Six Sigma and the CMM
Better Software Development
Terrence W. Craft
June 15, 2004
Strive for 0 defects
Inspect input, observe output
What’s a Process?
A sequence of steps performed for a given purpose,
for example, the software development process.
as compared to:
Procedure – a written description of a course of action
to be taken to perform a given task.
A Mature Process
Consistent with the way work actually gets done
Defined, documented, and continuously improving
Supported visibly by management and others
Well controlled—process fidelity is audited and enforced
Constructive use of product and process measurement
Disciplined use of technology
What Are the Benefits
of a Mature Process?
Enables you to focus on the system (and that’s about 85% of the
cause of problems)
People develop their potential more fully and are more
effective within the organization
Bydefining, measuring, and controlling the process, improvements are
more successful and sustained
The likelihood increases of appropriate technology, techniques, and
tools being introduced successfully
Change Is a Process
Disciplined change is the key to success.
– evaluating improvement proposals and
– establishing process improvement
– conducting pilot programs for process
– updating procedures, training, etc.
Improvements are transferred into everyday practice
across the organization.
Value of Fixing Defects Early
Error Correction Costs By Phase
to Correct Error
Taking Dead Aim
Six Sigma = 99.99966% accurate
Five Sigma = 99.9767%
Four Sigma = 99.379%
Three Sigma = 93.32%
Two Sigma = 69.1%
One Sigma = 31%
Failure is the opportunity to begin again more intelligently.
- Henry Ford 8
Why Sigma (s) Levels Matter
Number of defects per million opportunities
6 Sigma = 3.4
5 Sigma = 233
4 Sigma = 6,210
3 Sigma = 66, 807
2 Sigma = 308,537
1 Sigma = 690,000
Six Sigma = process improvement and management philosophy
focused on reducing process output variation. 9
Why Close Isn’t Good Enough
99% accuracy equals…
117,000 pieces of lost first-
class mail per hour
personal checks each day
23,087 lemons among new
computers shipped each
7.2 hours per month without
Even if you’re on the right track, you’ll get
run over if you just sit there. - Will Rogers
Even at 99.9% quality there would be…
– At least 20,000 wrong drug prescriptions per year
– Unsafe drinking water almost 1 hour each month
– No telephone or TV transmission for nearly 10
minutes each week
– Two long or short landings at O’Hare each day
– 25,000 lost or incorrectly delivered articles of mail
– Over 9,000 wrong felony convictions per year
Define D-M-A-I-C is the roadmap for
improving existing processes.
Reduce defects to improve the capability of a
process to exceed customer expectations
– Project charter – Generating solutions
– Stakeholder analysis – Assessing risks and piloting
– SIPOC solutions
– VOC – Planning tools
– Data collection – Quality control
– Validating the measurement – Standardization
system – Monitoring control charts
– Developing a sampling strategy – Evaluating results
– Understanding variation – Key learnings
– Process capability – CMM assessment
– Organizing potential causes
– Verifying causes
– Hypothesis tests
– Regression analysis Where there is an open mind there will always be a frontier.
- Charles F. Kettering
Where To Use DMAIC
Green Belt efforts
Opening a business
Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control 14
Did You Know?
Less than 20% of 194 using Six
companies monitoring Sigma
software quality say they
use Six Sigma to improve
the quality of internally
InformationWeek Research’s Software Quality
17% using Six Sigma
What Are These Things?
The Capability Maturity Six Sigma is a smarter way to
Model describes the stages manage a business or a
through which software department. Six Sigma puts
organizations evolve as they the customer first and uses
define, implement, measure, facts and figures to drive
control, and improve their better solutions. The
s/w processes. The model foundation includes:
provides a guide for – Prevent defects.
selecting process – Reduce variation.
improvement strategies by – Focus on the customer.
facilitating the determination
– Makes decisions based on
of current process facts.
capabilities and the
– Encourage teamwork.
identification of issues most
critical to s/w quality and
What Is the Capability
Maturity Model (CMM)?
Acommon-sense application of process management
and quality improvement concepts to software
development and maintenance
A community-developed guide
A model for organizational improvement
underlying structure for reliable and consistent
CMM-based appraisal methods
Capability Maturity Model
Key Process Areas Result
Level Characteristic Key Process Areas Productivity
Continuous process Process change management
(5) capability Technology change management
improvement Defect prevention
Managed Product quality Software quality management
(4) planning; tracking of Quantitative process management
process Peer reviews
Defined Software process Intergroup coordination
(3) defined and Software product engineering
institutionalized to Integrated software management
provide product Organization process definition
quality control Organization process focus
Repeatable Management oversight Software configuration management
(2) and tracking of project; Software quality assurance
stable planning and Software subcontract management
product baselines Software project tracking & oversight
Software project planning
Initial Ad hoc (success "People" Risk
(1) depends on heroes)
Six Sigma & CMM Relationship
It is not necessary to change. Survival is not mandatory.
W. Edwards Deming
Showing improvements; ROI, quantifiable
– Six Sigma tools and focus on measurements
Requirements – the model assumes you
– Maybe not. Six Sigma can help define,
quantify, and illuminate
Do what you can, with what you have, where you are.
- Theodore Roosevelt
Why Use Both?
CMM is the leading framework for
assessing and improving an
organization’s software practices. It gives
us the ―what‖ should be done.
Six Sigma is a business management
discipline focused on engineering for
superior quality as defined by the
customer needs. Six Sigma gives us the tools
for ―how‖ to do it.
Capability Versus Performance
Process capability – the range of expected results that can be
achieved by following a process, initially established at the
organization level. A predictor of future project outcomes.
Process performance – a measure of the actual results achieved
from following a process. Refers to a particular project in the
Which pilot would A
2 A 4
How do you think
Would you B1 4 9
A project is a problem scheduled for solution
- J. M. Juran
THE PROCESS IMPROVEMENT LIFECYCLE
Set performance execute
Performance gap individual Improve
Understand (training, tools,
Modify M M Replace
design I D design
THE ROLE OF THE PROCESS OWNER IS TO MANAGE THE PROCESS LIFECYCLE.
DMAIC – Define, Measure, Analyze,
– Sometimes seen as DMAIIC – Define, Measure,
Analyze, Improve, Implement, Control
DMADV – Define, Measure, Analyze,
Whatever is worth doing at all is worth doing well.
- Philip Dormer Stanhope
PDCA is Where It's At
Credit for PDCA to Walter Shewart; also often
attributed to W. Edwards Deming.
CMM gives us the ―what‖ should be done;
Six Sigma gives us the ―how‖ to do it.
When the thinking changes, the organization changes, and vice versa.
- Gerald Weinberg 27
Using Six Sigma to help implement a
CMM will provide:
– discrete and macro measures to ensure
improvement targets are achieved,
– a proven way to close process gaps, and
– control processes to insure sustainability
Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control 28
Questions, Comments, Concerns?
…in other words, does this make sense?
Email & voice
– Tel. 402-222-5598/402-880-7656
Thank you for coming today!