Learning Center
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out

Caribbean Caribbean 1

VIEWS: 447 PAGES: 15




Size Population (2000) Ethnic groups Demonym Government Largest cities

An archipelago, 4020 kilometres (2500 mi) in length, and up to 257 kilometres (160 mi) wide; region contains more than 7,000 islands, islets, reefs, and cays 37.5 million

Africans, Native Americans (Arawak, Caribs, Tainos), Europeans (Spanish, French, English, Portuguese, Dutch), Asian (Chinese, Indian) West Indian, Caribbean, American 13 sovereign states; also, 2 overseas departments and 14 dependent territories, tied to the European Union or to the United States Havana Santo Domingo Port-au-Prince Kingston San Juan Port of Spain Multiple Multiple UTC-5 to UTC-4

Internet TLD Calling code Time Zone

The Caribbean[2] is a region consisting of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (most of which enclose the sea), and the surrounding coasts. The region is located southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and Northern America, east of Central America, and to the north of South America. Situated largely on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 7,000 islands, islets, reefs, and cays. These islands, called the West Indies, generally form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea.[3] These islands are called the West Indies because when Christopher Columbus landed here in 1492 he believed that he had reached the Indies (in Asia).

Central America and the Caribbean

The region consists of the Antilles, divided into the larger Greater Antilles which bound the sea on the north and the Lesser Antilles on the south and east (including the Leeward Antilles), and the Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands, which are in fact in the Atlantic Ocean north of Cuba, not in the Caribbean Sea.



Geo-politically, the West Indies are usually regarded as a sub-region of North America[4] [5] [6] [7] and are organized into 27 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, and dependencies. At one time, there was a short-lived country called the Federation of the West Indies composed of ten English-speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were then UK dependencies. The region takes its name from that of the Carib, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of European contact.[8]

Detail of tectonic plates from: Tectonic plates of the world

The word "Caribbean" has multiple uses. Its principal ones are geographical and political.The Caribbean can also be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonization and the plantation system. • Physio-graphically, the Caribbean region is mainly a chain of islands surrounding the Caribbean Sea. To the north is the Caribbean Sea bordered by the Gulf of Mexico, the Straits of Florida, and the Northern Atlantic Ocean which lies to the East and Northeast; the coastline of the continent of South America lies to the south. • Politically, "Caribbean" may be centered around socio-economic groupings found in the region. For example the bloc known as the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) contains both the Co-operative Republic of Guyana and the Republic of Suriname found in South America, along with Belize in Central America as full members. Bermuda and the Turks and Caicos Islands which are found in the Atlantic Ocean are Associate members of the Caribbean Community, and the same goes for the Commonwealth of the Bahamas which is a full member of the Caribbean Community.' • Alternately the organization known as the Association of Caribbean States (ACS) consists of almost every nation in the surrounding regions which lie on the Caribbean Sea plus El Salvador which lies solely on the Pacific Ocean. According to the ACS the total population of its member states is some 227 million people.[9]

The population of the Caribbean is estimated to have been around 750,000 immediately before European contact, although lower and higher figures are given. After contact, genocide and disease led to a decline in the Native American population.[10] [11] From 1500 to 1800 the population rose as slaves arrived from West Africa,[12] such as the Kongo, Ghana Ashante, Liberia Mende, Nigeria Igbo, Yoruba and Akan, and immigrants from Britain, France, Spain, the Netherlands, Portugal and Denmark, although the mortality rate was high for both groups.[13] The population is estimated to have reached 2.2 million by Beach in Tobago 1800.[14] Immigrants from India, China, and other countries arrived in the 19th century.[15] After the ending of the Atlantic slave trade, the population increased naturally.[16] The total regional population was estimated at 37.5 million by 2000.[1]



The majority of the Caribbean has populations of mainly Africans in the French Caribbean, Anglophone Caribbean and Dutch Caribbean, there are minorities of mixed-race and European peoples of Dutch, English, French and Portuguese ancestry. Asians, especially those of Chinese and Indian descent, form a significant minority in the region and also contribute to multiracial communities. Many of their ancestors arrived in the 19th century as indentured laborers. The Spanish-speaking Caribbean have primarily mixed race, African, or European majorities. The Dominican Republic has mixed majority of Puerto Cruz beach in Margarita Island, Venezuela African, European, and Native; Puerto Rico and Cuba have a mixed majority of the same components; however, census racords show that many identify as white. The mixtures are those who are primarily descended from West Africans, Native Americans, and Spaniards; It is speculated that in many census reports, African an Indigenous populations were left out or not taken up due to a lax by government organizations. Trinidad and Tobago has a multi-racial cosmopolitan society due to the arrival of the Africans, Indians, Chinese, Syrians, Lebanese and Europeans. This multi-racial mix has created sub-ethnicities that often straddle the boundaries of major ethnicities and include Chindian and Dougla.

Indigenous tribes
• • • • • • • • • • Arawak Taíno Kalinago Ciboney Ciguayo Galibi Garifuna Igneri Lucayan Macorix

Spanish, English, French, Dutch, Haitian Creole and Papiamento are the predominant official languages of various countries in the region, though a handful of unique Creole languages or dialects can also be found from one country to another.

The largest religious groups in the region are: Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Rastafari, Santería, and Voodoo among others.



