THE ABOLITION OF THE TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE

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THE ABOLITION OF THE TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE Powered By Docstoc
					THE ABOLITION OF THE
TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE
       TRADE


AN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE FOR
      PRIMARY SCHOOLS

         Key Stage 2
Contents:

1. INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................................3
   HOW TO USE THIS RESOURCE .................................................................................................3
   INFORMATION..............................................................................................................................4

2. The Transatlantic Slave Trade: ........................................................................................................5
   Life for the Slaves:...........................................................................................................................6
   Punishments: ..................................................................................................................................12
   Jews and the Slave Trade ...............................................................................................................14
   Modern Slavery..............................................................................................................................18
   The Transatlantic Slave Trade and Modern Racism......................................................................21

3. Activities & Resources...................................................................................................................23
   Circle Time Discussion 1: ‘People as Objects’..............................................................................23
   Creative Activity 1: ‘Protest Posters’.............................................................................................28
   Circle Time Discussion 2: ‘Feelings’.............................................................................................31
   Creative Activity 2: ‘A Night in the Hut’ ......................................................................................36
   Creative Activity 3: ‘Moritz Pinner’s Newspaper’ ........................................................................37
   Circle Time Discussion 3: ‘Modern Slavery’ ................................................................................38
   Creative Activity 4: ‘An Alternative Seder Plate’ .........................................................................39
   Assemblies .....................................................................................................................................42


4. Further Information........................................................................................................................46

5. Acknowledgements........................................................................................................................47




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1. INTRODUCTION
This education resource has been produced by JCORE (the Jewish Council for Racial Equality) for
use in primary school for Key Stage 2.

JCORE works in three main areas:

Race Equality Education
Black-Asian-Jewish dialogue
Refugee and Asylum issues.

This pack forms part of JCORE’s work to mark the anniversary of the abolition of the transatlantic
slave trade but can be used during any year.

At JCORE, we believe that Jews have a responsibility to learn about the history of the slave trade,
the impact of the slave trade on modern racism and about other forms of slavery which exist today.




 ‘You shall not oppress a stranger, for you know the feelings of the stranger,
 having Grant
Hannah yourselves been strangers in the land of Egypt.’
                                                        - Shemot/Exodus 23:9



HOW TO USE THIS RESOURCE

This resource contains information and activities in a chronological order. It begins by focusing on
the slave trade and concludes by looking at modern forms of slavery and how we can campaign
against slavery today.

As you read the information, you will notice relevant activities (circle time discussions, creative
activities etc). Full explanations of these activities can be found after the information section. Some
activities will require photocopied information from this booklet. Others require specific pictures/
written resources which can be found with their activities and can be photocopied from this booklet.


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The resource also includes an assemblies section with appropriate readings and songs. These can
also be used in the classroom and as part of activities.

The activities in this resource connect to the Key Stage 2 citizenship, history, literacy and ICT
curricula. The activities (particularly the circle time discussions) also connect to Social and
Emotional Aspects of Learning.

Further information and books on slavery can be obtained through Hannah Grant, Early Years and
Primary Education Officer for JCORE (hannah@jcore.org.uk).

The ‘Anti-Slavery International’ website has posters on it which can be printed and used in school
displays. (www.antislavery.org)

We hope that you find this resource both informative and useful.


INFORMATION

What is a Slave?
A slave is:

Forced to work through mental or physical threat.
Owned by an ‘employer’.
Dehumanised- treated as a commodity or property to be bought or sold.
Has restrictions placed on his/her freedom of movement.
Someone who has had their human rights taken away from them.




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2. The Transatlantic Slave Trade:
Africa was a rich country in the 16th and 17th centuries, eager to trade goods such as gold, copper,
ivory and leather with Europe.
Slavery did exist in Africa before the slave trade. It was a punishment for serious crimes. Slaves
were the property of other Africans and were not traded.
When Europeans first began settling in the Americas after 1492, they initially enslaved the native
peoples of America. However, many of the natives succumbed to Western diseases and the
European settlers looked to other sources for their slaves.
The Europeans knew that slavery was used in Africa and began to trade in people with African
chiefs, instead of copper, gold and leather.
As a result the TRIANGULAR TRADE was developed. It was called the triangular trade because of
the triangular shape that the three legs of the journey made. Europeans shipped goods to Africa to
trade for slaves. Ships then took the slaves to the Americas, where they were sold. The ships
returned to Europe bringing goods from the Americas back with them.




http://historyonthenet.com/Slave_Trade/slaverymain.htm




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Life for the Slaves:
Journey into Slavery

People were rounded up from their homes and marched as slaves to the coast. Often, this could
take weeks. Slaves who did not move fast enough, or showed any sign of resistance to the traders,
were whipped. Those who were too weak or sickly to complete the journey at the required pace
were left to die.
Slaves were kept in holding houses on the coast in poor conditions until ships arrived to take them
away.

                                                                                  This picture shows
                                                                                  slaves being marched to
                                                                                  the coast. They were
                                                                                  often chained together,
                                                                                  or bound with wooden
                                                                                  neck collars.

                                                                                  http://historyonthenet.com/Slave_
                                                                                  Trade/slaverymain.htm




                                                                                Slaves too weak to complete
                                                                                the journey were left to die.


                                                                                http://historyonthenet.com/Slave_Trade/sla
                                                                                verymain.htm




The African slaves were viewed as cargo by the merchants and were packed into the ships with no
regard for their basic human rights. Conditions on the ships were horrible. Many of them did not
survive the voyage to the Americas.




