of Mount Kembla, K.C. Stone)The path of the incline can still be seen as part of the landscape from Mt Kembla village. The site of the Pioneer Kerosene works is now buried. The pit pony stables are in a stable condition with some vandalism to the timber flooring. All other pit top buildings have been demolished. However the area has good archaeological potential for investigation of the layout of the whole pit top complex. Start year 1883 Finish year 1970 Circa

Physical condition and Archaeologica l potential Construction years Modifications and dates

The company, under the supervision of the mine’s engineer, William Burrell, began construction on the mine and a railway to Port Kembla where it also built a jetty. In 1896 as shaft was sunk to the northwest behind the escarpment and ventilated the mine as a furnace shaft. A second shaft was sunk further again the northwest and in this instance fitted out with a mechanical fan. The mine was totally destroyed by an explosion in 1902 and reopened the same year The surviving stables probably date from the 1950s. 1968 - The hand worked contract method of mining was replaced by a mechanised system using rubber tyred front-end loaders A number of major movable items from the mine have been used at the 3

Further

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comments

Anglican Church adjacent to the Memorial including a coal skip. A kerosene retort has been installed in the local reserve to commemorate the shale mining industry.

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Historical notes

HISTORY This colliery, set in the escarpment behind the village of that name, is famous because of the major mine explosion that took place in 1902. The mine grew from the remains of the old Pioneer Kerosene Works, which was formed in 1865, this was the first shale oil works opened in Australia. The shale oil works was closed in 1877. An abortive attempt was made to mine the nearby bituminous coal seam that had been mined by the shale works for fuel for their retorts. In 1877 moves were made to establish a major coal mine in the area and build a railway from the mine to a bay at Five Islands (Port Kembla) where a jetty, capable of berthing ocean going vessels, was to be built. Government granted authority in March 1881 for the company to build the jetty and the railway line. The mine, the railway and the jetty went into service in February 1883. When the State Government built the eastern breakwater to form the new Port Kembla harbour in about 1900 they resumed the Mount Kembla jetty and portion of the railway line and then leased it back to the Mount Kembla colliery. The company, under the supervision of the mine’s engineer, William Burrell, began construction on the mine and a railway to Port Kembla where it also built a jetty. William Burrell was responsible for the design and construction of the mine having begun his exploration in 1882. (Department of Mines Annual Report 1882) In 1883, the first shipment of coal from Port was made in February 1883. In that year, over 21,000 tons of coal was mined and Mt Kembla employed 110 men. By 1901, the workforce had grown to over 300. A new furnace shaft and chimney was built near the outcrop in 1887. the second furnace shaft was built in 1891 to the north west behind the escarpment On 9 May 1903 the South Coast Times reported that the Mount Kembla Colliery had recently installed “a most thoroughly efficient and up-to-date electric light plant.” The main rope roads, the engine house, workshops, offices and all the outbuildings at the mouth of the tunnel are fitted with lighting which at night presents a brilliant aspect. The generators are belt driven and are located in the main engine house. According to Department of Mines Annual Reports two 2,200 volt AC generators were installed, one rated at 220 kW while the other was rated at 120 kW; power was reticulated at 250 volts. In the 1931 DOMAR (Department of Mines and Resources) states that there were 54 lamps on the surface and 152 underground; there were 5 electrically driven haulages, 6 electrically driven pumps and 2 electrically driven fans. It is possible that the decision to introduce electric power into the mine came from the reports covering the 1902 mine explosion. Mount Kembla Colliery was the first coal mine in Illawarra to use electric power. The late 1880s and early 1890s were trouble times for the colliery with frequent disputes between managers and workers over conditions, safety, pay and the right of the workers to unionise. In 1902, disaster struck Mt Kembla when a vast gas explosion destroyed the mine killing 96 men and boys. The explosion was to have a profound effect on the village of Mt Kembla and the families of those killed and led to a Royal Commission into the explosion. Although the mine was rapidly back in 5

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production, memories of the disaster have survived in the local community and the 2002 the centennial commemoration was a major local event. The loss of life in this disaster is the worst experienced in any land accident in Australian history. In 1913 the ownership of the mine passed to the Mount Kembla Collieries Ltd. The colliery and the railway line were acquired by Australian Iron and Steel on 1 July 1946. The mine ceased working in 1970 but the railway continued to be operated by AIS to haul coal from the nearby Nebo, and later, Dendrobium collieries. The railway is still in service hauling coal to the BlueScope Steel steelworks. Mt Kembla mine was the first colliery to use mechanical coal cutters. 1968 - The hand worked contract method of mining was replaced by a mechanised system using rubber tyred front-end loaders. This proved to uneconomical. By 1970, its production was down to 400 tons a day and it closed having yielded 14 million tons in 90 years. Social history: • The Union movement: The Mount Kembla Lodge conducted three major strikes before the disaster: in 1885, 1889 and 1893. The first strike arose from difficulties encountered particularly at Mt Kembla. (taken from history of union activity (see notes by Kate Stevenson). See also oral history of Fred Kirkwood who worked in the mine from 1926 and who describes the lack of decent conditions and facilities – no ambulances and no first aid attendants). After Jack Lang’s government came into power Mt Kembla had the 1st first aid room in the region with a qualified ambulance man • Women’s Involvement in Mining Issues; (Contact Dorothy Potter 4283 3434) • Public Education: Mount Kembla primary school established in 1884 (originally weatherboard cottage) and later new building in 1895 after agitation from local community for school. The only other school was at Cordeaux which opened in 1857. A remission of school fees of 6d per week was sought by parents because of a long mining strike. • 3 Cemeteries: Windy Gully, Miner’s Memorial Church Cemetery, Wollongong General Cemetery. • Rivalry between the mining community at Kembla Heights and the farming community of Mount Kembla. The Anglican Church with the memorial to the 1902 disaster and the separate memorial to the men who worked the old Mount Kembla Colliery.

THEMES National historical theme State historical theme 3.4.3 Mining Mining

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Historical significance SHR criteria (a)

Historical association significance SHR criteria (b)

APPLICATION OF CRITERIA The site as a whole has a strong association in the course of the Illawarra’s and the state’s history because: • Evidence of key historical theme of mining from 1890s to the present day in the evolution of land use and character in the Illawarra region – local significance • It was the site of Australia’s worst industrial disaster, when in 1902, 96 men and boys were killed. – evidenced in the attendance each year by hundreds of people to Windy Gully Cemetry in July and the lighting of 96 candles in memory of those who died, and the continued attendance at the Miner’s Memorial Church , Wollongong General Cemetery – local significance • Evidence of relationship with development of company township of Kembla Heights and the growth and development of Mount Kembla as a mining township. – State significance • Evidence of relationship with the supply of electric power to the Wollongong area as it was the first mine to supply power to the Illawarra • Peripheral association with local identities on the Illawarra coast and the state of NSW, of particular note is Ebenezer Vickery, who acquired an interest in seven coal mines in the Illawarra and was chairman of the Mount Kembla Coal and Oil Company. He was appointed to the Legislative Council of NSW in 1887

• Aesthetic significance SHR criteria (c)

The mine site and associated remnants including the incline are overgrown and much of the site is in the Illawarra Escarpment Reserve

Social significance SHR criteria (d)

The site has strong cultural associations with the local community and, to a lesser degree, the broader coal mining community of the Wollongong and general Illawarra escarpment area. The associations relate predominantly to: • The continuous attendance, since 1903, of a memorial service in the Soldiers & Miners Memorial Church, in remembrance of those who died in the 1902 Mt Kembla Mine Disaster. • The hundreds who continue to attend each year, the Windy Gully Cemetery for a cold July 31 open air night service and lighting of 96 candles in memory of the 96 miners who died in the same disaster. • The continued attendance of thousands of people to the annual Mt Kembla Mining Heritage Festival with its many and varied historic and cultural events. • The restoration of the Windy Gully and Mt Kembla Cemetery headstones of the victims of the disaster. • The relocating of the 1905 monument to the disaster victims from Wollongong to the Mt Kembla Church in the 1970’s. • The erection of the wagon and skip monument at the same church and the last piece of shale from the 1865 Kerosene Shale Mine 7