Geography and climate
The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies. Some islands in the region have relatively flat terrain of non-volcanic origin. These islands include Aruba (possessing only minor volcanic features), Barbados, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, The Bahamas or Antigua. Others possess rugged towering mountain-ranges like the islands of Cuba, Dominica, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Montserrat, Puerto Rico, Saba, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe, and Trinidad & Tobago. The climate of the region is tropical but rainfall varies with elevation, size and water currents (cool upwellings keep the ABC islands arid). Warm, moist tradewinds blow consistently from the east creating rainforest/semidesert divisions on mountainous islands. Occasional northwesterlies affect the northern islands in the winter. Winters are warm, but drier. The waters of the Caribbean Sea host large, migratory schools of fish, turtles, and coral reef formations. The Puerto Rico trench, located on the fringe of the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea just to the north of the island of Puerto Rico, is the deepest point in all of the Atlantic Ocean.[17]
San Juan, Puerto Rico

Ile a Vache, Haiti

Hurricanes, which at times batter the region, usually strike northwards of Grenada, and to the west of Barbados. The principal hurricane belt arcs to northwest of the island of Barbados in the Eastern Caribbean. The region sits in the line of several major shipping routes with the man-made Panama Canal connecting the western Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean.

Historical groupings
All islands at some point were, and a few still are, colonies of European nations; a few are overseas or dependent territories: • British West Indies/Anglophone Caribbean – Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Bay Islands, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Croix (briefly), Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago (from 1797) and the Turks and Caicos Islands,and Guyana • Danish West Indies – present-day United States Virgin Islands • Dutch West Indies – present-day Netherlands Antilles and Aruba, Virgin Islands, Saint Croix (briefly), Tobago and Bay Islands (briefly) • French West Indies – Anguilla (briefly), Antigua and Barbuda (briefly), Dominica, Dominican Republic (briefly), Grenada, Haiti, Montserrat (briefly), Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sint Eustatius (briefly), St Kitts (briefly), Tobago (briefly), Saint Croix, the current French overseas départements of Martinique and Guadeloupe (including Marie-Galante, La Désirade and Les Saintes), and the current French overseas collectivities of Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin/Saint Maarten. • Portuguese West Indies – present-day Barbados, known as Os Barbados in the 1500s when the Portuguese claimed the island en route to Brazil. The Portuguese left Barbados abandoned in 1533, nearly a century prior to the British arrival to the island.

Caribbean • Spanish West Indies – Cuba, Hispaniola (present-day Dominican Republic, and until 1609, Haiti), Puerto Rico, Jamaica (until 1655), the Cayman Islands, Trinidad (until 1797) and Bay Islands (until 1643) • Swedish West Indies – present-day French Saint-Barthélemy and Guadeloupe (briefly). • Courlander West Indies – Tobago (until 1691) The British West Indies were united by the United Kingdom into a West Indies Federation between 1958 and 1962. The independent countries formerly part of the B.W.I. still have a joint cricket team that competes in Test matches and One Day Internationals. The West Indian cricket team includes the South American nation of Guyana, the only former British colony on that continent. In addition, these countries share the University of the West Indies as a regional entity. The university consists of three main campuses in Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, a smaller campus in the Bahamas and Resident Tutors in other contributing territories.
The mostly Spanish-controlled Caribbean in the sixteenth century


Modern day island territories

Islands in and near the Caribbean

• • • • • • • • • •

 Anguilla (British overseas territory)  Antigua and Barbuda  Aruba (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)  Bahamas  Barbados  British Virgin Islands (British overseas territory)  Cayman Islands (British overseas territory)  Cuba  Dominica  Dominican Republic

Caribbean • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •  Grenada  Guadeloupe (overseas department of France)  Haiti  Jamaica  Martinique (overseas department of France)  Montserrat (British overseas territory)  Netherlands Antilles (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)  Puerto Rico (commonwealth of the United States)  Saint Barthélemy (overseas collectivity of France)  Saint Kitts and Nevis  Saint Lucia  Saint Martin (overseas collectivity of France)  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Trinidad and Tobago  Turks and Caicos Islands (British overseas territory)  United States Virgin Islands (territory of the United States)


Continental countries with Caribbean coastlines and islands


• • • • • • • • •  Nicaragua Corn Islands Cayos Miskitos Pearl Cays  Panama San Blas Islands (comprising more than 1300 islands) Bocas del Toro Archipelago (archipelago with approximately 300 islands)  United States Florida Keys • Upper Keys • Middle Keys • Lower Keys • Outlying Islands Navassa Island  Venezuela • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Isla Margarita Coche Island Cubagua Island Los Monjes Archipelago Las Aves Archipelago Isla Aves Los Hermanos Archipelago Islas Los Frailes Los Roques Archipelago La Sola Island La Tortuga Island La Orchila Blanquilla Island Los Testigos Islands Isla de Patos

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

 Belize Ambergris Caye Belize City Big Creek Caye Caulker Glover's Reef Hicks Cays Lighthouse Reef South Water Caye Turneffe Islands  Colombia Archipelago of San Andres and Providencia Barranquilla Cartagena Riohacha Santa Marta  Costa Rica  France French Guiana  Guatemala  Guyana Hog Island Leguan Island Wakenaam  Honduras Guanaja Roatán Útila Cayos Cochinos Swan Islands  Mexico Quintana Roo • • • • • • Cancún Chetumal Isla Contoy Isla Cozumel Isla Mujeres Cozumel