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     This famous diagram shows how slaves were tightly packed into the slave ships.

     http://historyonthenet.com/Slave_Trade/slaverymain.htm



                                                                        Other slaves were forced
                                                                        to spend the voyage sitting
                                                                        on deck, as on the ship
                                                                        'Wildfire', pictured left.

                                                                        http://historyonthenet.com/Slave_Trade/s
                                                                        laverymain.htm




Many slaves became seasick or developed diarrhoea. Unable to move because they were chained
into their positions, the slave's deck became a stinking mass of human waste. Slaves who had
developed sores where their chains had rubbed their skin had festering wounds often with maggots
eating away their flesh.

Conditions on the slave ships were so bad that many slaves decided they would prefer to die and
tried to starve themselves by refusing to eat or by jumping overboard.
However, slaves that would not eat were whipped or force fed and the traders and ship owners
began fixing nets to the sides of the boat so that the slaves could not jump overboard.




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   Circle Time Discussion 1- Introduction to topic & ‘People
   Creative Activity 1- Protest Posters

Slave Auctions:
- On arrival in the Americas, slaves were sold by auction.
Slave Auctions were advertised when it was known that a slave ship was due to arrive. Posters like
the one pictured left would be displayed around the town.




                                                                            Slave auctions were advertised using
                                                                            posters like this one.

                                                                            Note how the slaves are described to
                                                                            make sure they sell well.

                                                                            http://historyonthenet.com/Slave_Trade/slaverymai
                                                                            n.htm




      When the slave ships first
      docked, the slaves would be
      placed in holding pens like this
      one. They were washed and
      made ready for auction. They
      would also be branded with a hot
      iron in order to mark them as
      slaves.

      http://historyonthenet.com/Slave_Trade/slaver
      ymain.htm




There were 2 main types of slave auction; ‘Grab and Go Auctions’ and auctions which sold
to the highest bidder.



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                                                                                This picture shows slaves
                                                                                being auctioned off to the
                                                                                highest bidder.

                                                                                http://historyonthenet.com/Slave_Trad
                                                                                e/slaverymain.htm




At a ‘Grab and Go’ auction, people buying slaves would all give the trader the same
amount of money. The buyers would then be allowed to go around looking at all the
slaves. Then a signal would be given- often a drum roll- and the buyers would all rush to
grab the slave that they wanted. They would then inspect their slave and decide whether
or not to keep him or her.




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Jobs in Slavery: (pictures from www.historyonthenet.com/slave_trade)
- In northern American states, slaves often worked in factories producing goods. In the south,
slaves worked on plantations which had many jobs.




                                                                        Working in
                                                                        the Dairy
Picking cotton                                                          It was usually
                                Harvesting Tobacco                                             Washing Clothes
                                                                        young girls
                                                                        that churned           'I used battling blocks
                                                                        the milk into          and battling sticks to
                                                                        butter.                help clean the clothes
                                                                                               when we was
                                                                                               washing'




Planting and                                                            Carpentry
Harvesting Rice                 Building Railroads                                             Butchering and
                                                                                               Preserving
                                                                                               Meat was butchered
                                                                                               by the slaves, then
                                                                                               preserved in the
                                                                                               smokehouse




Harvesting Sugar                                                        Weaving
Cane                            Growing and                                                    Cooking
                                Harvesting Coffee

The slaves lived in allocated areas of the plantations on which they worked. Sometimes owners
would provide housing and sometimes slaves had to build their own. Living conditions were very
cramped with many people sharing a hut. Slaves had little furniture and often slept on beds made
of straw or old rags. Some slaves worked in the plantation house (as cooks for example) and they
had better living conditions.




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http://historyonthenet.com/Slave_Trade/slaverymain.htm


-   Slaves were sometimes given pots and pans for cooking but often had to make their own.
    Often, slaves used a hollowed out pumpkin shell called a ‘calabash’ to cook in. Most plantation
    owners did not spend money on their slaves’ food, so slaves had a diet of mainly fatty meat
    and cornbread.
-   Slaves would be given one pair of shoes and three items of underwear a year. This was
    provided by the owners, but was often badly-fitting and made of stiff, coarse material.
-   Most slaves worked from sunrise to sunset. Some owners gave slaves one day off each month
    and others let the slaves have every Sunday off.
-   Slaves were not allowed to read or write, but some did go to church.




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Punishments:

- Slaves had no rights. Owners could do what they liked to slaves, including doling out harsh
punishments.
A slave would be punished for:

Resisting slavery
Not working hard enough
Talking too much or using their native language
Stealing from his master
Murdering a white man
Trying to run away

Punishments included:




Being put in shackles                      Being put in various
                                           contraptions                             Being chained to the
                                                                                    ground




Being whipped
                                                                                    Being forced to walk on a
                                                                                    treadmill.
                                           Being hung and left to
                                           die
(pictures and information from www.historyonthenet.com/slave_trade)




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   Circle Time Discussion 2- Feelings.
   Creative Activity 2- ‘A Night in the Hut’ (drama)

The Abolitionists:
Many people campaigned against slavery at the time of the slave trade. They were called
abolitionists. Two famous abolitionists were William Wilberforce & Olaudah Equiano. Both lived in
England. Equiano was a former slave who managed to buy his own freedom.


