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03PPP Ch 3

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03PPP Ch 3 Powered By Docstoc
					THE ROYAL ORDER OF ADJECTIVES
Determiner

Observation

Physical Description Size Shape Age
Color

Origin

Material

Qualifier

Noun

a an

beautiful expensive longstem med short

old
antiq ue

Italian silver

touring

car mirror

four
her

gorgeous

red

silk

roses
hair

black

our
those that several
dilapidated

big
square

old

English wooden hat hunting

sheepdog boxes cabin players food

little
enormous
youn g
American

basketball

some

delicious

Thai

THE ROYAL ORDER OF ADVERBS
Subject/ Verb Manner Place in the pool into town in her room Frequency Time Purpose to keep in shape. to get a newspaper.

Beth swims enthusiastic ally Dad walks Tommy naps impatiently

every morning before dawn every afternoon before supper

every morning before lunch.

In actual practice, of course, it would be highly unusual to have a string of adverbial modifiers beyond two or three (at the most). Because the placement of adverbs is so flexible, one or two of the modifiers would probably move to the beginning of the sentence: “Every afternoon before supper, Dad impatiently walks into town to get a newspaper.” When that happens, the introductory adverbial modifiers are usually set off with a comma.

1. With fractions, percentages and indefinite quantifiers (e.g., all, few, many, much, some), the verb agrees with the preceding noun or clause: • With a singular or non-count noun or clause, use a singular verb. • With a collective noun, use either a singular or a plural verb, depending on whether you want to emphasize the single group or its individual members.

2. The words majority and minority are used in a variety of ways: • When majority/minority mean an unspecified number more or less than 50%, use a singular verb • When majority/minority mean a specific percentage, you may use either a singular or a plural verb • When majority/minority refers to a specified set of persons, use a plural verb: With a collective noun, use either a singular or a plural verb, depending on whether you want to emphasize the single group or its individual members

3. Expressions of time, money and distance usually take a singular verb • Ten dollars is a great deal of money to a child. • Ten kilometers is too far to walk. • Six weeks is not long enough. 4. Adjectives preceded by the and used as plural nouns take a plural verb •The rich get richer. •The poor face many hardships.

5. Expressions using the phrase number of depend on the meaning of the phrase They take a singular verb when referring to a single quantity • The number of students registered in the class is 20. They take plural verbs when they are used as indefinite quantifiers (see rule 1 above): • A number of students were late.

RULE 1 – To join two independent clauses, use a comma followed by a conjunction, a semicolon alone, or a semicolon followed by a sentence modifier.

 The delivery boy knew he carried strange cargo, but still ventured off unafraid.  The delivery boy knew he carried strange cargo, but he still ventured off unafraid.  My math teacher doesn't know how to lecture, she should have remained a student.  My math teacher doesn't know how to lecture; she should have remained a student.  Greg has not changed physically; but has given himself an excuse to separate himself from the pain of previous experiences.  Greg has not changed physically; however, he has given himself an excuse to hide from the pain of previous experiences.

RULE 2 – Use commas to enclose nonrestrictive clauses or phrases, which are not essential to the sentence's meaning.

 The bus driver with her ears tuned to the roar decided to take the grumbling bus on a detour across the football field.  The bus driver, her ears tuned to the roar, decided to take the grumbling bus on a detour across the football field.  My window as dirty as it is reveals the beauty of nature on a snowy morning.  My window, as dirty as it is, reveals the beauty of nature on a snowy morning.  King and Lucille, his customized black Gibson have electrified audiences all over the world.  King and Lucille, his customized black Gibson, have electrified audiences all over the world.

RULE 3 – Do not use commas to bracket phrases that are essential to a sentence's meaning.

 The man, who has too many ties, has too few necks. The man who has too many ties has too few necks.  The cats, with six toes, are a unique attraction of the tour of Hemingway's house. The cats with six toes are a unique attraction of the tour of Hemingway's house.

RULE 4 – When beginning a sentence with an introductory phrase or an introductory (dependent) clause, include a comma.