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mounted with the plaque in the church grounds. The attempt to preserve the Workman’s Club rooms from circa 1895 at Windy Gully • The numerous volumes of written material from plays, poetry, prose to historical material. • Other associations are to be found in the history of the labour movement on this site in the early years, which culminated 3 strikes in 1885,1889 & 1893. • Technical/Res earch significance SHR criteria (e) • Rarity SHR criteria (f)

• Representativ eness SHR criteria (g)

The area is a rare example of a community that still is involved in the industry for which reason it was first established. It is also a rare example, as demonstrated above, of a community which is very involved in preserving its mining heritage – both the obvious physical mine site and the socially and culturally significant elements which have formed this community. This area has a high social and landscape value. The site has a rare example of a pit pony stable still in situ

Integrity

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Heritage listing/s

HERITAGE LISTINGS Local Environmental Plan, gazetted 7 January 2000. Number 1/2000 Site of Mount Kembla Mine Workings Mount Kembla Mine Portal Kembla Heights Conservation Area

INFORMATION SOURCES Include conservation and/or management plans and other heritage studies. Type Author/Client Title Year Repository Written K.C. Stone A Profile History of 1974 Wollongong Local History Mount Kembla Library Written Carol Herben Mt Kembla 1902 Mine Disaster Commemoration Cemetery Walks At the Coalface: The human face of coal miners and their communities: An Oral History of the early days 2004 As above

Written

Fred Moore, Paddy Gorman & Ray Harrison

1999

Written Written

Don Reynolds, Geoff Mould and Ron Cairns AusIMMHC Philip Donaldson, Chairperson Heritage Sub-Committee

2005 Submission to OHM Consultants 2005

Authors

Recommendati ons

RECOMMENDATIONS It is recommended that the components of the Mount Kembla Mine be linked using historical tracks which form much of its social significance to form walking tracks within the escarpment.

The site be listed on the State Heritage Register
The oral histories of the area should be used in the interpretation Include in Plaque program SOURCE OF THIS INFORMATION Strategic Management Plan for Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra

Name of study or report Item number in study or report Author of study or report

Year of study or report

2005

O.H.M. Consultants

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Inspected by M Landau, D McBeath NSW Heritage Manual guidelines used? This form M Landau, D McBeath completed by

Yes x No Date 8/25/05

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Image caption Image year

Mt Kembla Mine and incline from At the Coalface:

unknown

Image by

Image copyright holder

Moore, Gorman, Harrison

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Image caption Image year

Wreck at Mount Kembla after the 1902 Explosion

Image by

Image copyright holder

F Danvers Power

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Image caption Image year

Mt Kembla Mine Disaster Memorial and coal skip at the Mt Kembla Anglican Church 2005 Image by D McBeath Image copyright holder

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Image caption Image year

The stable feed stalls which are still in situ

1995

Image by

Geoff Mould

Image copyright holder

Geoff Mould

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ITEM DETAILS Name of Item Other Name/s Former Name/s Item type (if known) Item group (if known) Item category (if known) Area, Group, or Collection Name Street number Street name Suburb/town Local Government Area/s Property description
Location - Lat/long Location - AMG (if no street address) Owner Current use Former Use Statement of significance Colliery

Mt Pleasant Colliery

Complex

Mine Machinery and Relics Mining and Mineral Processing

Balgownie Wollongong City

Postcode

Latitude Zone 200m Easting 299035

Longitude Northing 6193250

Mt Pleasant was the second mine established in the Illawarra after Mt Keira and is closely linked to the history of this mine. Lahiff exhibited considerable ingenuity using the surplus power from the self acting incline to haul coal from within the mine to the mine entrance and return the empty skips into the mine. The site retains many significant relics of earlier phases of mining from loading staiths at Belmore Basin, the route of the railway line to the harbour to the furnace shaft which still serves the Bulli seam and remains open to the present day. These are all significant elements of the Illawarra’s landscape. The importance of the site to the local community is evidenced by the fact that the site is cleared periodically by volunteers from the Balgownie School Mining Museum and is used for educational purposes and patronised by schools in the Illawarra in conjunction with the museum.
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Level of Significance

State

Local x

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DESCRIPTION
Designer Builder/ maker Physical Description

Patrick Lahiff

The remaining equipment left at the mine site, the incline and the railway were quickly removed and the area made good after the closure of the mine. The route of the railway to the harbour passes through the properties of the University of Wollongong, the North Wollongong TAFE, Keira High School and the Wollongong High School before heading under the major intersections of the Illawarra Railway, the Northern distributor and Flinders Street. It then passes through the Wollongong PCYC site, along Pleasant Avenue to begin its route past the North Wollongong Surf Club and past the adjacent surfacing pavilion on its way to Belmore Basin. That pleasant and picturesque walkway / cycleway from the North Wollongong Surf Club through the cutting to Cliff Road is the formation of the old Mount Pleasant tramway which is the only reminder of that very historic mining venture.

Physical condition and Archaeological potential

The whole of the pit top area is covered in plant growth. The site is cleared periodically by volunteers from the Balgownie School Mining Museum. and is used for educational purposes and patronised by schools in the Illawarra in conjunction with the museum • This colliery contains more remnants of its former use than any other colliery in the region and these are an important source for any further archaeological surveys.
1861 Finish year 1955 Circa

Construction years Modifications and dates

Start year

The Mount Pleasant Coal and Iron Mining Company took over the assets of the Illawarra Coal Company in 1888. In 1889 the company built a set of 4 beehive coke ovens. In 1910 Figtree Bros erected a battery of 40 beehive coke ovens of their own on the eastern side of the Government lines and just to the north of where the old Illawarra Highway (Wollongong to Bulli road) crossed the railway. The initial 14 ovens were then closed down and dismantled. About 1920 a new powerhouse was built and additional mine pumping and lighting facilities were also provided. On 3 March 1940 a 33 kV power supply was made available to the Mount Keira colliery and the Bulli colliery from the AIS Port Kembla steelworks. Mount Pleasant power house shut down and a link was taken off the 33 kV Mount Keira to Bulli line to supply power to the Mount Pleasant mine. The underground workings of the Mount Keira and Mount Pleasant workings were linked together in 1937. This link provided a route for the provision of coal loaders, cutters and supporting equipment into the area being set up for mechanised mining in the Mount Keira pit and known as the Bottom Side. Following an unsuccessful attempt to mine the No 3 seam in an area adjacent to the Mt
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Keira pit top in 1945 – 49 some of the surface and underground equipment was transferred to Mount Pleasant to support the mining of an area of the Bulli seam in the previously abandoned workings of the earlier Mount Pleasant mining operations. All mining ceased at Mount Pleasant in September 1955 with the mining equipment transferred to Kemira and the AIS/BHP collieries in the Illawarra and Newcastle.
Further comments

Remnants of all phases of earlier mining activities include: • Remnants at Belmore Basin of the loading staiths used by both Mt Keira and Mt Pleasant collieries (Engineers Plague) • The line of rail track from Belmore Basin • The path of incline includes traces of ropes, wheels and minor items at various points on the line of the incline and in particular at the pit top. Part of the incline is being used as a bike track. • At the pit top foundations for the screens used by the first mine, although now buried under vegetation • Screen foundations for the second tunnel mine also buried • Evidence of tramway between the first and second mine sites. • Foundations for buildings at the second mine site including power house, engine house and bathroom • 2 furnace shafts. One serving the Bulli seam remains open and the brickwork is evident and the second shaft with a brick chimney