                                                            Olaudah Equiano was born in Benin in Africa in
                                                            1745. At the age of 11, he was kidnapped and sold
                                                            into slavery.

                                                            He was bought by a British Navy officer called
                                                            Captain Henry Pascal in Virginia in the Americas.
                                                            Equiano saved all the money he could and was
                                                            able to buy his freedom in 1766.

                                                            Once free, Equiano worked with abolitionists in the
                                                            ‘Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade’. He
                                                            spoke against slavery at public meetings, where he
                                                            talked of his own horrific experiences.

                                                            Equiano wrote his autobiography, The Life of
                                                            Olaudah Equiano the African in 1789. He promoted
                                                            the book all over England and it became a
                                                            bestseller. It was also published in other European
                                                            countries and in the Americas.
                                                            (http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Sequiano.htm)
                                                            William Wilberforce was a religious Christian.
                                                            Through Christianity he became involved in social
                                                            action.

                                                            He was influenced by another abolitionist called
                                                            Thomas Clarke and made the decision to speak out
                                                            against the cruelty of slavery.

                                                            In 1780, he became the MP for Hull and used his
                                                            position to continually lobby parliament to abolish
                                                            slavery.

                                                            He was supported outside parliament by a
                                                            Christian group called the ‘Clapham Sect’ who
                                                            raised awareness of Wilberforce’s campaigns by
                                                            using pamphlets and holding rallies among other
                                                            things.

                                                            Slavery was abolished by Britain in 1807.
                                                            (http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/wilberforce_william.shtml)




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Jews and the Slave Trade
The subject of Jewish involvement in the slave trade has frequently been at the centre of
controversy. Some commentators have exaggerated the role that Jews played in the trade and
some have underplayed it. During the times when slavery was permitted, Jews, like everyone else
at the time, were divided in their opinions about it.

                                                  Dr David Einhorn




                                       (www.jewish-history.com/civilwar/einhorn.html)


Dr David Einhorn moved to America in 1855. He became the Rabbi at Har Sinai Synagogue in
Baltimore.

In America, Einhorn found himself at the centre of controversy. He opposed slavery and spoke out
against people like Dr Raphall who taught that slavery was divinely ordained in Judaism.

In 1856, he began publishing a monthly magazine called 'Sinai'. He used it to express his
abolitionist views and, in 1861, to publish his response to Dr Raphall's pro-slavery sermon, which
he called a "deplorable farce".

"to proclaim slavery in the name of Judaism to be a God-sanctioned institution - the Jewish-
religious press must raise objections to this, if it does not want itself and Judaism branded forever.
Had a Christian clergyman in Europe delivered the Raphall address, the Jewish-orthodox as well
as Jewish-reform press would have been set going to call the wrath of heaven and earth upon
such falsehoods, to denounce such a disgrace."
(http://www.answers.com/topic/einhorn-david)

Einhorn accused Jews who were pro-slavery of putting money before their values. He believed that
because Jews were once slaves themselves, they could not justify religious reasons for condoning
slavery.

His abolitionist views incurred the wrath of those who supported slavery. In 1861, there was a riot
against him and he was forced to flee Baltimore. He eventually settled in New York in 1866.


EINHORN'S FULL ARTICLE AGAINST DR RAPHALL'S PRO-SLAVERY VIEWS CAN BE FOUND
ON www.jewish-history.com/civilwar/einhorn.html)

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                                                Michael Heilprin




                                                  (http://www.jewishgen.org)


Michael Heilprin was a distinguished Jewish Scholar who moved to the United States in 1858.

He took an active part in anti-slavery meetings in Philadelphia. Heilprin's widely read articles,
published in the New York Tribune, expressing his anti-slavery views, established him as one of
the leading Jewish anti-slavery campaigners and he had a profound influence in arousing the
public against slavery.

On January 11th, 1861, Heilprin's article- written in response to Dr Raphall's pro-slavery
sentiments- was published:

"And you, Rev. Rabbi Raphall, make your Bible, by some process of reasoning, to be pure, just,
and humane, if you want to have it regarded as divine; or reject it as full of human frailty, if you
dare! Shalom!” (http://www.jewish-history.com/civilwar/heilprin.html).


HEILPRIN’S FULL ARTICLE AGAINST Dr RAPHALL’S PRO-SLAVERY VIEWS CAN BE FOUND
ON www.jewish-history.com/civilwar/heilprin.html




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                                                  Moritz Pinner




                                       (www.math.rutgers.edu/.../family/moritzp.html)


Moritz Pinner was a very active Jewish abolitionist, involved in many anti-slavery propaganda
campaigns.

Pinner made the acquaintance of notable abolitionists such as Wendell Phillips and William Lloyd
Garrison, turning to them for advice about his idea to edit an abolitionist journal.

In 1859 (when he was nearly 30), he became the editor of a German-language abolitionist journal
called ‘Bleeding Kansas’. It also appeared in English, known as the Kansas Post. The first edition
went out on January 1st 1859. Pinner was bitterly attacked for his views, but he stood by his cause.
When he resigned his position of editor at the paper after eight months, he gave strict instructions
that it should remain an abolitionist journal.