 After buying the five pound jar of marshmallow spread he set off in search of a bulk portion of peanut butter.  After buying the five pound jar of marshmallow spread, he set off in search of a bulk portion of peanut butter.  With this he bestows the responsibility of his own happiness on his mother and father.  With this, he bestows the responsibility of his own happiness on his mother and father.  As she begins to gain independence it is natural for Greta to regard the idea of dependency as repugnant.  As she begins to gain independence, it is natural for Greta to regard the idea of dependency as

RULE 5 -- To indicate possession, end a singular noun with an apostrophe followed by an "s". Otherwise, the noun's form seems plural.

 Though the lobsters claws were bound, the creature made a threatening gesture as they dropped it in the pot.  Though the lobster's claws were bound, the creature made a threatening gesture as they dropped it in the pot.  In a democracy, anyones vote counts as much as mine.  In a democracy, anyone's vote counts as much as mine.  There is a vast age difference between Victors mother and father.  There is a vast age difference between Victor's mother and father.

RULE 6 -- Use proper punctuation to integrate a quotation into a sentence. If the introductory material is an independent clause, add the quotation after a colon. If the introductory material ends in "thinks," "saying," or some other verb indicating expression, use a comma.

 Tumbling down the hill, Jack yelled: "Gosh, I'm sick of this."  Tumbling down the hill, Jack yelled, "Gosh, I'm sick of this."  Her letter spoke to him in harsh tones, "You never fail to repulse me."  Her letter spoke to him in harsh tones: "You never fail to repulse me."  He views the problem as a slight delay or a sickness that will eventually disappear, "I will go back to sleep for a few minutes and forget all this nonsense."  He views the problem as a slight delay or a sickness that will eventually disappear: "I will go back to sleep for a few minutes and forget all this nonsense."

RULE 7 -- Make the subject and verb agree with each other, not with a word that comes between them.

 The Thanksgiving dinner, right down to the beautiful centerpiece, were devoured by the escaped grizzly.  The Thanksgiving dinner, right down to the beautiful centerpiece, was devoured by the escaped grizzly.  The cart, as well as its contents, were gone.  The cart, as well as its contents, was gone.  The girl, along with her classmates, like the new teacher.  The girl, along with her classmates, likes the new teacher.

RULE 8 -- Be sure that a pronoun, a participial phrase, or an appositive refers clearly to the proper subject.

 Its hump decorated in strings of flowers, the programmer rode the camel through the food court. The programmer rode the camel, its hump decorated in strings of flowers, through the food court.  Filled with bad gas, he drove his car to Tucson despite the knocking. Although it was filled with bad gas, he drove his car to Tucson despite the knocking.

RULE 9 -- Use parallel construction to make a strong point and create a smooth flow.

`I was glad to be departing for Australia but I was nervous when I left my apartment. `I was glad to be departing for Australia but nervous to be leaving my apartment. `The system excels at tasks such as communicating with other computers, processing records, and mathematical calculations. `The system excels at tasks such as communicating with other computers, processing records, and calculating mathematical equations.

RULE 10 -- Use the active voice unless you specifically need to use the passive voice.

 A box of chocolates and a dozen roses were presented to the girl by her boyfriend. The boyfriend presented a box of chocolates and a dozen roses to the girl.  A good score was achieved by the team. The team achieved a good score.  A refund was given to him by the hair regeneration company. The hair regeneration company gave him a refund.

RULE 11 -- Omit unnecessary words.

 I would like to assert that the author should be considered to be a buffoon. The author is a buffoon.  It would be safe to say that Gregor Samsa is not the only character in Franz Kafka's The Metamorphosis to undergo drastic changes.  Gregor Samsa is not the only character in Franz Kafka's The Metamorphosis to undergo drastic change.  Before going to the supermarket, we made a list of the groceries we needed in order to make the food that we intended to eat for dinner  Before going to the supermarket, we made a list of groceries that we needed to prepare dinner.


				
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