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HISTORY
Historical notes

Mt Pleasant In 1861 Patrick Lahiff and Benjamin Fawcett opened a small coal mine on Colonel Plunket’s property in the Parish of Wollongong. The coal was sledged down to the bottom of the escarpment with the aid of oxen. From there it was delivered to the local customers by cart. Lahiff and Fawcett lacked the capital necessary to make the mine a viable commercial enterprise. They successfully influenced two Sydney merchants, James and William Byrnes to take over their venture and the Illawarra Coal Company was formed with Lahiff being retained as mine manager. Patrick Lahiff was a child immigrant from Ireland. He was apprenticed to a stone mason in Sydney and later worked as a contract stone mason on major Sydney buildings. In July 1858 he was awarded the contract to build Wollongong’s St. Michael’s Church which was completed in 1859 The Mount Keira colliery began exporting coal through Wollongong Harbour in August 1849. In November 1859 a rudimentary narrow gauge horse drawn tramway from the mine site to a depot near the present Beaton Park was built and from there it was carted to the Wollongong Harbour. In May 1861 the Mount Keira Colliery had extended their narrow gauge tramway from the depot to the small Wollongong Harbour where primitive ship loading facilities were provided. In 1880 the Mount Keira narrow gauge line had been converted to standard gauge. The Illawarra coal had proved very popular due to its excellent steaming qualities. The Illawarra Coal Company quickly decided to build a tramway from the mine to the Wollongong harbour to enable them to export their coal. Trouble was experienced in gaining agreement from land owners and as a result the Mount Pleasant Tramway Act of 1862 was rushed through Parliament. The tramway of approximately 5 km in length was again narrow gauge and very crude. The first horse drawn train went into service on 8 December 1862. A self acting incline was built to lower the coal from the mine to the bottom of the escarpment near the western side of Robson Road (behind the University of Wollongong). Screens and bins were built at the bottom of the incline. Agreement was reached to carry out preliminary work on the tramway while the bill was being negotiated and it was completed in the same month the Act gained ascent in December 1862. Lahiff exhibited considerable ingenuity using the surplus power from the self acting incline to haul coal from within the mine to the mine entrance. The coal and general trade through Wollongong harbour was increasing rapidly and the Government realised that the harbour needed to be expanded and in January 1859 plans and estimates were prepared. The extended harbour and coal loading staithes were
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completed by 1868 when it was named Belmore Basin. In 1882, Patrick Lahiff built a very crude experimental blast furnace adjacent to the bottom of the incline and smelted iron from local iron ore using coke formed by spontaneous combustion the mine’s duff coal dump. Lahiff and others attempted to form a company to build a commercial iron smelting plant but nothing eventuated. The coal reserves at the original mine were limited and in 1886 the Company drove new adits into the seam outcrop about 2Km to the north of entries adjacent to the top of the incline. A tramway with a 2’10’ gauge was laid on a relatively level gradient to these new entries and a screening plant was erected near the top of the incline. A small steam locomotive was purchased to haul the skips along this tramway but the locomotive proofed to be inadequate and had to be assisted by a team of horses. As a result of this problem a rope haulage was connected to and powered from the incline haulage however this also proved to unsuccessful. A steam powered main and tail haulage was installed and proved successful with the steam engine also driving a 20 Kw direct current generator that provided the power needed for two water pumps and some general lighting. The company sub-leased the more northerly portion of their lease to the Corrimal Colliery. The Illawarra Coal Company operated mainly in the upper, or Bulli No 1 seam as well as the lower four foot or Balgownie seam. The Mount Pleasant Coal and Iron Mining Company took over the assets of the Illawarra Coal Company in 1888. In 1889 the company built a set of 4 beehive coke ovens opposite the loco sheds near the Wollongong to Bulli road. The company leased these coke ovens to Messrs Robshaw and Figtree and the number of ovens soon increased to 14. In 1910 Figtree Bros erected a battery of 40 beehive coke ovens of their own on the eastern side of the Government lines and just to the north of where the old Illawarra Highway (Wollongong to Bulli road) crossed the railway. The initial 14 ovens were then closed down and dismantled. About 1920 a new power house was built just to the east of the bottom of the incline. The power house consisted of two 350 kW 50 cycle alternators driven by condensing steam engines. The necessary boiler plant, condenser, cooling tower, etc. were also provided. A 6.6 kV transmission line fed the power to the pit top and the two haulage engines were replaced with electric drives. Additional mine pumping and lighting facilities were also provided. The Great Depression hit the coal industry very hard but the Mount Pleasant Mine was able to operate until 1933 when it was closed down. The colliery went into liquidation in 1934 and was then purchased by E. Vickery & Sons on 10 September, 1934; for some reason, the lease MP16, was excluded from the sale. They renamed the mine the Keira Pleasant Tunnels. In December 1936, or 26 January 1937, Australian Iron & Steel (AIS)
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acquired the leases and assets of the Mount Pleasant Coal and Iron Mining Company. It is not sure if Vickery & Sons actually operated the mine before selling it to AIS. Possibly this was a ploy in their long term strategy to sell both the Mount Keira and Mount Pleasant mines to someone. AIS made further changes to the skipway system at the mine site. The skipway from the No 2 tunnel was converted to a 3’-6” gauge and a battery operated locomotive hauled the coal to the top of a bin that fed coal to the motor lorries conveying it to the steelworks. The No1 tunnel was abandoned in 1886 and AIS closed the narrow gauge railway between the crossing of the Illawarra Railway and Belmore Basin. It still retained the gravity incline system to supply coal to the powerhouse and possibly the coke ovens. In 1938 AIS rehabilitated the Mount Pleasant mine’s power station, which was located near to where the North Wollongong TAFE now stands. This supplied power to the Mount Keira Colliery , which they had also acquired from E. Vickery & Sons on 26 January 1937. The supply to Mount Keira came from the original transmission line feeding the Mount Pleasant Mine. A transmission line was also provided to the mine’s No 1 ventilation shaft to allow the old steam engine driven fan to be replaced with a modern electric motor driven fan. The availability of electric power at the Mount Keira Colliery allowed electrically driven coal cutters to be introduced into the mine to significantly increase production to meet AIS’s rapidly growing coal demand and to speed up the integration of both mines to allow all coal from Mount Pleasant and Mount Keira to be fed to the AIS bins near Nebo Colliery where it can be directly railed to the steelworks coke ovens plant using their own diesel locomotives. On 3 March 1940 a 33 kV power supply was made available to the Mount Keira colliery and the Bulli colliery from the AIS Port Kembla steelworks. This supply was part of an overall scheme to supply AIS power to Wongawilli, Mt Keira and Bulli mines. It was then possible to shut down the Mount Pleasant powerhouse. A link was taken off the 33 kV Mount Keira to Bulli line to supply power to the Mount Pleasant mine. The underground workings of the Mount Keira and Mount Pleasant workings were soon linked. This link provided a route for the provision of coal loaders, cutters and supporting equipment into the area being set up for mechanised mining in the Mount Keira pit. Following an unsuccessful attempt to mine the No 3 seam at from the surface at Mt Keira in 1945 – 49 some of the equipment was recycled for use at Mount Pleasant. All mining ceased at Mount Pleasant in September 1955 with the mining equipment transferred to Kemira and the BHP collieries in Newcastle.

