Prestressed Concrete I-Beam and TxGirder Haunch Design Guide

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					Prestressed Concrete I-Beam and TxGirder Haunch Design Guide Components of the Haunch
Camber: Camber is the upward deflection in the beam after release of the prestressing strands due to the eccentricity of the force in the strands. The camber of the beam is usually the largest contribution to haunch. As camber increases, so does haunch.

Figure 1. Camber of Beam (Before Slab is Placed) Dead Load Deflection: The dead load deflection used in haunch calculations is the deflection due to the dead load of the slab only. The dead load helps lessen the haunch. As the dead load deflection increases the haunch decreases. Note: The dead load deflection calculated is for a cast-in-place slab. Where prestressed concrete panels are used, deflections used to screed the roadway surface will be different since the deflection due to the panels will already be there.

Figure 2. Beam After Slab is Placed Cross Slope: The cross slope is the slope of the slab across the transverse section of the beam. The cross slope correction (CSC) is the distance from the bottom of the slab to the top of the beam at the center of the top flange needed to prevent encroachment of the beam into the slab at the lowest point of the cross slope. The CSC is needed for I-beams since the beams are placed vertically on the bearing pads. As CSC increases the haunch also increases.

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Figure 3. Cross Slope Correction Vertical Clearance Ordinate (VCO): The VCO is the distance from the BGS reference line to the roadway surface. The reference line is the chorded roadway surface between center of bearings. The VCO is given in the BGS output as negative when the roadway surface is above the reference line and positive below the reference line. When the VCO is negative (crest curve) the haunch decreases at center of bearing, and when the VCO is positive (sag curve) the haunch increases at center of bearing.

Figure 4. VCO with Respect to BGS Reference Line

Figure 5. All Haunch Components Working Together

Minimum and Maximum Haunch Values
For I-beams: o The maximum haunch without reinforcing is 3”. o The minimum haunch at the center of bearing is 1” for I-Beams to ensure there is haunch concrete under the prestressed concrete panels. o The minimum haunch at midspan is ½” to accommodate bedding strips for prestressed concrete panels.

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For TxGirders: o The maximum haunch without reinforcing is 3 ½”. o The minimum haunch at the center of bearing is 2” to accommodate the thickened slab end since the TxGirder flange is too thin to notch like the I-beam. o The minimum haunch at midspan is ½” to accommodate bedding strips for prestressed concrete panels.

Steps to Calculating Haunch
Step 1 ~ Execute a preliminary BGS run using a beam framing option from 1-10 in the FOPT card. On the BRNG card, input a “Depth Below the Reference Line”, or bearing deduct, of zero. This gives the VCLR output as the VCO defined above. Include a VCLR card for each span with the bridge alignment as the specified alignment. Step 2 ~ Examine BGS output. The vertical ordinate (VO) will be given along the beam at as many segments as defined in the VCLR card. The first and last columns of each VCLR table are the ordinates at the center of bearings and should equal zero. The VO taken at midspan is used in haunch calculations. This corresponds to the 0.5L column in the VCLR table as shown below. The sign convention shown in BGS should be used in the haunch calculations.

Figure 6. BGS Output of VCLR Table Step 3 ~ Calculate the required minimum haunch at center of bearing at center of beam top flange that will work for all I-Beams in a span. Min. Haunchreq’d = C + VCO – 0.8 Where, C = camber of the I-Beam, ft (taken from PSTRS14 “Beam Summary Report” or PGSuper “TxDOT Summary Report” under “Camber and Deflection” for the estimated camber at 120 days. NOTE: PGSuper gives camber in inches. The camber will need to be converted to feet for the above equation.)
DL