• •

The nations of Belize and Guyana, although on the mainland of Central America and South America respectively, are former British colonies and maintain many cultural ties to the Caribbean. They are members of CARICOM. Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast, often referred to as the Mosquito Coast, was also a former British colony. It maintains many cultural ties to the Caribbean as distinct from the Pacific coast. Guyana participates in West Indies cricket tournaments and many players from Guyana have been on the West Indies Test cricket team. The Turneffe Islands (and many other islands and reefs) are part of Belize and lie in the Caribbean Sea. The nation of Suriname, on the mainland of South America, is a former Dutch colony and also a member of CARICOM.



The Caribbean islands are classified as one of Conservation International's biodiversity hotspots because they support exceptionally diverse ecosystems, ranging from montane cloud forests to cactus scrublands. These ecosystems have been devastated by deforestation and human encroachment. The arrival of the first humans is correlated with extinction of giant owls and dwarf ground sloths.[18] The hotspot contains dozens of highly threatened species, ranging from birds, to mammals and reptiles. Popular examples include the Puerto Rican Amazon, two species of solenodon (giant shrews) in Cuba and Haiti, and the Cuban crocodile. The hotspot is also remarkable for the decimation of its fauna.

Saona Island, Dominican Republic

Caribbean societies are very different from other western societies in terms of size, culture, and degree of mobility of their citizens.[19] The current economic and political problems which the states face individually are common to all Caribbean states. Regional development has contributed to attempts to subdue current problems and avoid projected problems. From a political economic perspective, regionalism serves to make Caribbean states active participants in current international affairs through collective coalitions. In 1973, the first political regionalism in the Caribbean Basin was created by advances of the English-speaking Caribbean nations through the institution known as the Caribbean Common Market and Community (CARICOM).[20] Certain scholars have argued both for and against generalizing the political structures of the Caribbean. On the one hand the Caribbean states are politically diverse, ranging from communist systems such as Cuba toward more capitalist Westminster-style parliamentary systems as in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Other scholars argue that these differences are superficial, and that they tend to undermine commonalities in the various Caribbean states. Contemporary Caribbean systems seem to reflect a “blending of traditional and modern patterns, yielding hybrid systems that exhibit significant structural variations and divergent constitutional traditions yet ultimately appear to function in similar ways.”[21] The political systems of the Caribbean states share similar practices. The influence of regionalism in the Caribbean is often marginalized. Some scholars believe that regionalism cannot not exist in the Caribbean because each small state is unique. On the other hand, scholars also suggest that there are commonalities amongst the Caribbean nations that suggest regionalism exists. “Proximity as well as historical ties among the Caribbean nations has led to cooperation as well as a desire for collective action.”[22] These attempts at regionalization reflect the nations' desires to compete in the international economic system.[22] Furthermore, a lack of interest from other major states promoted regionalism in the region. In recent years the Caribbean has suffered from a lack of U.S. interest. “With the end of the Cold War, U.S. security and economic interests have been focused on other areas. As a result there has been a significant reduction in U.S. aid and investment to the Caribbean.”[23] The lack of international support for these small, relatively poor states, helped regionalism prosper.

Caribbean Following the Cold War another issue of importance in the Caribbean has been the reduced economic growth of some Caribbean States due to the United States and European Union's allegations of special treatment toward the region by each other. United States effects on regionalism The United States under President Bill Clinton launched a challenge in the World Trade Organization against the EU over Europe's preferential program, known as the Lomé Convention, which allowed banana exports from the former colonies of the Group of African, Caribbean and Pacific states (ACP) to enter Europe cheaply.[24] The World Trade Organization sided in the United States' favour and the beneficial elements of the convention to African, Caribbean and Pacific states has been partially dismantled and replaced by the Cotonou Agreement.[25] During the US/EU dispute the United States imposed large tariffs on European Union goods (up to 100% on some imports) from the EU in order to pressure Europe to change the agreement with the Caribbean nations in favour of the Cotonou Agreement.[26] Farmers in the Caribbean have complained of their falling profits and rising costs. Americas St Vincent hit by banana war]</ref>[27] European Union effects on regionalism The European Union has also taken issue with US based taxation extended to US companies via the Caribbean countries. The EU instituted a broad labeling of many nations as tax havens by the France-based OECD. The United States has not been in favor of shutting off the practice yet, mainly due to the higher costs that would be passed on to US companies via taxation. Caribbean countries have largely countered the allegations by the OECD by signing more bilateral information sharing deals with OECD members, thus reducing the dangerous aspects of secrecy, and they have strengthened their legislation against money laundering and on the conditions under which companies can be based in their nations. The Caribbean nations have also started to more closely cooperate in the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force and other instruments to add oversight of the offshore industry. One of the most important associations that deal with regionalism amongst the nations of the Caribbean Basin has been the Association of Caribbean States (ACS). Proposed by CARICOM in 1992, the ACS soon won the support of the other countries of the region. It was founded in July 1994. The ACS maintains regionalism within the Caribbean on issues which are unique to the Caribbean Basin. Through coalition building, like the ACS and CARICOM, regionalism has become an undeniable part of the politics and economics of the Caribbean. The successes of region-building initiatives are still debated by scholars, yet regionalism remains prevalent throughout the Caribbean.