THEMES
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National historical theme State historical theme

Mining – Coal and associated industries;

Mining Provision of services (electricity) in

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Historical significance SHR criteria (a)

APPLICATION OF CRITERIA Important in the course of NSW state and Illawarra history because; • Evidence of key historical theme of mining from 1861 to 1955 in the evolution of landuse and character in the Illawarra region – local significance • Patrick Lahiff was a child immigrant from Ireland. He was apprenticed to a stone mason in Sydney and later worked as a contract stone mason on major Sydney buildings. In July 1858 he was awarded the contract to build Wollongong’s St. Michael’s Church which was completed in 1859

Historical association significance SHR criteria (b)

Aesthetic significance SHR criteria (c)

The mine is significant for its long association with the residents (and former residents) of the village and for its meaning with those people. – local significance. Significant to Wollongong and general Illawarra area for length of association through family and community and for the strong community spirit and attachment to the area. The associations relate predominately to the site’s long history as one of the primary employers and investment generators in the area. Coal mining is an industry which is traditionally associated with the labour movement and workplace safety issues and initiatives. In 1882 Patrick Lahiff built a very crude experimental blast furnace adjacent to the bottom Technical/Research of the incline and smelted iron from local iron ore using coke formed by spontaneous significance combustion the mine’s duff coal dump, This was destroyed when the roadway was SHR criteria (e) extended. Elements considered of importance to further research include: • Remnants at Belmore Basin of the loading staiths used by both the Mount Keira and Mt Pleasant collieries • The line of the railway track from Belmore Basin as the rail line earthworks can be traced up to the major rail and road bridge. The site possesses some rare individual elements which include: Rarity • The second furnace shaft has a brick chimney that is a fine example of its type SHR criteria (f) and is of significant heritage value Lahiff exhibited considerable ingenuity using the surplus power from the self acting incline to haul coal from within the mine to the mine entrance and return the empty skips into the mine.
Social significance SHR criteria (d) Representativenes s

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SHR criteria (g)

Integrity

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HERITAGE LISTINGS
Heritage listing/s

INFORMATION SOURCES Include conservation and/or management plans and other heritage studies.
Type Written Author/Client Don Reynolds, Geoff Mould and Ron Cairns of AusIIMHC Title Year 2005 Repository authors

RECOMMENDATIONS
Recommendations A social history and oral history should be undertaken for this mine. Include this mine in a historic plaque program. Include in Oral History Program Air shaft to included on the LEP

SOURCE OF THIS INFORMATION
Name of study or report Item number in study or report Author of study or report Inspected by

Strategic Management Plan for Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra
O.H.M. Consultants

Year of study or report

2005

NSW Heritage Manual guidelines used? This form completed by

Yes x Date 2005

No

M Landau, D McBeath

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IMAGES - 1 per page
Please supply images of each elevation, the interior and the setting.

Image caption Image year

Mt Pleasant Colliery unknown Image by Image copyright holder Department of Mines and Mineral Processing

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ITEM DETAILS Name of Item Other Name/s Former Name/s Item type (if known) Item group (if known) Item category (if known) Area, Group, or Collection Name Street number Street name Suburb/town Local Government Area Property description Location Lat/long If not at a street address Location AMG If not at a street address Owner Current use Former Use Statement of significance Nebo Colliery

Complex

Mine Machinery & Relics Mining & Mineral Processing

Mount Kembla Wollongong City Mining site Latitude 180 m Longitude

Postcode

Zone

Easting 299035

Northing

6193250

BHP/AIS Surface facilities now reworked and incorporated into Dendrobium Colliery Mining Colliery This site is significant as it was the first mine to be opened as a fully mechanised mine in 1947. It was a green field mine development and its surface facilities were of the most modern design being fully mechanised upon opening. It is also significant for its association with Mt Kembla village and the surrounding area, for its relationship between mines, mining companies and their workers and for the joint ownership of the mine and the associated steel works. Significant for its association with the new Dendrobium Mine for which its facilities were chosen to support. State Local X

Level of Significance

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DESCRIPTION Designer Builder/ maker Physical Description Australian Iron & Steel The two brick buildings dating from c 1947 that embraced the administration and mine workshop and the bath house and lamp cabin for the Nebo Colliery operations remain in use as part of the Dendrobium operations. The filling in of No 1,2,3 shafts and restoration of the surface areas surrounding tem is currently being carried out. No 4 shaft fan is being used to ventilate the Elouera Colliery using 1985/6 fan and installation. The main entrance portal at Nebo remains open as an intake airway for Elouera. The main trunk haulage roadway that lead out of the mine to the Bradford Breaker in open as an air intake. The Bradford Breaker Building has been demolished and the contents destroyed along with the decline conveyor and rail bins and track work associated with both Mt Kembla and Nebo has been lifted and removed. Start year 1946 Finish year 1993 Circa

Physical condition and/or Archaeologica l potential Construction years Modifications and dates

Greenfield site developed in 1946. In 1951 mining operations were halted and some mining equipment was lost when a ‘creep’ occurred in a section of the mine. Mining operations resumed after intense roof support measures were undertaken. In 1948 rubber tyred Joy shuttle cars were introduced. In 1954 caterpillar mounted continuous miners were introduced and in 1959 conveyor belts replaced the 10 ton mine car to diesel locomotive main trunk track haulage duties with coal being cut and loaded into shuttle cars at the face. 1993 – Underground workings linked to the Wongawilli mine and Kemira leases to create the Elouera Mine. The administration, men and materials and management facilities of this new mine were concentrated at Wongawilli with the Nebo surface portal entries remaining part of the Eloura mine ventilating system. 2001 – surface facilities reworked as part of new Dendrobium Colliery

Further comments

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Historical notes

HISTORY This was a green field site mine development in 1946 on land included as part of the purchase by BHP/AIS of the Mount Kembla Colliery with the surface buildings and mine portals located on Portions 4 and 160, Parish of Kembla County of Camden near the site of the abandoned Pioneer Kerosene Works and in the midst of the historic Mount Kembla village. Mining operations commenced in the Wongawilli or No3 seam in 1947 as a fully mechanised mine, employing track mounted mechanical coal loaders and coal cutters, 10-ton capacity mine cars and battery and diesel powered locomotives. A geological disturbance was encountered early in the development of the mine which created adverse track haulage grades. A tunnel was driven from the workings in No 3 seam to create a diesel locomotive trunk road haulage system using 10 ton capacity mine cars to deliver the coal trains to the Coal Handling Board (Bradford breaker) Plant. In 1951 mining operations were halted and some mining equipment was lost when a ‘creep’ occurred in a section of the mine. Mining operations resumed after intense roof support measures were undertaken to halt the spread of the ‘creep’ (an uncontrolled weighting of roof over a wide area of the mine that leads to the coal pillars being ‘crushed out’ and the roof collapsing). Mine operations commenced using Jeffrey Manufacturing (USA) track mounted coal cutting and loading machines manufactured under license by AIS during and immediately after WW 11. These machines were later abandoned in favour of caterpillar mounted Anderson Boyes (UK) cutters and Joy Manufacturing loaders whilst loading into track mounted 10 ton mine cars which continued at the face. In 1948 rubber tyred Joy shuttle cars were introduced which provided haulage from the face to an outbye loading point where the coal was then loaded into 10 ton mine cars. In 1954 caterpillar mounted continuous miners were introduced and in 1959 conveyor belts replaced the 10 ton mine car to diesel locomotive main trunk track haulage duties with coal being cut and loaded into shuttle cars at the face. The mine and its surface facilities were of the most modern design and included administration, workshop and bathhouse buildings and a training school for mine workers. The Coal Handling Plant erected to the north of the main mine portals was provided with facilities to rotary dump ten ton capacity rail mounted mine cars loaded at the coal face. The Coal Handling Plant provided a means of rotary dumping each 10 ton mine car, sizing the coal and extracting the included stone using a Bradford Breaker. The coal from the plant was then loaded on to a conveyor belt and discharged into rail loading storage bins erected over rail track work linked to the original Mt Kembla colliery rail line and transported to the Port Kembla Steel Works on the Company’s private rail line. In 1993 Nebo colliery ceased operations as a mine with the underground workings being linked to the Wongawilli mine workings and Kemira leases to create the Elouera mine. The administration, men and materials and 3

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management functions of this new mine were concentrated at Wongawilli with the Nebo surface portal entries remaining part of the Eloura mine ventilation system and providing access to and from the mine for statutory purposes. In 2001 the surface facilities remaining at the Nebo colliery were chosen to support the development of the new Dendrobium Colliery and have been reworked to suit the needs of this new mine. THEMES National historical theme (if known) State historical theme (if known) Mining

Mining – Activities associated with the identification, extraction, processing and distribution of mineral ores, precious stones and other such inorganic substances.