+ CSC + Min. HaunchCL Span

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VCO = vertical clearance ordinate at midspan, ft (taken from BGS VCLR output table) = absolute value of dead load deflection of I-Beam at midspan DL due to slab only, ft (taken from PSTRS14 “Beam Summary Report” at midspan or PGSuper “TxDOT Summary Report” under “Camber and Deflection” for deflections of slab and diaphragms. NOTE: PGSuper gives dead load deflection in inches. The dead load deflection will need to be converted to feet for the above equation.) CSC = cross slope correction, ft = CS x 0.5wf Where, CS = cross slope of slab above beam top flange, ft/ft wf = width of top flange, ft Min. HaunchCL Span = minimum haunch at midspan measured at the edge of the beam flange Use the largest required haunch value for that span: HaunchCL Brg = Min. Haunchreq’d (round up to the nearest ¼”) This haunch value will be the haunch at center of bearing for each I-beam in that span. Step 4 ~ Calculate the haunch at center of span at center of beam top flange. HaunchCL Span = HaunchCL Brg – C – VCO + 0.8
DL

– CSC

Step 5 ~ Calculate the slab dimensions at the center of bearing, “X”, the theoretical slab dimensions at mid-span, “Z”, and the depth from top of slab to bottom of beam at center of bearing, “Y”, for each I-Beam in the span. “X” = HaunchCL Brg + ts “Y” = “X” + Beam Depth “Z” = HaunchCL Span + ts + CSC Where, ts = slab thickness

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Figure 7. “X” and “Z” Dimensions in Elevation View

Figure 8. “X”, “Y”, and “Z” Dimensions in Section View NOTE: “Z” is a theoretical dimension Step 6 ~ Calculate the required bearing deduct used in computing the final bearing seat elevations. Bearing Deduct = “Y” + Bearing Pad Thickness (Values should be rounded to the nearest 1/8”)

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Vertical Curve Effects on Haunch
Sag and Crest curve effects on haunches are shown below. Figure 9 shows a sag curve, which creates a minimum haunch at midspan with a much larger haunch at the ends. Figure 10 shows a large crest curve with respect to the beam camber. In this case, there is more haunch at midspan than at the ends. Figure 11 shows a typical crest curve where there is less haunch at midspan than at the ends.

Figure 9. Sag Curve Effect on Haunch

Figure 10. Large Crest Curve Effect on Haunch

Figure 11. Small Crest Curve Effect on Haunch

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Superelevation Transition Effects on Haunch
Superelevation transitions can create unusual VCO patterns. The typical VCO pattern is a parabolic shape with a maximum at midspan. When there is a superelevation transition that starts or ends in a span the VCLR table of BGS needs to be looked at more closely to determine if the haunch needs to be calculated at points other than midspan. This also applies when a superelevation transition ends at a skewed bent because all the beams not along the PGL will see the same effects as if the superelevation transition was terminated within the span. When the VCO output has an unusual pattern as shown below in Figure 12, the haunch needs to be calculated at multiple points along the beams since the camber and dead load deflection vary along the beam. This means that it is incorrect to calculate the haunch using the critical VCO and the camber and dead load deflection from midspan when the critical VCO does not happen at midspan. When considering quarter points, dead load deflection can be calculated as 0.7123 x DL and camber can be estimated as 0.7123 x C. Figures 13 through 17 give a visual representation of the superelevation transition on the bridge. In general, the use of superelevation transitions increases the haunch in order to prevent encroachment of the beam into the slab.

Figure 12. BGS VCLR Table Output for Superelevation Transition

Figure 13. Elevation View of a Superelevation Transition

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Figure 14. Section A-A (House top cross-slope)

Figure 15. Section B-B (Full superelevation)

Figure 16. Section C-C
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Figure 17. Detail A

Example I-Beam Haunch Calculations
This bridge consists of 3 TY IV I-beam spans with a crest curve. It has a 2% house top cross slope with no superelevation transition. The layout is shown in Figure 19. The below calculations are shown for Span 2 (115ft) only. Step 1 ~ Execute a preliminary BGS run. As shown in Figure 20, the beam framing option used is 5, the bearing deduct (depth below the reference line) is set to zero, and there is a VCLR card for every span using the bridge alignment. Step 2 ~ Examine BGS output. As shown in Figure 18, the first and last columns of the VCLR table for Span 2 are zero. Also, the VCO values are all negative indicating a crest curve. For these haunch calculations we will be using the VCO at midspan. Figure 18 shows the VCO as -0.19ft for all the beams in the span.