Regional institutions
Here are some of the bodies that several islands share in collaboration: • • • • • • • • • Association of Caribbean States (ACS), Trinidad and Tobago Caribbean Association of Industry and Commerce (CAIC), Trinidad and Tobago[28] Caribbean Association of National Telecommunication Organizations (CANTO), Trinidad and Tobago[29] Caribbean Community (CARICOM), Guyana Caribbean Development Bank (CDB), Barbados Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency (CDERA), Barbados Caribbean Educators Network,[30] Caribbean Electric Utility Services Corporation (CARILEC), Saint Lucia[31] Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC), Barbados and Jamaica

• Caribbean Food Crop Society • Caribbean Hotel Association (CHA), Puerto Rico[32] • Caribbean Programme for Economic Competitiveness (CPEC), Saint Lucia

Caribbean Caribbean Regional Environmental Programme (CREP), Barbados[33] Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM), Belize[34] Caribbean Regional Negotiating Machinery (CRNM), Barbados and Dominican Republic[35] Caribbean Telecommunications Union (CTU), Trinidad and Tobago[36] Caribbean Tourism Organisation (CTO), Barbados Inter-American Economic Council (IAEC), Washington, D.C. Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), Saint Lucia Latin American and Caribbean Internet Addresses Registry (LACNIC), Brazil and Uruguay United Nations - Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), Chile and Trinidad and Tobago • University of the West Indies, Jamaica, Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago[37] • West Indies Cricket Board, Antigua and Barbuda[38] • • • • • • • • •


Favorite or National dishes • • • • • • • • •  Anguilla - Rice and Peas and Fish  Antigua and Barbuda - Fungee & Pepperpot  Bahamas - Crack Conch with Peas and Rice[39]  Barbados - Cou-Cou and Flying fish  British Virgin Islands - Fish and fungee  Cayman Islands - Turtle Stew  Cuba - Platillo Moros y Cristianos, Ajiaco  Dominica - Mountain chicken  Dominican Republic - White rice topped with stewed red kidney beans, pan fried or braised beef, and side dish of green salad and/or tostones, or the ever popular Dominican dish known as Mangú which is mashed plantains. The ensemble is usually called bandera nacional, which means "national flag", a term equivalent to the Venezuelan pabellón criollo.  Grenada - Oil-Down  Guyana - beef/chicken/potatoe curry and roti, catahar, callaloo, dhal and rice, plantains, white pudding, pumpkin and rice, okra, pepperpot, catfish curry  Haiti - Griot (Fried pork) served with Du riz a pois or Diri ak Pwa (Rice and beans)  Jamaica - ackee and saltfish, callaloo  Montserrat - Goat Water  Puerto Rico - Arroz con gandules with roasted pork shoulder, arroz con pollo, Mofongo  Saint Kitts and Nevis - Coconut dumplings, Spicy plantain, saltfish, breadfruit  Saint Lucia - Green Bananas & Dried and salted cod  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines - Roasted Breadfruit & Yam  Trinidad and Tobago - Doubles, Roti, Crab and dumpling  United States Virgin Islands - Kallaloo, fish and fungee

• • • • • • • • • • •



See also
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • African diaspora Americas (terminology) British Afro-Caribbean community Caribbean Spanish Caribbean English CONCACAF Council on Hemispheric Affairs History of the Caribbean Indo-Caribbean Islands of the Caribbean Latin American and Caribbean Congress in Solidarity with Puerto Rico’s Independence List of Indigenous Names of Eastern Caribbean Islands Middle America (Americas) Mountain peaks of the Caribbean Music of the Caribbean Piracy in the Caribbean Politics of the Caribbean Tongue of the Ocean Tourism in Caribbean West Indies Federation