Pinner was the Missouri delegate to the Republican Party Convention of 1860, which elected
Abraham Lincoln. When the American Civil War broke out, Pinner declined a diplomatic post and
chose to enlist in the Union Army.

www.math.rutgers.edu/.../family/moritzp.html
http://www.math.rutgers.edu/~zeilberg/family/moritz.html
http://www.math.rutgers.edu/~zeilberg/family/kohler.html




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                                              Dr Morris Raphall




                                 http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/loc/slavery.html


Dr Morris Raphall was the rabbi of New York’s first Ashkenazi Congregation.

He did not agree with slavery himself, but was outspoken about the fact that he did not think that
the bible prohibited it.

His sermon the Bible View of Slavery was published in 1861 and expounded the view that slavery
was ordained in Judaism. As a result, Raphall was regarded as the ‘pro-slavery’ rabbi.

The Bible View of Slavery was vehemently argued against by many anti-slavery Jews including
David Einhorn and Michael Heilprin.

THE ‘BIBLE VIEW OF SLAVERY CAN BE FOUND AT http://www.jewish-
history.com/civilwar/raphall.html




 Creative Activity 3- Moritz Pinner’s Newspaper (literacy)




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Modern Slavery
         -   What types of slavery exist today? (from www.antislavery.org)
         -   Bonded labour affects millions of people around the world. People become bonded
             labourers by taking or being tricked into taking a loan for as little as the cost of medicine
             for a sick child. To repay the debt, many are forced to work long hours, seven days a
             week, up to 365 days a year. They receive basic food and shelter as 'payment' for their
             work, but may never pay off the loan, which can be passed down for generations.
         -   Early and forced marriage affects women and girls who are married without choice and
             are forced into lives of servitude often accompanied by physical violence.
         -   Forced labour affects people who are illegally recruited by individuals, governments or
             political parties and forced to work -- usually under threat of violence or other penalties.
         -   Slavery by descent is where people are either born into a slave class or are from a
             'group' that society views as suited to being used as slave labour.
         -   Trafficking involves the transport and/or trade of people (women, children and men) from
             one area to another for the purpose of forcing them into slavery conditions.
         -   Child labour is work undertaken by children. They often work long hours doing manual
             jobs for very little pay. The work is usually harmful to their health and welfare. Child
             labour affects an estimated 126 million children worldwide.



Stories of Modern Slaves

Shining Light into Darkness- Srey Neang’s story (http://www.notforsalecampaign.org/RealStories-
Asia.aspx#friend-makes)



“I paid good money for you!”

How Srey Neang loathed those words. They made a claim on her, excusing any abuse, justifying
every chore. The old woman bought her not long after she turned seven.

Srey Neang’s parents were struggling to care for five children in a camp for internally displaced
Cambodians. The camp was situated near the border with Thailand where food was scarce and
jobs nonexistent. The old woman and her son came to the camp seeking a young girl to be a
house servant. Her parents sacrificed one child for the survival of her siblings.

Memories of her family now lurk in shadows. She recalls playing in a dusty field with other children.
Were those kids rolling on the ground her brothers and sisters?

Rumours that her parents were Khmer Rouge1 militants follow Srey Neang. Of course, pinning that
history on a child could be a form of manipulation. A daughter of the Khmer Rouge merited a tragic
karma.




1
    The Khmer Rouge was the ruling communist party in Cambodia from 1975 to 1979. Their leader was Pol
     Pot. Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge ruled brutally and were responsible for 1.5 million deaths due to
     execution, genocide, slave labour and starvation.
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The old woman lived in a small structure; a single space served as bedroom, kitchen, and living
room. At night, Srey Neang pulled out a mat to sleep on a knotty wood floor in the corner of the
house.

She cooked the woman’s meals, bathed her, washed her clothes, scrubbed the floors, and
performed any other chore demanded of her. Her master demonstrated neither affection nor
malice; she expected only obedience. Srey Neang was never once addressed by name. “Hey you,
get me some water,” the woman would say, or “Girl, go sweep the floor.” Did the old woman know
her name? Some days Srey Neang whispered her own name softly to herself simply so that she
would not forget.

Three years passed, and then her master turned very ill. Some days the woman did not even rise
from the bed. During that period Srey Neang rarely left the house; morning and evening she
tended to the dying woman’s needs. The loneliness felt heavy at times.
Once the woman died, her son acted decisively to consolidate his mother’s property. “Pack your
stuff,” he ordered Srey Neang no more than an hour after burying his mother. “You now will serve
my family.”

Srey Neang grabbed the few clothes she owned, rolled them up in the sleeping mat, and departed
the old women’s home for the final time. The son lived on the other side of the village, perhaps a
walk of fifteen minutes. Though short in distance, the journey transported her to a new and
dangerous universe.

Srey Neang sensed the rotten air as soon as she arrived. The wife of her new master treated her
gruffly, as if to blame Srey Neang for an unwanted intrusion into her home.

She now had four people to serve—the married couple and their two young children. Srey Neang
worked steadily from the break of day until the final member of the family fell asleep at night. Yet
no effort proved good enough for her owners. Both husband and wife beat her with a reedy switch
for the slightest offence: the porridge was too salty, or the front door of the house had been left
open. Often they beat Srey Neang for things she did not even do.

No matter, it was their right. After all, they would declare, “We paid good money for you!”


Mohen and Nihal in India
(http://www.antislavery.org.uk/homepage/antislavery/childlabour.htm#what)

In Pakistan, brothers Mohen and Nihal (names have been changed) began working on carpet
looms when they were four and five years old in order to help their family meet their basic needs.
 “The health hazards caused to us are that our fingers are trimmed and we have to work all day
long. Often for a couple of days in a week, we have to work for the whole day and night.
Mohen often gets miserable and fatigued with the long hours or work and he tries to escape. Then
the master weaver keeps a strict watch on him and never lets him move for three or four days.”