Figure 18. BGS VCLR Table Output

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Figure 19. Bridge Layout

Figure 20. BGS Input
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Step 3 ~ Calculate the required minimum haunch at center of bearing at center of beam top flange that will work for all I-Beams in a span. Since all beams have the same VCO, Camber, and Dead Load Deflection, the haunch will be the same for all beams. Using PSTRS 14 (Figure 21) Min. Haunchreq’d = C + VCO – 0.8

DL

+ CSC + Min. HaunchCL Span

C = 0.379ft (From PSTRS14) VCO = -0.19ft (From BGS) DL = 0.1678ft (From PSTRS14) CSC = CS x 0.5wf = 0.02 ft/ft x 0.5(20in/12) = 0.0167ft Min. HauchCL Span = 0.5in/12 = 0.0417ft Min. Haunchreq’d = 0.379ft + -0.19ft – 0.8(0.1678ft) + 0.0167ft + 0.0417ft = 0.113ft = 1.358in The required haunch at center of bearing is greater than the 1” minimum. (Okay) Rounding the required haunch up to the nearest ¼” gives a haunch for Span 2 of 1.5”. HaunchCL Brg = 1.5in

Figure 21. PSTRS14 Beam Summary Report
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Using PGSuper (Figure 22) Min. Haunchreq’d = C + VCO – 0.8

DL

+ CSC + Min. HaunchCL Span

C = 4.770in = 0.398ft (From PGSuper) VCO = -0.19ft (From BGS) DL = 2.012in = 0.1677ft (From PGSuper) CSC = CS x 0.5wf = 0.02 ft/ft x 0.5(20in/12) = 0.0167ft Min. HauchCL Span = 0.5in/12 = 0.0417ft Min. Haunchreq’d = 0.398 + -0.19ft – 0.8(0.1677) + 0.0167ft + 0.0417ft = 0.1322ft = 1.587in The required haunch at center of bearing is greater than the 1” minimum. (Okay) Rounding the required haunch up to the nearest ¼” gives a haunch for Span 2 of 1.75”. HaunchCL Brg = 1.75in

Figure 22. PGSuper, TxDOT Summary Report, Camber and Deflection Table

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Step 4 ~ Calculate the haunch at center of span at center of beam top flange. The haunch used for the remaining calculations will be from PSTRS14. HaunchCL Span = HaunchCL Brg – C – VCO + 0.8 HaunchCL Brg = 1.5in = 0.125ft C = 0.379ft VCO = -0.19ft DL = 0.1678ft CSC = 0.0167ft HaunchCL Span = 0.125ft – 0.379ft – (-0.19ft) + 0.8(0.1678ft) – 0.0167ft = 0.0535ft = 0.642in Step 5 ~ Calculate “X”, “Z”, and “Y”. “X” = HaunchCL Brg + ts HaunchCL Brg = 1.5in ts = 8in “X” = 1.5in + 8in = 9 ½”
DL

– CSC

“Y” = “X” + Beam Depth “X” = 9.5in Beam Depth = 54in “Y” = 9.5in + 54in = 63.5in = 5’-3 ½” “Z” = HaunchCL Span + ts + CSC HaunchCL Span = 0.642in ts = 8in CSC = 0.0167ft = 0.200in “Z” = 0.642in + 8in + 0.200in = 8.842in ~ 8 7/8” Step 6 ~ Calculate the required bearing deduct. Bearing Deduct = “Y” + Bearing Pad Thickness “Y” = 63.5in Bearing Pad Thickness = 2.75in Bearing Deduct = 63.5in + 2.75in = 66.25in = 5’-6 ¼”

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