[1] Table A.2, Database documentation (http:/ / gisweb. ciat. cgiar. org/ population/ download/ report. pdf), Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) Population Database, version 3, International Center for Tropical Agriculture et al., 2005. Accessed on line February 20, 2008. [2] Pronounced English pronunciation: /ˌkærɨˈbiːən/ or English pronunciation: /kəˈrɪbiən/. Both pronunciations are equally valid; indeed, they see equal use even within areas of the Caribbean itself. Cf. Royal Caribbean, which stresses the second syllable, and Pirates of the Caribbean, which stresses the first and third. In each case, as a proper noun, those who would normally pronounce it a different way may use the pronunciation associated with the noun when referring to it. More generic nouns such as the Caribbean Community are generally referred to using the speaker's preferred pronunciation. Spanish: Caribe; Dutch ; French: Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles [3] Asann, Ridvan (2007). A Brief History of the Caribbean (Revised ed.). New York: Facts on File, Inc.. pp. 3. ISBN 0816038112. [4] Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49) (http:/ / unstats. un. org/ unsd/ methods/ m49/ m49regin. htm#ftnb), United Nations Statistics Division [5] North America Atlas (http:/ / www. nationalgeographic. com/ xpeditions/ atlas/ index. html?Parent=nameri& Rootmap=& Mode=d& SubMode=w)National Geographic [6] "North America" (http:/ / atlas. nrcan. gc. ca/ site/ english/ maps/ reference/ international/ north_america/ referencemap_image_view) Atlas of Canada [7] "North America" (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 418612/ North-America). Britannica Concise Encyclopedia; "... associated with the continent is Greenland, the largest island in the world, and such offshore groups as the Arctic Archipelago, the Bahamas, the Greater and Lesser Antilles, the Queen Charlotte Islands, and the Aleutian Islands." [8] " Carib (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5ZDatLUlv)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ eb/ article-9020323/ Carib) on 2008-07-11. . Retrieved 2008-02-20. "inhabited the Lesser Antilles and parts of the neighboring South American coast at the time of the Spanish conquest." [9] Background of the business forum of the Greater Caribbean of the Association of Caribbean States (ACS) (http:/ / www. acs-aec. org/ Trade/ 6thBusinessForum/ background. htm) [10] p. 486, A Population History of the Caribbean, Stanley L. Engerman, pp. 483–528 in A Population History of North America, edited by Michael R. Haines and Richard Hall Steckel, Cambridge University Press, 2000, ISBN 0521496667. [11] Stacy Goodling, "Effects of European Diseases on the Inhabitants of the New World" (http:/ / www. millersville. edu/ ~columbus/ papers/ goodling. html), Millersville University [12] The Sugar Revolutions and Slavery (http:/ / countrystudies. us/ caribbean-islands/ 8. htm), U.S. Library of Congress [13] pp. 488–492, Engerman.

[14] Figure 11.1, Engerman. [15] pp. 501–502, Engerman. [16] pp. 504, 511, Engerman. [17] Uri ten Brink. " Puerto Rico Trench 2003: Cruise Summary Results (http:/ / oceanexplorer. noaa. gov/ explorations/ 03trench/ welcome. html)". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. . Retrieved 2008-02-21. [18] North American Extinctions v. World (http:/ / www. thegreatstory. org/ charts/ NA-extinctions. html) [19] Gowricharn, Ruben. Caribbean Transnationalism: Migraton, Pluralization, and Social Cohesion, Lanham: Lexington Books, 2006. pp. 5 [20] Hillman, Richard S., and Thomas J. D'agostino, eds. Understanding the Contemporary Caribbean, London: Lynne Rienner, 2003. pp. 150 [21] Hillman, Richard S., and Thomas J. D'agostino, eds. Understanding the Contemporary Caribbean, London: Lynne Rienner, 2003. pp. 165 [22] Serbin, Andres. "Towards an Association of Caribbean States: Raising Some Awkward Questions", Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs (2004): pp. 1 [23] Hillman, Richard S., and Thomas J. D'agostino, eds. Understanding the Contemporary Caribbean, London: Lynne Rienner, 2003. pp. 123 [24] The U.S.-EU Banana Agreement (http:/ / www. ustr. gov/ Document_Library/ Press_Releases/ 2001/ April/ The_US-EU_Banana_Agreement. html) See also: " Dominica: Poverty and Potential (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ caribbean/ news/ story/ 2008/ 05/ 080516_sanders190508. shtml)". BBC. . Retrieved 2008-12-06. [25] WTO rules against EU banana import practices (http:/ / www. eubusiness. com/ news-eu/ 1196354821. 32/ ) [26] No truce in banana war (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ 293114. stm) [27] Concern for Caribbean farmers (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ caribbean/ news/ story/ 2005/ 01/ 050117_ukparliament-concern. shtml) [28] CAIC (http:/ / www. caic. org. tt) [29] " CANTO Caribbean portal (http:/ / www. canto. org)". . Retrieved 2008-12-06. [30] " Caribbean Educators Network (http:/ / www. caribbeaneducatorsnetwork. com)". CEN. . Retrieved 2008-12-06. [31] " Carilec (http:/ / www. carilec. com)". . Retrieved 2008-12-06. [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] http:/ / www. caribbeanhotels. org " Caribbean Regional Environmental Programme (http:/ / www. crepnet. net)". . Retrieved 2008-12-06. " Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (http:/ / www. caricom-fisheries. com)". . Retrieved 2008-12-06. " Official website of the RNM (http:/ / www. crnm. org)". . Retrieved 2008-12-06. http:/ / www. c-t-u. org " University of the West Indies (http:/ / www. uwi. edu)". . Retrieved 2008-12-06. " West Indies Cricket Board WICB Official Website (http:/ / www. windiescricket. com)". . Retrieved 2008-12-06. http:/ / www. caribbeanamericanfoods. com/ ?page=island_dishes


"Diversity Amid Globalization" 4th edition. Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff.