Historical significance SHR criteria (a)

APPLICATION OF CRITERIA Important in the course of Illawarra’s history because: • For its association with the development of mining in the evolution of landuse and character in the Illawarra – opened as a green field site, part of the purchase by BHP/AIS of the Mount Kembla Colliery – local significance • For its association with the iron and steel industry in NSW – a major dominant industry and employer in Illawarra region - ? • For its association with the new Dendrobium mine – in 2001 the surface facilities remaining at the Nebo Colliery were used to support the development of the Dendrobium Mine.- local significance Important in regards to its connection with BHP/AIS.

Historical association significance SHR Criteria (b)

Aesthetic significance
SHR criteria (c)

Social significance SHR criteria (d)

Significant for its association with Mt Kembla village and the surrounding area for its relationship between mines, mining companies and their workers. Coal mining is an industry which is traditionally associated with the labour movement and workplace safety issues and initiatives

Technical/Res earch significance SHR criteria (e)

It is significant as an example of a mine now reworked and incorporated into the Dendrobium Mine site.

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Rarity SHR criteria (f)

Representativ eness SHR criteria (g)

Integrity HERITAGE LISTINGS Heritage listing/s

INFORMATION SOURCES Include conservation and/or management plans and other heritage studies. Type Author/Client Title Year Repository Written AusIMMHC Nebo Colliery 2005 The Authors Graphic /Oral History Graphic NSW Department of Mineral Resources Aerial view Nebo Colliery

RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendat Include oral history program and plaque. ions

SOURCE OF THIS INFORMATION To be completed if this form is part of a heritage study or report Name of Study Strategic Management Plan for Historic Coal Mining Sites Year of or report of the Illawarra study or report Item number in study or report Author of O.H.M. Consultants Study or report Inspected by NSW Heritage Manual guidelines used? Yes X This form M Landau, D McBeath Date completed by 2005 5

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Image caption Image year

Joy Continuous Miners introduced into Nebo Colliery between 1950 and 1952 to replace the rail mounted equipment Image by Image copyright holder Wollongong City Library Illawarra images P13151

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Image caption Image year

Stones Road near American Creek north of Mount Kembla. The photograph shows the rail track leading to the Mount Kembla and Nebo Collieries Image by Image copyright holder Wollongong City Library Illawarra images P13156

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Image caption Image year

Nebo Colliery Administration Block

C 1952

Image by

Image copyright holder

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ITEM DETAILS Name of Item
Other Name/s Former Name/s Item type (if known) Item group (if known) Item category (if known) Area, Group, or Collection Name Street number Street name Suburb/town Local Government Area Property description Location - Lat/long
If not at a street address

South Bulli Colliery

Complex

Mine Machinery & Relics Mining & Mineral Processing

Russel Vale. Wollongong City Mining site
Latitude Zone Easting Longitude Northing

Postcod e

Location - AMG
If not at a street address

Owner Current use Former Use Statement of significance

Gunjarat NRE Mining Mining The South Bulli Colliery is significant for the following reasons; • Evidence of the key historical theme of mining from 1887 to the present day in the evolution of land use and character in the Illawarra region. – local significance • For its association with the development of mining as one of the earliest established and longest running coal mining operations in the Illawarra and NSW. • Contains some of the oldest structural remains in the state such as the 1887 portals, rail track alignments and lamp room (now crib room and first aid station) • During the 100 years of its operations, the colliery extraction of coal significantly changed the topography of the area on the escarpment. Over 5 million tonnes of reject material from the washery has been placed in the immediate area.

Level of Significance

State x

Local

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DESCRIPTION
Designer Builder/ maker Physical Description

The South Bulli Colliery is part of the Illawarra Escarpment, west of the Princess Highway and south west of Bulli in Russel Vale. Structures associated with the colliery are located on terraces with the uppermost including • the remains of the old Power House • the Portals including the Main Portal, Old portal, Extraction Portal, Gibsons Portal • Workshops • Administration Area • Washery Buildings • Signal Box • Rail lines • Timber Hopper • Landscape including benches and embankments The colliery remains in use although various operational aspects have been shut down and the main mining activity is shifting from this present location

Physical condition and/or Archaeological potential Construction years Modifications and dates

Start year

1887

Finish year

Circa

The site has undergone continual modification as part of its mining operations

Further comments

2

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HISTORY
Historical notes

The old Russellvale colliery that had been operated by Taylor and Walker lay derelict until the Osborne family, who owned the land, was approached by Thomas Saywell who was interested in reopening the mine. Thomas Saywell had had interests in a number of coal mines, one being the Ringwood Colliery near Bundanoon, which went into service in 1884. A 50 year lease of about 7,000 acres of coal bearing land was negotiated on a royalty basis. A narrow strip of land was also was also obtained for a tramway from the mine to Port Bellambi. The South Bulli Coal Mining Company was formed with capital of £80,000 and work began in 1885, under the direction of Messrs Saywell and Wilson, on building the mine, screens, winding engine house, boilers, sawmill and workshops. The Ringwood Colliery went into liquidation in 1885 and Saywell purchased the plant, including headframe, winding engine, steam boiler, skips and all other portable equipment and transferred it to his new Bellambi and South Clifton enterprise. Screens and bins were provided on a flat high up on the escarpment A standard gauge self-acting incline, with a maximum grade of 1 in 2.67, lowered the coal down to the base of the escarpment. This incline was typical of many gravity powered haulage inclines in the Illawarra; there were two haulage ropes, three rails at the top, a four rail passing loop in the centre that then converged into two rails on the lower section of the incline. The paying out reeling in and direction of travel of the two haulage ropes was determined by two rope drums mounted side by side on a common shaft with the speed of travel controlled by a band brake attached to each drum and manually controlled using a ship type steering wheel. A railway 5 km long then ran to the port where a high level jetty, some 630 metres long, was constructed slightly north west of the original jetty built by Thomas Hale. The full wagons gravitated to the end of the jetty where a “kick-up” tippler discharged the wagons into the ship; the empty wagons were hauled off the jetty by a steam winch. Steam locomotives followed and the first was an 06-0 saddle tank unit originally built by John Fowler & Co of Leeds in 1883 for Saywell’s Lady Robinson Beach railway and later transferred to South Bulli; the rail wagons were of 4 to 5 tons capacity. Thomas Saywell imported the second locomotive in 1888 for service at the Ringwood Colliery Bundanoon. The manufacturer was Hudswell Clarke and Company and when the Ringwood Colliery was abandoned in 1885 the locomotive, together with other items was transferred to South Bulli. (In 1965 this locomotive was later acquired by the Australian Railway Historical Society and is now on display at the Black Diamond Museum at Bulli along with another steam locomotive from South Bulli Colliery on display at the Memorial Park Corrimal.) The South Bulli Colliery was purchased Saywell by Ebernezer Vickery in August 1890.Vickery had earlier abandoned his North Illawarra mine at Austinmer and on making the above purchase transferred all the rolling stock and Manning Wardle locomotives from that mine to South Bulli. In 1898 a violent storm destroyed the outer sea end of the Bellambi Coal Company jetty at Port Bellambi. Negotiations with the South Bulli Company led to the latter’s jetty being used by both Companies via an interconnecting rail 3