Child Labour2
What is child labour?
Some types of work make useful, positive contributions to a child's development. Work can help
children learn about responsibility and develop particular skills that will benefit them and the rest of
society. Often, work is a vital source of income that helps to sustain children and their families.

2
  All information which follows on child labour is from:
http://www.antislavery.org.uk/homepage/antislavery/childlabour.htm#what
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However, across the world, millions of children do extremely hazardous work in harmful conditions,
putting their health, education, personal and social development, and even their lives at risk. These
are some of the circumstances they face:
       - Full-time work at a very early age
       - Dangerous workplaces
       - Excessive working hours
       - Subjection to psychological, verbal, physical and sexual abuse
       - Being obliged to work by circumstances or individuals
       - Limited or no pay
       - Work and life on the streets in bad conditions
       - Inability to escape from the poverty cycle -- no access to education

How big is the problem?
The International Labour Organization estimates there are
218 million working children aged between 5 and 17 (2006)
126 million are estimated to work in the worst forms of child labour - one in every 12 of the
world's 5 to 17 years olds (2006)
74 million children under 15 are in hazardous work and should be "immediately withdrawn
from this work" (2006)

8.4 million children are in slavery, trafficking, debt bondage and other forms of forced labour,
forced recruitment for armed conflict, prostitution, pornography and other illicit activities (2002)

Girls are particularly in demand for domestic work

Why do children work?
Most children work because their families are poor and their labour is necessary for their survival.
Discrimination on grounds including gender, race or religion also plays its part in why some
children work.
Children are often employed and exploited because, compared to adults, they are more vulnerable,
cheaper to hire and are less likely to demand higher wages or better working conditions. Some
employers falsely argue that children are particularly suited to certain types of work because of
their small size and "nimble fingers".
For many children, school is not an option. Education can be expensive and some parents feel that
what their children will learn is irrelevant to the realities of their everyday lives and futures. In many
cases, school is also physically inaccessible or lessons are not taught in the child's mother tongue,
or both.
As well as being a result of poverty, child labour also perpetuates poverty. Many working children
do not have the opportunity to go to school and often grow up to be unskilled adults trapped in
poorly paid jobs, and in turn will look to their own children to supplement the family's income.

Where do children work?
       -   On the land
       -   In households -- as domestic workers
       -   In factories -- making products such as matches, fireworks and glassware
       -   On the street -- as beggars
       -   Outdoor industry: brick kilns, mines, construction
       -   In bars, restaurants and tourist establishments
       -   In sexual exploitation
       -   As soldiers


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         -   The majority of working children are in agriculture - an estimated 70 per cent. Child
             domestic work in the houses of others is thought to be the single largest employer of
             girls worldwide.


The Transatlantic Slave Trade and Modern Racism
Many people argue that the Transatlantic Slave Trade has left a legacy in racism today. It has
been asserted that the stereotype of Black men being athletic is due to the fact that athletic men
were favoured as slaves. Ken Barnes, of 100 Black Men argues that the legacy of slavery and
perception of Black people as inferior in society has contributed to the low achievements of Black
boys in schools. 3

Circle Time Discussion 3- Learning About Modern Slavery.


Campaigning information:

Anti-Slavery International’s campaigning has already been very successful. Achievements include:

Learning about the transatlantic slave trade is now on the national curriculum for Key Stage 3.
The Government published ‘The Way Forward – bicentenary of the abolition of the Slave Trade Act
1807-2007’ report which outlines projects to tackle inequality in the UK, and poverty and inequality
in Africa and the Caribbean.
On 23 March 2007, the Government signed the Council of Europe Trafficking – this will safeguard
the human rights of all trafficked people in the auk by guaranteeing them minimum standards of
protection and support.

Pupils can get involved in Anti-Slavery International’s current campaign- ‘Take Action on Cocoa’:

‘The issue of forced labour in the production of chocolate hit the headlines in 2000 and 2001.
Several years on, we look at the situation now, and ask you to take action to ensure progress that
has been made is translated into real improvements in the lives of those being exploited.’

Further information on this can be found at
http://www.antislavery.org/homepage/campaign/cocoaaction.htm

Ideas for campaigning in school can include:

Having a cookery fair selling cakes/ biscuits made with fair trade chocolate with the profits going to
Anti-Slavery International.
Pupils can make posters advertising fair trade chocolate.
Pupils can have a ‘fair trade chocolate day’ when each pupils brings in some fair trade chocolate
for lunch instead of chocolate that they might usually bring to school.

Buy Fairtrade or ethically traded products:
This ensures that a business’ or organisation’s workers will not be employed under slave
conditions (fair trade) or the company will be working towards decent working conditions in
factories.
Buy fair trade and ethically traded goods from e.g. Café Direct and Fair Foundation and goods with
an ‘Ethical Trade’ mark.
Ask your supermarket, department store or fashion shop where they source their goods and what
the conditions of the workers are. For example, Sainsbury’s bananas are now all fairly traded and

3
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/6456765.stm
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Marks and Spencer have recently brought out a range of clothes made from 100% Fair trade
cotton, all thanks to consumer pressure!