Further reading
• Develtere, Patrick. 1994. "Co-operation and development: With special reference to the experience of the Commonwealth Caribbean" ACCO, ISBN 9033431815 • Gowricharn, Ruben. Caribbean Transnationalism: Migraton, Pluralization, and Social Cohesion. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2006. • Henke, Holger, and Fred Reno, eds. Modern Political Culture in the Caribbean. Kingston: University of West Indies Press, 2003. • Heuman, Gad. The Caribbean: Brief Histories. London: A Hodder Arnold Publication, 2006 • Hillman, Richard S., and Thomas J. D'agostino, eds. Understanding the Contemporary Caribbean. London: Lynne Rienner, 2003. • de Kadt, Emanuel, (editor). Patterns of foreign influence in the Caribbean, Oxford University Press, 1972 • Knight, Franklin W.. The Modern Caribbean. na: The University of North Carolina Press, 1989. • Kurlansky, Mark. 1992. A Continent of Islands: Searching for the Caribbean Destiny. Addison-Wesley Publishing. ISBN 0201523965 • Langley, Lester D. The United States and the Caribbean in the Twentieth Century. London: University of Georgia Press, 1989. • Maingot, Anthony P. The United States and the Caribbean: Challenges of an Asymmetrical Relationship. Westview P, 1994. • Ramnarine, Tina K., "Beautiful Cosmos: Performance and Belonging in the Caribbean Diaspora". London, Pluto Press, 2007

Caribbean • Serbin, Andres. "Towards an Association of Caribbean States: Raising Some Awkward Questions." Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs (2004): 1-19. (This scholar has many articles referencing the politics of the Caribbean)


External links
• Wikitravel - The Caribbean ( • Digital Library of the Caribbean ( • Federal Research Division of the U.S. Library of Congress ( Caribbean Islands (1987) • West Indies papers ( Miscellaneous personal and estate records, 1663-1929, University of Bristol Library Special Collections • LANIC Caribbean country pages ( Geographical coordinates: 14°31′32″N 75°49′06″W