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loop. The Bellambi Coal Company took over the assets of the South Bulli coal Company in 1901 and developed the South Bulli mine on a large scale with a new Skipway constructed to the North. In 1901 the Broken Hill Proprietary Company (BHP) constructed a battery of Coke Ovens to the west of the South Bulli Colliery exchange sidings provided to access the South Coast Rail line. The South Bulli Colliery provided the duff coal needed by BHP for coke making. This coke was exported to South Australia by BHP for use in smelting operations at Port Pirie. New locomotives were purchased for the mine at this time and in 1905 the rail lines from the Wonoona Colliery (Model) and South Bulli were interconnected at Port Bellambi. The Model Colliery had closed in 1902 but access was required to deliver coal to the Pendlebury Brick Works at the Wonoona Crossing. The jetty was now in urgent need of repair and several modifications were made, including the purchase of new rolling stock for delivering the coal from the mine to the jetty and this work was completed by 1910. By 1908 the Company owned and operated four ton capacity coastal colliers on voyages to and from Port Bellambi to Sydney. In 1917 an underground man transport system was inaugurated and in 1928 a Power House and steam powered electric generating plant was constructed. The following is a list of major events in the history of the mine: 1929 No1 Ventilation Shaft sunk 1935/36 Arcwall coal cutters installed 1-1935, 1-1936. 1947/49 Scraper Loaders installed for the mechanical loading of coal at the face. 1956 Rail mounted Jeffrey coal Loaders installed. 1956 Battery Locomotives installed 1959 Continuous Miner installed-Lee Norse oscillating head machine. Additional continuous miners and Shuttle Cars installed. 1960/62 Major upgrade of Colliery commenced and included Coal Prep. Plant underground to surface trunk conveyor system. 1965 Retreat Longwall installation in service 1978 Shaft sunk west of the escarpment and Mine Admin. Bathhouse erected. Man Riding facilities installed in the shaft to provide ready access to face areas. 1990 Longwall operation remained in service yrs.65/90.58 million tons of longwall coal was produced in that period. Transport of coal to surface was by belt conveyors from working panels (18 Km’s). The Coal Preparation Plant is in a state of disrepair with the Colliery ownership changing hands many times. Currently owned by Indian interests with apparently big plans for the development of the mine as a source of coking coal.

THEMES
National historical theme (if known)

Mining

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State historical theme (if known)

Mining

Historical significance SHR criteria (a)

Historical association significance SHR Criteria (b)

APPLICATION OF CRITERIA Significant because of its importance of its association with the evolving pattern of our cultural history: • The colliery in its rural escarpment context is significant for evidence of key historical themes in evolution of land use and character in the Illawarra region: dairying and agriculture from mid 19th century and mining from 1890s onwards.(local significance) • Long association with the iron and steel industry in NSW – a major dominant industry and employer in Illawarra region (state significance) • Significant for its historical association with development of mining in the Illawarra and NSW as the colliery which holds the Australian record for underground coal extraction (between 1887 & 1990 the mine produced 2,949,903 tonnes of coal) which reflects its long operating history and investment in technological innovation. (state significance) • Significant also for its historical association with development of mining as one of the earliest established and longest running coal mining operations in Australia. The structural remains on the site are some of the oldest in the region – the portals, the rail track alignments and lamp room (now crib room and first-aid station). • For its association with the township of Bulli as a major employer.(local significance) South Bulli mine had a peripheral association with a number of identities notable on the Illawarra coast and, to a lesser extent, NSW as a whole, including Henry Osborne, Thomas Saywell, W. Wilson and Ebenezer Vickery. Significant because it demonstrates positive visual or sensory appeal, landmark qualities and/or creative or technical excellence. Landmark qualities.• Dramatic backdrop of Illawarra Escarpment, the landform benches, stockpiles and dams and remnant coal mining structures and machinery create impression of old industrial remains as many of the structures such as machinery, incline haulage, route from escarpment to the jetty and coal storage silos are still clear. • Significant through their social, spiritual or cultural association with the townships and communities of Bellambi, Corrimal and Russel Vale and rural context for the special associations with the mining community (residents both present and former) Significant to Wollongong and general Illawarra area for length of association through family and community and for the strong community spirit and attachment to the area. The associations relate predominately to the site’s long history as one of the primary employers and investment generators in the area. • Coal mining is an industry, which is traditionally associated with the labour movement and workplace safety issues and initiatives.
5

Aesthetic significance SHR criteria (c)

Social significance SHR criteria (d)

NSW Heritage Data Form

Technical/Research significance SHR criteria (e)

•

The site has some potential to yield information that would contribute to a further understanding of the local area’s coal mining history

Rarity SHR criteria (f)

•

It possesses some rare individual elements – 1887 portal and ventilation portal 1918, incline haulage alignment

Representativenes s SHR criteria (g)

The South Bulli Colliery is representative of the characteristic of mining on the Illawarra escarpment. – has a long history of extraction that has utilised various techniques, some of which are still apparent on the site. In that regard, it is characteristic of most collieries in demonstrating change and adaptation over time.

Integrity

HERITAGE LISTINGS
Heritage listing/s Wollongong Local Environment Plan 1990 (LEP) SHI Listing number 2700806

INFORMATION SOURCES Include conservation and/or management plans and other heritage studies.
Type
Written

Author/Client
Godden Mackay Logan Godden McKay Logan

Title
South Bulli Colliery – proposed works Heritage Impact Statement South Bulli Collier – Conservation Management Plan – Part 1

Year
2001 2004

Repository
Goddan Mackay Logan Goddan Mackay Logan

Written

Written

Don Reynolds, Geoff Mould and Ron Cairns, AusIIMHC

South Bulli Mine

2005

authors

RECOMMENDATIONS
Recommendations
Include in Plaque program Include in Oral History program Retain items included in the South Bulli Colliery Conservation Management Plan for the site Include on SHR

SOURCE OF THIS INFORMATION
Name of Study or report

Strategic Management Plan for Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra

Year of study or report

2005

Item number in study or report OHM Consultants Author of Study or report D McBeath, M Landau Inspected by NSW Heritage Manual guidelines used? D McBeath, M Landau This form completed by

Yes Date 2005

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Image caption Image year

Pit Ponies at South Bulli 1909 Image by Bellambi Coal Co Image copyright holder

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Image caption Image year

Pit top workings 1909 Image by Bellambi Coal Co Image copyright holder Wollongong City Library

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Image caption Image year

Portal images from “THE MINES” Bellambi Coal Co 1909 Image by Bellambi Coal Co Image copyright holder

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Image caption Image year

South Bulli Colliery surface 1909 Image by Image copyright holder

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ITEM DETAILS Name of Item Other Name/s Former Name/s Item type (if known) Item group (if known) Item category (if known) Area, Group, or Collection Name Street number Street name Suburb/town Local Government Area/s Property description Location Lat/long Location AMG (if no street address) Owner Current use Former Use Statement of significance Wongawilli Colliery In 1993 Elouera was established from consolidation of Wongawilli, Nebo and Kemira Complex

Mine Machinery and Relics Mining and Mineral Processing

Wongawalli Road West Dapto Wollongong City Postcode

Latitud e Zone 279m

Longitude Easting 292671 Reading taken at pit top near No1 entry Northing 6183222

BHP-Billiton Colliery Colliery The Wongawilli colliery is significant for its association with Wongawilli “Bank Book “ Hill and Wongawilli Road residential areas as evidence of the evolving relationships between mines, mining companies and their workers, and of the joint ownership of the mine and the associated steel industry. The Wongawilli colliery was a major supplier of coke and coal in the NSW steel industry, first to C & G Hoskins steel works at Lithgow and from 1938 onwards to steel works at Port Kembla. The Wongawilli method of coal extraction was developed from 1958 onwards at this site and was adapted and used where practicable throughout the Illawarra and in other coal fields in Australia. Apart form innovative mining techniques the colliery saw the introduction of a transport 1

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system from the mine to the base of the escarpment with the longest coal haulage incline in the world established in 1936 and man transport train established in 1940. It was also one of the first collieries where the Joy 4JCM(continuous miner) was used in Australia. This was the first installation in the world of a conveyor designed to lower coal 191m in elevation at a rate of 600 tph ROM. The mine is significant for its history of shared facilities and use with the Wongawilli village and the special associations and meanings for residents and people who have worked in the mine. Now in its final years of operation, the Wongawilli site provides the operational centre for the Elouera mine that combines Wongawilli with Nebo and Kemira. The mine is still in shut down mode and may reopen under lease. Level of Significance State x Local