(www.antislavery.org)


Educate about the slave trade and slavery today in your local school, synagogue, youth movement
and community centre. Tell people as much as you can! What ways can you think of to let people
know about slavery?

  Creative Activity 4- An Alternative Seder Plate




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3. ACTIVITIES & RESOURCES


Circle Time Discussion 1: ‘People as Objects’


Summary:

This discussion introduces the idea of slavery and looks at how the slaves lived. The children are
encouraged to think about what it means for people to be the property of someone else. The
discussion also looks at our Jewish responsibility to help others.

Pre- Discussion:

Ask the pupils to choose an object from their bag that they would like to show to everyone else.
You could ask them to bring something in from home instead.


Discussion:

Sit children in a circle.
Ask them in turn to show their object to everyone in the group.
Begin the discussion. The questions below will help start and lead the discussion to talk about the
idea of the slaves as objects.

Ask questions about the object- Where do you keep it? Where do you put it if you’re travelling
somewhere? Do you need to look after it in any way- does it need cleaning etc?
What does it mean to own your object? If I took one of your objects and said it was now mine,
would that make it mine or would it still be yours? Would this be stealing?
If I sold one of your objects to someone else, would it still be yours?

-   During the slave trade, the slaves were seen as objects. They were stripped of their names and
    given names by their new owners. They were treated like cargo in slave ships- not like people.
    Do you think you can ‘own’ someone else, like a piece of property? (Show visual aids, ask
    children to make any comments about the pictures if they have any, ask children how pictures
    make them feel.)
-   What does it mean to be ‘owned’ by someone else? (If a person is a piece of property, then
    they are kept where their owner wants them to be kept, they are made to travel like a piece of
    cargo and not a person. They are looked after only so that they can do their jobs better and not
    treated like human beings.)
-   How does it make you feel to hear that slaves were treated like property and not people?
-   How do you think the slaves should have been treated?
-   How can we make sure we always remember to treat people with the respect they deserve?
    What can we do to make sure we are treating each other with respect? What can we do to
    make sure we are treating our families with respect? What can we do to make sure that we are
    treating our leaders with respect?
-   How can we show that we understand other people and treat them as we would want to be
    treated?
-   Read the following Rabbi Hillel story-

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There used to be two great rabbis, Hillel and Shamai. Shamai was very strict
and literal in his interpretations of the Torah, whereas Hillel was a lot more
lenient and easy-going. They each had hundreds of followers and students
who would regularly get into heated arguments.

One day a man came to Rabbi Shmai and asked him "teach me the Torah on
one leg" (meaning, teach it to me quickly, in the time I could spare while
standing on one leg). Shamai became very angry and had his students chase
the man out of the house.

So the man went to Rabbi Hillel and asked him "teach me the Torah on one
leg". Hillel looked at him curiously, and then thought for a long time.
Eventually he took a piece of paper an wrote on it "love your neighbour as
yourself". He gave this note to the man and said "this is the Torah on one
leg".
Why is it important to remember this story?

To remember the Jewish value of treating others as we would like to be treated.
To consider how Rabbi Hillel teaches us that the most important thing about Torah is to respect our
fellow human beings.




The Next page shows: Visual aids for Discussion 1-




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   Slaves being marched to the slave
ships. They were now seen as property
 to be sold and not people. They were
 often chained together, or bound with
         wooden neck collars.
                 http://historyonthenet.com/Slave_Trade/slaverymain.htm




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This famous picture shows how the
slaves were tightly packed together
in the ships. They were treated like
     cargo and not like people.
               http://historyonthenet.com/Slave_Trade/slaverymain.htm




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This is a poster advertising a slave auction.
The slaves were seen as property to be sold
and not people.
http://historyonthenet.com/Slave_Trade/slaverymain.htm




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Creative Activity 1: ‘Protest Posters’

Summary:

This activity is designed to allow pupils to consolidate their knowledge of the Transatlantic
Slave Trade and what life was like for the slaves. It can be adapted to be used to look at
modern slavery. Children are also encouraged to use Jewish texts and ideas on their
posters to reflect the Jewish responsibility of helping others. This activity can also be used
to introduce the idea of campaigning against injustices and to reflect on how the anti-
slavery movement during the time of the transatlantic slave trade was one of the first
organised campaigns and can inspire us today in campaigning against social injustices in
the world.

Resources:

Piece of plain paper for each child.
Art equipment (anything from felt tip pens and coloured pencils, to paints, to collage
resources with glue and scissors)
Information for each group about life for the slaves photocopied from this pack (eg-
Journey into Slavery, Jobs for the Slaves, Punishments etc)

Activity:

   1. Explain to the pupils that they are going to learn about what life was like for the
      slaves and create a poster that informs people about what happened to the slaves
      and why it was wrong.
   2. Look at the information altogether. Talk briefly through each one, asking children to
      make any comments about them as you go.
   3. Divide the pupils into pairs/ smaller groups. Give each pair/smaller group an
      information sheet. Ask them to talk to each other about how the information and
      pictures make them feel and to discuss why it was wrong to treat people the way
      the slaves were treated.
   4. Ask each pair/ smaller group to feedback to everyone else.
   5. Explain that people who protested against slavery during the time of the slave trade
      were among the first people to ever publicly protest against bad things happening in
      society (there is another peulah that focuses on this). This now happens quite a lot,
      but then protesting was very new.
   6. Explain to the children that they are going to now create a poster to show what
      happened to the slaves and to say why it was wrong. They can imagine that they
      were alive at the same time as the slaves and are making posters to protest against
      slavery.
   7. Ask them what kinds of things they can put on their posters. What kinds of pictures
      will show what life was like for the slaves? What kinds of things can they write on
      the posters to protest against slavery?
   8. The posters can also include sayings which show why we, as Jews, should
      remember the slave trade such as ‘Love your neighbour as yourself’ (Leviticus
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   19:18) or ‘Each Jew should remember the Exodus as though they were slaves in
   Egypt’ (adapted from Pesach Haggadah)- We should remember the slave trade as
   we too were once slaves in Egypt. Lots of useful quotes for this can be found in the
   ‘Assemblies section’ of this resource.
9. The following pictures can also be used as inspiration:




                     [The pictures can be found on the next page…]




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The slogan ‘am I not a man and a brother’ and the picture of the kneeling slave became symbols
for the abolitionist movement.




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Circle Time Discussion 2: ‘Feelings’

Summary:

This activity focuses on feelings and gives the pupils a chance to discuss and share how
the topic of slavery makes them feel. It is also creative and involves making human
tableaux to reflect feelings.


Discussion:

   1. Sit the pupils in a circle. Place the picture flashcards on the floor in the middle of the
      circle. Look at and read about each picture flashcard.
   2. Ask pupils for their initial thoughts on the picture flashcards.
   3. Place the feelings flashcards on the floor in the middle of the circle as well. Go
      through the words and make sure that everyone understands the meanings of all
      the flashcards.
   4. Ask pupils to choose TWO which relate most to how they feel. Ask volunteers to
      explain their choices to the group. Make sure all the pupils know that feelings are
      very personal and everyone is entitled to their own opinions. We might not all
      choose the same feelings, but we should all listen to everyone’s choices.
   5. Place the final flashcard on the floor. The flashcard says- ‘Every Jew should
      remember the Exodus as though we were all slaves in Egypt’. (Make sure the
      children all know what the Exodus is!)
   6. Ask the pupils to share their views about why Jews should remember the Exodus
      from Egypt as if they were all slaves in Egypt as well.
   7. By imagining that we were all slaves in Egypt, do the pupils feel any differently
      towards the victims of the slave trade? (inspired to make sure that everyone
      remembers the slave trade etc)
   8. Divide the pupils into pairs. Give each pair a ‘feeling flashcard’ that has been talked
      about fairly frequently in your group.
   9. Ask each pair to label themselves ‘A’ and ‘B’. ‘A’ must ‘mould’ ‘B’ into a frozen
      picture displaying that feeling. The picture should be symbolic and not necessarily a
      frozen picture of an African slave (for instance, ‘anger’ could be displayed by
      showing raised fists). Make sure that the pupils know that they must be gentle if
      they are ‘moulding’ their partner. They can also tell their partner what do for big
      movements (eg, sit on the floor).
   10. When the first frozen pictures have been created, tell ‘B’ to remember their
       positions.
   11. ‘A’ and ‘B’ then swap over and ‘B’ can ‘mould’ ‘A’ into a different frozen picture
       representing the same feeling.
   12. When this is done, make sure that ‘A’ remembers their position.


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    13. Gather the pairs back together. In turn, each pair shows the other pairs their frozen
        pictures, with short explanations from the pupils telling the other groups what words
        were used and why they ‘moulded’ their partner in the way that they have.
    14. To conclude, point out the similarities between the feelings chosen by all the groups
        and explain why it is important to remember these feelings to help us to connect to
        and learn about the slave trade (because we were slaves in Egypt).


The next pages contains:

Feelings Flashcards: (pictures from http://historyonthenet.com/Slave_Trade/slaverymain.htm)


Use these pictures and words to create flashcards. This activity can also be done when
learning about modern forms of slavery with the appropriate pictures. The activity can also
be extended to look at the entire topic.




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African slaves marched to the slave ships.




                                                                   Poster advertising slaves for sale.




             A slave auction.




                                                                   A slave at work harvesting tobacco.




                        A slave being punished by being chained to the ground.

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                                ANGER



SADNESS
                                                      BITTERNESS
          INSPIRED TO
             HELP
            MODERN
CONFUSION   SLAVES


  LUCKY                                                   HELPLESS
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Modern slavery picture cards:




                                                                               http://www.corrystuart.com/childslavery/12yearslave.jpg
http://www.oxfam.org.au/oxfamnews/september_2005/images/Theivani.jpg
                                                                               A child slave working in a football
Theivani, a bonded labourer in India tossing rice.                             factory.
Theivani is from the Irula tribe, many of this tribe
have become bonded labourers to rich landlords
and boat owners.




                                                                               http://www.palmbeachpost.com/moderndayslavery/content/
                                                                               moderndayslavery


                                                                               Mexican migrant workers in Florida
                                                                               working long hours for very low wages.
http://www.worldrevolution.org/projects/globalissuesoverview/overview2/im      They are forced into signing harsh
ages/childlabor7.jpg                                                           contracts which tie them to long working
                                                                               hours and also forces them into giving
A child slave in a brick factory.                                              up lots of their low wages to pay high
                                                                               costs for food and transport at work.




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Creative Activity 2: ‘A Night in the Hut’

Summary:

This activity uses drama to explore what life was like for slaves.