Article Sources and Contributors


Article Sources and Contributors
Caribbean  Source:  Contributors: (, -Shiny.Luxor-, .V., 13UTCHE12, 2D, A Fantasy, A Softer Answer, AVM, Abby, Abhijitsathe, Absalon, AbsolutDan, Acroterion, Addshore, Afv2006, Ahoerstemeier, Aitias, Aivazovsky, Alansohn, Aldux, Alec - U.K., Alexbatko, Alexius08, Allen4names, AllynJ, Alsandro, Altaar, Altenmann, Anclation, Andre Engels, Andrew Levine, Andrwsc, Andy Marchbanks, Angelo De La Paz, Annie madi, Antodav2007, AntonioMartin, ArielGold, Aris Katsaris, Arthana, Aseire, Astropithicus, Atob, Autiger, Avalyn, Avatar 06349, Backspace, Bardsandwarriors, Bassbonerocks, Berek, Big Adamsky, Big P, BigBossBlues, BigGabriel555, BigGabriel5555, Bigs123, BilCat, BillC, Blackjays1, Blue102, Bluefizz32, Bobo192, Bomac, Bonadea, Bongwarrior, Bosonic dressing, Bostonzjay, BrainyBabe, Brastein, Bread for the ducks, Brian0918, Brianski, BryanG, Buaidh, Bunnyhop11, Bwilkins, Byzantios, CJLL Wright, CORNELIUSSEON, CSumit, Caknuck, Calliopejen1, Captain panda, CardinalDan, CaribDigita, Caribbean H.Q., Casewicz, Casey Abell, Casg, Cassandra 73, Caymang, Chamelaeon, Chancemill, Chanheigeorge, Chris j wood, Chulosantos1990, Cino242, Clariosophic, Cogito ergo sumo, Conchstar, Conversion script, Cool Stuff Is Cool, Correogsk, Corticopia, Cougarqt718623, Cxz111, CyberpunkPH, D, D4g0thur, DVD R W, Da Vynci, DaGizza, Dale Arnett, DanMS, Danner578, Danoasis, DarkAudit, Darth Panda, Davey.latinamerica, Dawnseeker2000, Deathstyler, Demonhuntr778, DerrickC12, Dgreco, DirkvdM, Discospinster, Dmmaus, Dominick, Dorvaq, Dr. Blofeld, Drake2u, DraxusD, Dreaded Walrus, Drekscot, Dry eyes, Duffman, Dunstaffnage, DylanW, E Pluribus Anthony, ECARAIBES, Ecoconservant, Eeekster, El C, Elenamuti, Elockid, Emcardi, Enchanter, ErikHK, Esemono, Evil Monkey, EvocativeIntrigue, Ezhiki, Farhoudk, Fieldday-sunday, Francs2000, Fredbauder, Funnyhat, Gaius Cornelius, Galoubet, Gamma2delta, Gdarin, Gea1234, Geniac, George Burgess, Godefroy, Gogo Dodo, GoodOlRickyTicky4, Grader n, Graham87, Grandcraft, Gruepig, Grutness, Guettarda, Hadynkihm, Haemo, Hairouna, Hairy Dude, Hajor, Halmstad, Hans Adler, HappyCamper, Hardouin, Hashim1991, Hdt83, Head, Helmetlad, HereToHelp, Herostratus, HiDrNick, Hlucho, Hmains, Hooiwind, Horacenew, Hoshie, Hpfan1, Hugo.arg, Hulahoopsta09, Hurricane111, I'landhater, II MusLiM HyBRiD II, Infrogmation, Insomia, Instantnood, Instinct, Invertzoo, Ixfd64, Ixtapl, J Hazard, J.J., J.delanoy, JForget, Jacottier, Jamaal, James086, Jcmenal, JdeJ, Jeff G., Jensonmorton, Jeronimo, Jerrakum, Jerryseinfeld, JesseOjala, Jianking, Jj137, Jkeene, Jmundo, Joelr31, John Hill, Jojit fb, Jose77, Journalist, Joyous!, Jpgordon, Jrfernadez29, Jrt989, Jteaser, Juanpdp, Juliancolton, Juracan, Jwillbur, KJS77, Kaare, Kanags, Karan.102, Karukera, Kate, KathrynLybarger, KeepOpera, Keeper9000, Keilana, Keith Edkins, Kesla, KevContributor, Kevin Breitenstein, Kevinkopetz, Kevonadonis, Khoikhoi, Killiondude,, King of Hearts, KingDoucheII, Kintetsubuffalo, Kitch, Klow, Koavf, Kotabatubara, Kris18, Kseferovic, Kuru, Kurykh, Kwamikagami, Kylekieran, La Pianista, LaNicoya, Larry V, Lashanar, LeoNomis, Leptictidium, Leuko, Lexor, Lightmouse, Little grape, Loren.wilton, Louis Waweru, Luanda e benfica, Luckyluke, LuigiManiac, Luna Santin, Luqeran, Lurlock, MONGO, Maartenvdbent, Macrakis, Macshune, Maelor, Magog the Ogre, Malkinann, Malo, Mani1, Manop, Marek69, Mario Profaca, Mario Žamić, MarkTB, Martious, Mattisse, Mboverload, McTrixie, MementoVivere, Miesdebies, Mike.lifeguard, Millot, Miquonranger03, Misza13, Moleskiner, Monedula, Montrealais, Moondyne, Moroboshi, Moverton, Mr Stephen, Mr.Xp, MrOllie, Mrholybrain, Mrtoes, Msikma, Msutton, Mulad, Mysdaao, Nakeeke, Nakon, Natl1, NawlinWiki, Netoholic, Neutrality, NewEnglandYankee, Nicholas Laughlin, Nikai, Nivix, Nots100, Notscott, Nsaa, Nucleusboy, Od Mishehu, Olivier, Optimizer, Opus88888, Orereta, Orphic, Oshesurf, Otolemur crassicaudatus, OwenX, Pabix, Pabloloveshaysoos, Pak21, Panglossa, Panoramix, Papercrab, Parkwells, Pascal, Patrick, Paul Magnussen, Pax:Vobiscum, Pepsidrinka, Petrovsky18, Pgan002, Phantomsteve, Philip Trueman, Piano non troppo, Pinkygonzales, Plasticup, Pobyxr, Poetaris, Pol098, Predator1087, PresN, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Puckly, Quadell, QuantumEleven, Quimbaraquimba, Quizimodo, Quizimodo (usurped), Qutezuce, R45, RS1900, RandomStringOfCharacters, RandyRuairidh, Rarelibra, Ratzer, RaviC, Realteeth123, RedWolf, Registeringonlytakesafewseconds, Reinyday, Reliefappearance, Rellis1067, Rennell435, Res2216firestar, Rex Germanus, RexNL, Richard, RichardBond, Rjwilmsi, Roastytoast, Robdurbar, Robina Fox, Rocastelo, Roke, Romanm, Romanskolduns, Roofbird, RoyBoy, Royptorico, Ruiz, Runcorn, Ryan Postlethwaite, Ryulong, S.Paolasini, SAK, SBKT, SPQRes, Sallicio, Saltprune416, Sanfranman59, SatyrTN, Saxbryn, SchfiftyThree, Sean William, Sevillano1, Sfahey, Shadowjams, Shanes, Shawnhath, ShelfSkewed, Shellwood, Shirulashem, SidP, SimonArlott, SimonP, Simony99, Sinisa Kolaric, Sjorford, Slakr, Sligocki, SmartGuy, SoCalSuperEagle, Solimar1, Sonett72, Soulpatch, Spacepotato, Speedboy Salesman, Spikey, SpookyMulder, Spyda89, Spyder00Boi, SqueakBox, St.johnfool, SteinbDJ, Stumps, Stupid Corn, Sveter, Sydork, T2Green, Taking back symone, TakuyaMurata, Tangerine Cossack, Tanglewood4, Taqi Haider, Tassedethe, Tellyaddict, Tequendamia, That-Vela-Fella, The Epopt, The Thing That Should Not Be, The Tom, The Transhumanist, Thegryseone, Thingg, Thumperward, Thylacinus cynocephalus, Tide rolls, Titoxd, Tkynerd, Tohd8BohaithuGh1, Tombombadil, Tpbradbury, TravelAuthor, Travis Cleveland, TriniSocialist, Turm, Twalls, Ukabia, Umedard, Unyounyo, Urmas, Vary, Verdy p, Vertical123, Vgmaster, Vivenot, Vzb83, Waltloc, Warmuz, WebHamster, Wereon, WhisperToMe, WhoaSweetJane, Why Not A Duck, WiccaIrish, Wik, WikHead, Wiki Kirai, Wiki alf, Wiki0709, WikiDan61, Wikieditor06, Wikiklrsc, Wimt, Woohookitty, Wtmitchell, X!, XJamRastafire, XLR8TION, XavierGreen, Xezbeth, Xhienne, Xtreemfran, Xv8M4g3r, Yekrats, Yurinator180, Z.E.R.O., Zero Gravity, ZeroOne, Zondor, Zscout370, Zsero, Μυρμηγκάκι, 981 