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DESCRIPTION Designer Builder/ maker Physical Description

The only remaining structures, buildings and fan left intact and were in use in the Contract mining days and on into the mechanised mining era at the mine are: Incline, including man riding equipment, conveyor and transport portals, fan and structure, including fan portal, old office buildings, tipper and car transporter. The significant items at this mine are the Mine Fan at No1 Shaft-It is unique in that no other coal mine that has a fan erected directly over the top of the shaft with the mine air exhausting vertically as distinct from being turned through 90 degrees at the shaft top as usual. Mine Car Dumper Station The buildings are to the south of the Dumper House and include the mine fan and fan drive house and probably date back to the 1930's or earlier. The only remains of the coke ovens is the brick power house building that once housed the three steam engine driven generator units The Power House was constructed in 1916/17 an was extended at a date unknown. In about 1950 part of the building was refurbished as the mine office and it remained in that role until the mine office was built at the pit top in the 1960's. No1 Man Transport that was installed in about 1940 and remained in service until the 1960's.The drive house and machinery have been left pretty much untouched apart from being overgrown with weeds etc. The building and drive are located just below the Bathhouse site. The present Man Transport drive system is located at the pit top was installed originally as the incline coal haulage system in 1949.With the introduction of the decline conveyor in 1959/60 it was converted to man transport duties in the late 1960's and replaced the original 1940 model No1 Man Transport The original endless rope coal haulage that was installed in about 1935 was claimed to be the longest endless rope haulage in existence anywhere in the world and the drive system may still be in place. This haulage is underground but quite close to surface and was taken out of service in 1949. The mine car dumper station area is in a poor condition and requires maintenance work to maintain its significance. All other listed items are in an operable and maintained condition. Start year 1916 Finish year Circa

Physical condition and Archaeologica l potential Construction years Modifications and dates

Wongawilli Colliery established by G & C Hoskins Iron & Steel on 18 December1916

Further comments

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HISTORY Historical notes 1913 - Alexander Lang took out the Mineral Lease (Coal & Shale) No 321 for MP6 on 11, officially registered in the Department of Mines on 22 December 1913. Alexander Lang was periodically taking up to 200 tons of coal per week from his mine by oxen and horses to Dapto for railing to various customers but he appears to have lacked the financial backing to develop the mine into a commercial operation. Wollongong Mining Wardens Court records show that he made several applications for Suspension of Labour Conditions, stating that he was looking for a buyer or backer to develop the mine. 1916- Wongawilli Colliery established by G & C Hoskins Iron & Steel on 18 December. They were having trouble with their blast furnaces at Lithgow as the coke was not strong enough to adequately support the burden in the furnace. In an attempt to overcome the troubles they trialed coke from various sources and found that coke from Illawarra was the most suitable. They were purchasing coke from coke ovens at Bulli, Coledale, Corrimal, Mount Pleasant and other Illawarra coke makers. About 1915 some 75 to 80% of the coke used at Lithgow came from Illawarra. Charles Hoskins eventually settled for a rather small mine at Wongawilli, near Dapto, which was owned by Alexander Lang. This mine had been driven into the No 3 seam as the No 1 seam had petered out at about Mount Kembla. The No 3 seam had a much higher ash content than the No 1 seam had. The first locomotive used during the construction of the line to Coledale and the building of the mine and coke ovens was a small standard gauge Andrew Barclay 0-4-0 saddle tank loco built for the British Tasmanian Charcoal Iron Co. This company built a blast furnace at Redbill Point on the Tamar River in northern Tasmania. The furnace went into service in May 1876 and was permanently shut down in 1877 as the iron produced was too brittle for general use due to the high chromium content in the local ores. What equipment from the plant that was of use to dealers was sold, the remainder was scrapped; the little loco apparently went to a dealer who supposedly sold it to a logging company. In 1916 Hoskins purchased the little loco, had it reconditioned and painted and named it “Wonga”. Hoskins immediate aim was to open the mine in an efficient manner and build an incline down to the bottom of the escarpment where coke ovens were to be erected. A standard gauge railway was to be built from the mine to Brownsville junction. A new portal was established for driving the main haulage tunnel. The initial incline was self acting. Initially there was no transport provided for the men; they had to walk from the bottom to the top and carry their tools, returning by the same manner. The No1 Man Transport that was installed in about 1940 and remained in service until the 1960's. The drive house and machinery have been left pretty much untouched apart from being overgrown with weeds etc. The building and drive are located just below the Bathhouse site. The present Man Transport drive system is located at the pit top was 4

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installed originally as the incline coal haulage system in 1949. With the introduction of the decline conveyor in 1959/60 it was converted to man transport duties in the late 1960's and replaced the original 1940 model No1 Man Transport. The original endless rope coal haulage that was installed in about 1935 was claimed to be the longest endless rope haulage in existence anywhere in the world and the drive system may still be in place. This haulage is underground but quite close to surface and was taken out of service in 1949. The coke ovens were of modern Belgian type with underground flues leading to waste heat boilers for heat recovery. Initially 20 ovens were installed, immediately followed by another 20. All the equipment used for charging the ovens, pushing them and loading the coke into rail tracks was electrically powered using trolley wires to supply power to the moving equipment. Steam from the waste heat boilers was used to generate the electric power demands of the coke ovens machinery and that of the mine. Hand fired grates were provided on the boilers to enable coal to be fired to make up any steam shortfall. Two of the steam engine driven 50 cycle AC power generating machines had previously had a very interesting history. The No 1 set (the second set installed) was a 300 kW Ferranti-Dick Kerr set which was one of the first generating sets installed in the Municipal Council of Sydney’s first powerhouse commissioned at Pyrmont in July, 1904. The set was removed from Pyrmont in 1916 and installed Wongawilli in 1917. The No 2 set (the first set installed) was a new 300 kW Belliss & Morcom machine. The third set installed, No 3, was a 300 kW Browett and Lindley machine which was one of the two sets installed when the PWD Port Kembla power house was commissioned in 1914 to supply power to their new coal loader. Some time after the installation of a much larger new steam turbine based power station in 1920 the Browett & Lindley machines became redundant and were removed; one of them was sold to HI&S installed at Wongawilli in 1926. 1918 - the Wongawilli mine and coke ovens were shut down and a new coal washery was built immediately adjacent to the coke ovens. The mine, washery and coke ovens were again in service by about mid 1920. This was the first coal washery installed in Illawarra. An additional 40 ovens were built soon afterwards and came on line in June 1923, bringing the total to 80. 1921- 7 March, AIS purchased some 380 acres of land at Port Kembla from the Wentworth Estate on which to build their proposed new steelworks. Work commenced on building the new works in mid January 1926. The plan was to initially build a large new blast furnace, new steel making furnaces, new rolling mills, a new spun pipe plant and the necessary associated plant and workshops. Coke supplies were to be taken from the Wongawilli coke ovens augmented with coke from other Illawarra coke works as needed. To cater for the additional coke demand a further 40 coke ovens were built at Wongawilli in 1927. In early 1928 a new company was formed called Australian Iron & Steel (AIS) with HI&S the principal shareholder. The new blast furnace went into service in August 1928. No sooner had the new works settled down the Great Depression began in 1929, this had a drastic 5

