13 Kullgren

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					Crash recorders – opening up the box
Anders Kullgren Head of road traffic safety research at Folksam

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Delta-V 52.1 km/h Mean acc 12.6 g Peak acc 31.7 g

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Crash recorders - content
• Why crash recorders? • Potential applications • Different types of recorders / running crash recorder projects • Examples of results • Summary

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Benefits of using crash recorders
• Increased quality of accident data
– Increased accuracy of data – Possibility to use information previously not possible to obtain

• Better evaluation of new safety technology
• Knowledge of injury thresholds for the design of a crashworthy road transport system • Better understanding of injury causes and injury mechanisms • Influence on accident involvement risk? • Useful from legal aspects (insurance) • Information used for ”e-Call”systems
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Some applications
• Pre-crash data to investigate collision causation
– Evaluation of active safety systems

• Crash data to investigate crashworthiness
– Evaluation of interior safety systems – Calculate injury risk versus impact severity

• Accident reconstruction
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minor injuries AIS1+ (n=278) moderate injuries AIS2+ (n=72) serious injuries AIS3+ (n=18)

Risk

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Mean acceleration (g)

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Furhter applications
• Linking laboratory to real-life crashes – Reconstruction of occupant kinematics using advanced occupant simulation codes with real-life data, such as crash pulse and car characteristics, as input
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Risk

– Calculate injury risk functions and injury tolerance levels

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Symptoms > 1 m

– Validation of injury criteria

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Types of crash recorders
• Purpose of the recorder
– Research – Legal aspects and accident involvement

• Pre crash, crash and post crash data • Type of parameters recorded
– Performance of the car – Crash severity – Driver behaviour

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Examples of running “large fleet” projects
• Since 1990s - GM and Ford cars (more advanced in late

90s)
• Since 1995 - Volvo DARR in Volvo cars – approx 500.000 cars fitted

• Other manufacturers, Saab etc…
• Since 1992 - Folksam CPR project - 220.000 cars fitted with Crash Pulse Recorders

• Since 1995 - UDS in Austria, Switzerland and Germany…
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Storage and availability of data
• Important that such data can be available for research purposes • Important for designers of both road infrastructure and cars

• Who will have access to the data?

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Some examples of results from the Folksam crash recorder database
• Example of crash • Exposure data • Injury risk • Evaluation of safety technology (airbag)

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Toyota Yaris – Saab 900 (old)
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Delta-V 52.1 km/h Mean acc 12.6 g Peak acc 31.7 g

acceleration (g) change of velocity (km/h)

time (ms)

Minor injuries (clav. fracture)

Driver + front seat pass. fatally injured
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Number of crashes and injured - Delta-V
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No injury (n=174) AIS1 (n=206) AIS2 (n=54) AIS3+ (n=18)

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Delta-V (km/h)

n=452

Injury risk - Delta-V
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Risk

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AIS1+ (n=278) AIS2+ (n=72) AIS3+ (n=18)
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Delta-V (km/h)

n=452
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Influence of airbags on risk of whiplash injury in frontal impacts (1999 figures)
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Cars with airbags (n=88) Cars without airbags (n=36) Airbag deployment (n=88)

Probability

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peak acceleration (g)

Summary
• Crash recorders are important
– for evaluation of new safety technology
– to get knowledge of injury thresholds for the design of a crashworthy road transport system

• Important to encourage initiatives where data can be available for research

institutes and governmental bodies
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Wider use
• A wider use of crash recorders or event data recorders is desirable. A mandatory fitment of such devices would help but is not necessary. • It is important to ensure that data from recorders will be collected and stored in such a way that it is available to designers of both cars and road-side objects, and especially to the responsible bodies for the road transport system.

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posted:12/23/2009
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