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:Antillas (orthographic projection).svg  Source:  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Heraldry, KJG2007, Keepscases, MGA73, TownDown Image:Central america (cia).png  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Brianski at en.wikipedia Image:Tectonic plates Caribbean.png  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Arbus Driver, Maksim, Smiley Image:TobagoBeach5.jpg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Chris Fitzpatrick File:IMG 2908.JPG  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Enano275 Image:Old San Juan aerial view.jpg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Picture taken by the U.S. National Park Service. See [ worldheritage/fort.htm] Image:sautmathurine640.jpg  Source:  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Spyder00Boi Image:Caribbean spanish names.PNG  Source:  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Man vyi, Roke, 1 anonymous edits Image:CaribbeanIslands.png  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Gruepig at en.wikipedia File:Flag of Anguilla.svg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Froztbyte File:Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Dbenbenn File:Flag of Aruba.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Anime Addict AA, ChongDae, Enbéká, Homo lupus, Mattes, Neq00, Vzb83, Zscout370 File:Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bahamas government File:Flag of Barbados.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Denelson83 File:Flag of the British Virgin Islands.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: CeleritasSoni, Cäsium137, Dbenbenn, Denelson83, DenghiùComm, Denniss, Fry1989, Ludger1961, Mattes, Neq00, Nightstallion, Xenophon, 2 anonymous edits File:Flag of the Cayman Islands.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: unknown File:Flag of Cuba.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: see below File:Flag of Dominica.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Vzb83 File:Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Avala, Denelson83, Er Komandante, Frispar, Herbythyme, Homo lupus, Klemen Kocjancic, Mattes, Mschel, Neq00, Nightstallion, Rastrojo, Reisio, ThomasPusch, 43 anonymous edits File:Flag of Grenada.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of Guadeloupe (local).svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Butko, Denelson83, Hoshie, Mattes, Ninane, 2 anonymous edits File:Flag of Haiti.svg  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: User:Chanheigeorge, User:Denelson83, User:Lokal_Profil, User:Madden, User:Nightstallion, User:Vzb83, User:Zscout370 File:Flag of Jamaica.svg  Source:  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of Martinique.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Ahsoous, Denelson83, Enbéká, Fsopolonezcaro, Homo lupus, Mattes, Porao, ThomasPusch, 1 anonymous edits File:Flag of Montserrat.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Denelson83, Fry1989, Homo lupus, Klemen Kocjancic, Mattes, Nightstallion, Porao, 1 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:Flag of the Netherlands Antilles.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Denelson83, Homo lupus, Mattes, Nightstallion, Pumbaa80, Zscout370, 1 anonymous edits File:Flag of Puerto Rico.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Madden File:Flag of Saint Barthelemy (local).svg  Source:  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5  Contributors: User:Manassas File:Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Pumbaa80 File:Flag of Saint Lucia.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of France.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:SKopp, User:SKopp, User:SKopp, User:SKopp, User:SKopp, User:SKopp File:Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Boricuaeddie, Enbéká, Homo lupus, Klemen Kocjancic, Madden, Mattes, Nagy, Neq00, Nightstallion, Pumbaa80, SKopp, Tomia, 9 anonymous edits File:Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: unknown File:Flag of the United States Virgin Islands.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Clindberg, Dbenbenn, Mali, Mattes, Neq00, Nightstallion, Sojah, 4 anonymous edits File:Flag of Belize.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Caleb Moore File:Flag of Colombia.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Gabbe, User:SKopp File:Flag of Guatemala.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Denelson83, User:Vzb83 File:Flag of Guyana.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of Honduras.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: D1990, Denelson83, Feydey, Fred J, Homo lupus, Klemen Kocjancic, Mattes, Matthew hk, Neq00, Oak27, Pumbaa80, Rocket000, RubiksMaster110, SKopp, ThomasPusch, Tocino, Vzb83, Yuval Madar, Zscout370, 10 anonymous edits File:Flag of Mexico.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Nightstallion File:Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Dahn, Davepape, GeorgHH, Giggy, Infrogmation, Klemen Kocjancic, Kookaburra, Lokal Profil, Mattes, Muro de Aguas, Nightstallion, Rfc1394, Sarahisamajorjew, ThomasPusch, Vzb83, Zscout370, 10 anonymous edits File:Flag of Panama.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: -xfi-, Addicted04, Fadi the philologer, Klemen Kocjancic, Liftarn, Mattes, Nightstallion, Ninane, Pumbaa80, Reisio, Rfc1394, Thomas81, ThomasPusch, Zscout370, 17 anonymous edits File:Flag of the United States.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Dbenbenn, User:Indolences, User:Jacobolus, User:Technion, User:Zscout370 File:Flag of Venezuela.svg  Source:  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bastique, Denelson83, George McFinnigan, Herbythyme, Homo lupus, Huhsunqu, Infrogmation, Klemen Kocjancic, Ludger1961, Neq00, Nightstallion, Reisio, ThomasPusch, Vzb83, Wikisole, Zscout370, 9 anonymous edits File:Isla Saona.jpg  Source:  License: unknown  Contributors: User:It419 File:Magnify-clip.png  Source:  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Erasoft24


Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/

To top