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effect on the works and the new blast furnace lay idle for extended periods due to the lack of orders; this in turn reduced the output of coke from Wongawilli. The financial position began to improve in 1934 and AIS began to plan for an expansion of its operations. An additional 28 coke ovens were erected at Wongawilli, bringing the total to 108. 1933 - AIS took over the leases of the South Kembla Colliery from Cam Bros and they were amalgamated into the operations of the adjoining Wongawilli colliery. All the existing South Kembla surface equipment was salvaged for reuse, sold or scrapped. The Broken Hill Propriety Company (BHP) and AIS came to an agreement to amalgamate on 11 October 1935. BHP immediately injected considerable funds into the uprating of AIS operations at Port Kembla. Two major items were the building of a second larger blast furnace; the other was the building of a battery of by-products coke ovens on the Port Kembla steelworks site. The new blast furnace would significantly increase the demand for coke while the new by-products coke ovens battery would mean the closure of the Wongawilli coke ovens. The by-product coke ovens were much more fuel efficient than the old beehive ovens; they also enabled other valuable by-products to be recovered for sale. The new by-products coke ovens came into operation in January 1938. The Wongawilli coke ovens were then progressively closed down. With the closure of the coke ovens power generation from waste heat at the Wongawilli power house came to an end. The coal washery continued to supply washed coal to the Port Kembla coke ovens. In 1936 an endless rope haulage system was installed to lower full skips from inside the mine down to the tippler at the bottom of the escarpment; the empty skips would then be returned up the incline to inside the mine working level. This system was taken out of service about 1949, when the automatic friction hoist comprising two 15 ton track mounted self-loading and dumping wagons were installed. An endless rope man transport system was introduced in about 1940 to transport men to and from the workings To minimise operating costs at their Illawarra collieries AIS constructed a 33 kV transmission line from their Port Kembla steelworks for supplying power to Wongawilli, Keira and Bulli collieries at a much lower cost than they could generate it themselves. This supply was made available to Wongawilli on 18 July 1940. 1952 - A Joy model 4JCM continuous miner went into regular service in Wongawilli. This one of the first three continuous miners to arrive in Australia and the first to go into continuous service in AIS collieries. In 1959 the trunk conveyor belt system was installed to deliver coal from well underground to the surface and lower it down the escarpment to the coal bins. The conveyor delivering coal from within the mine was some 9,000 feet long and at the time was the longest single flight conveyor in the world. The decline conveyor was the only single flight conveyor in existence lowering 6

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coal down some 650 feet. Coal was hauled from Wongawilli colliery along the private branch line to the Brownsville junction, along the State Rail tracks to Unanderra and then by a private line to the steelworks in company owned rail hoppers hauled by company locomotives. 1960 – Joy 15SC shuttle cars placed into service 1961 – Wongawalli commences mining in the Bulli No 1 Seam. 1972 - A vertical mine fan was installed over the No 1 ventilation shaft. This type of fan was a popular design at Mt Isa, but was the only such fan installed on a coal mine site. (In Illawarra or state wide or what?) 1977 – Mining in the Bulli seal ceases 1991 – Mining in the #2 seam recommences for the Elouera roadways. 1993 – Elouers Colliery established from the consolidation of Wongawilli, Nebo and Kemira Collieries. As mentioned above there were numerous firsts at Wongawilli. Wongawilli also pioneered a system of pillar extraction, now referred to as the “Wongawilli System” which is now used in many Australian and overseas coal mines.

THEMES National historical theme State historical theme Mining

Mining

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Historical significance SHR criteria (a)

Historical association significance SHR criteria (b)

APPLICATION OF CRITERIA Important in the course of NSW state and Illawarra history because: • Evidence of key historical theme of mining from 1890s to the present day in the evolution of landuse and character in the Illawarra region – local significance • Long association with the iron and steel industry in NSW through ownership and as a major supplier of coke to the Lithgow iron steelworks (1916-28) and Port Kembla steelworks (1928 onwards – a major employer and dominant industry in the Illawarra. – state significance • Evidence of relationship with the development of the village of Wongawalli and as one of the last mining villages to be established in the Illawarra. – local significance • For its association with the development of mining in the Illawarra and NSW with the introduction of new methods of mining including the pillar extraction method which became known as the Wongawilli method. These were adapted and used where practicable throughout the Illawarra and in other coal fields in Australia and overseas. state significance • For its association with the development of West Dapto railway and the historic ‘Wonga’ locomotive Important in regards to connection with Hoskins Iron & Steel of Lithgow who were attracted to the area and this mine in particular because of the high grade of coal for coke production.

Aesthetic significance SHR criteria (c)

The village subdivision, houses and community buildings associated with the colliery and the pit top structures are of aesthetic significance for its combination of rural and industrial scenery and the contrasts in form, colour and pattern between the escarpments local significance

Social significance SHR criteria (d)

The mine is significant for its long association with the residents (and former residents) of the village and for its meaning with those people. – local significance. What evidence is there of union activities in

Technical/Res earch significance SHR criteria (e)

The longest coal haulage incline installed at Wongawilli. A Joy model 4JCM continuous miner went into regular service in Wongawilli in 1952; this one of the first three continuous miners to arrive in Australia and the first to go into continuous service in AIS collieries. As mentioned above there were numerous firsts at Wongawilli. Wongawilli also pioneered a system of pillar extraction, now referred to as the 8

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Rarity SHR criteria (f)

“Wongawilli System” which is now used in many Australian and overseas coal mines The Wongawilli Colliery section of the West Dapto railway system is the only section still operating. It is supplying coal to the BHP Steelworks’ coke ovens and receiving coal washery refuse for emplacement at Wongawilli A vertical mine fan was installed over the No 1 ventilation shaft in 1972. This type of fan was a popular design at Mt Isa, but was the only such fan installed on a coal mine site. Representative of the characteristic of mining and mining settlements in the Illawarra, in its location on the escarpment and its historical juxtaposition with the rural uses. Older mines to the north have larger villages which have been surrounded by later urban development.

Representativ eness SHR criteria (g)

Integrity

HERITAGE LISTINGS Heritage listing/s

INFORMATION SOURCES Include conservation and/or management plans and other heritage studies. Type Author/Client Title Year Repository Written D.K. Reynolds The Railways of West 2001 Dapto Written Written Don Reynolds, Geoff Mould and Ron Cairns, AusIMMHC Meredith Walker, Glynis Cummins, Michael Lehany and Penelope Pike 2005 Wongawilli Heritage Study 2003 Authors Wollongong City Council Research Library

RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendat That a Heritage Action Statement be carried out before any of the listed items are removed and be considered for preservation as part of the cultural ions landscape. Many of the buildings on site has potential for adaptive reuse including the Inclined Man Transporter which is still operable. The site should be included in a plaque program of coal mines in the Illawarra Region. Include in Oral History program.

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Name of study or report Item number in study or report Author of study or report Inspected by

SOURCE OF THIS INFORMATION Strategic Management Plan for Historic Coal Mining Sites of the Illawarra

Year of study or report

2005

O.H.M. Consultants
D McBeath, M Landau

NSW Heritage Manual guidelines used? This form completed by
D McBeath, M Landau

Yes x Date

No 2005

Image

View from pit top along the line of the Man Transport and power line to the east 10

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caption Image year C 1940 Image by Image copyright holder R Cairns

11

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Image caption Image year

Diesel Locomotive Portal which attaches to original entry to nortern linking of the mine 2005 Image by R Cairns Image copyright holder

12

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Image caption Image year

Wongawilli Incline

2005

Image by

D McBeath

Image copyright holder

13

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Image caption Image year

Workshop at the mine portal level

Image by

Image copyright holder

14

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Image caption Image year

Old Power House, now Mine H/C Storage area

Image by

D McBeath

Image copyright holder

15

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Image caption Image year

Inside Powerhouse

2005

Image by

R Cairns

Image copyright holder

16

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Image caption Image year

Mine Car Dumper Building

2005

Image by

D McBeath

Image copyright holder

17

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Image caption Image year

Incline No. 2 Man Transporter

2005

Image by

R Cairns

Image copyright holder

18

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Image caption Image year

Apprentices and coke oven employees at Wongawilli – taken during the General Strike at all AIS operations in 1945 1945 Image by Image copyright holder R. Cairns

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Image caption Image year

View looking east from pit timber yard toward tippler, workshop and washery

Pre 1940

Image by

Image copyright holder

20

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Image caption Image year

Boiler and powerhouse buildings

C 1916 - 1918

Image by

Image copyright holder

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