Activity:

   1. Divide pupils into small groups (max- 8)
   2. In groups, look at the information about life for slaves (that can be photocopied from
      this pack).
   3. Ask pupils which things on the sheets stand out to them the most.
   4. Talk about the information (What things might the slaves fear? What things might
      the slaves look forward to? What do they think it felt like to do these jobs? What
      might it have looked like in the slaves’ huts? Etc)
   5. Explain to the pupils that they are going to create a play set at the end of a working
      day in a slave hut.
   6. Discuss ideas together- What might the slaves be talking about? What might they
      be doing? What might they be eating? How might the feel about the next day? What
      might have happened during the day?
   7. Discuss ideas for characters together. Sometimes, families would be together,
      especially if people started families with other slaves and had children who were
      born into slavery. Some people had not seen their families for years. How might the
      characters feel at the end of the day? How might they feel after a hard days work?
      What different types of work do each of the characters do?
   8. Set the scene- the characters are in their hut. What does the hut look like inside?
      What things are where? Ask children to imagine what they can see in front of them
      and to think about what the weather is like that day. Are the characters hot or cold?
   9. Ask the pupils to think about what their characters think of the other characters. Do
      they like everybody? Perhaps one character looks after the others, or perhaps one
      character does not like to speak to anyone.
   10. Ask the pupils to begin ‘improvising’ the scene. Let them try things out. Give them
       time to go over the scene and change things and to rehearse the bits they like.
   11. Make sure the scene has been rehearsed a few times before they have to show it to
       everyone else.
   12. Gather the pupils back together. Sit them in rows with their group members facing a
       ‘stage area’.
   13. Each group then shows their play to everyone else.
   14. To conclude, reflect on a good point about each play and pick up on themes from
       the play that are important for us to remember today.




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Creative Activity 3: ‘Moritz Pinner’s Newspaper’


Summary:

Moritz Pinner, a Jewish abolitionist used his newspaper to speak out against slavery. In
this activity, children write their own articles or versions of Pinner’s newspaper to report on
the unfairness of slavery and on what life was like for the slaves. The articles can be
handwritten or typed on the computer done as an ICT project.

Activity:

Moritz Pinner was a Jew who created a newspaper to fight against the slave trade.

The paper was called The Kansas Post (and ‘Bleeding Kansas’ in German)

Briefly talk to the pupils about why they think it is important for Jews to fight against
injustices like the slave trade (for example- because we were all slaves in Egypt, because
it is important to treat others as you would like to be treated, because bad things have
happened to us so we know it is important to help stop bad things happening to other
people etc) and how it makes them feel to know that Jews in the time of the slave trade
fought against the injustice of slavery (hopefully proud etc).

Explain that, as a group, they are going to create a new edition of The Kansas Post
Pinner’s newspaper.

The paper must include:

       -    Information and opinions on the life of the slaves.
       -    Pictures and articles.
       -    Ideas about why it is important for Jews to fight against the slave trade.


If pupils have also learnt about modern forms of slavery campaigning then this can also be
included in the paper. There can be articles about modern slavery & campaign ideas in the
paper, making it a truly modern form of Pinner’s paper.

Taking this a step further, the paper could be re-named by the participants and they could
create newspapers for your school which inform others about modern slavery and that
have been inspired by Pinner’s example.




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Circle Time Discussion 3: ‘Modern Slavery’

Summary:

This discussion introduces the topic of ‘modern slavery’ and its forms.

Discussion:

   1. Explain to the pupils that they are now going to learn about modern slavery and so
      it’s really important to listen carefully to the information and to everyone else’s views
      as this is a serious topic.
   2. Ask the pupils if they new that slavery still exists today and how that makes them
      feel.
   3. Go through each of the modern forms of slavery (see information in this pack),
      talking about how the pupils feel about them and what they think life is like for the
      people affected.
   4. You might decide to focus on particular forms of modern slavery. There is extra
      information on Child Labour in this resource pack and stories from child slaves, so
      this is a good area to focus on for this activity.
   5. Conclude the discussion by asking the pupils to think of ways of campaigning
      against slavery. The information sheets contain ideas which you can tell them as
      well.
   6. Together, make a list of things that the pupils can do in their own communities eg-
      telling their families & friends about modern slavery to make sure people know
      about it, signing the anti-slavery declaration, asking their synagogue or school to
      raise money for a charity like ‘Anti-Slavery International’ etc.




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Creative Activity 4: ‘An Alternative Seder Plate’

Summary:

Use the seder plate worksheet provided for the pupils to consider what objects they might
use to commemorate the transatlantic slave trade and reflect on modern slavery.

Activity:

   1. Explain that on Pesach, we remember the exodus from slavery in Egypt and that
      items on the seder plate remind us of our time in slavery and our journey to
      freedom.
   2. Give each pupil a copy of the seder plate picture included in this pack and go
      through why each object is on the seder plate.
   3. Give each pupil a copy of the seder plate worksheet and ask them to draw on it
       objects that they could put on an alternative seder plate to remember what life was
       like for the slaves at the time of the transatlantic slave trade. They can also draw
       objects that will remind people that slavery still exists today. Example objects could
       include- a sickle (tool used by slaves), shackles (used in the punishing of slaves),
       sugar / cotton (farmed by slaves in the Caribbean and southern United States of
       America), a football (to represent factory work done by people affected by slavery
       today) etc




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Seder plate worksheet 1:

The Seder Plate




      Maror (bitter herbs) – This reminds us of the bitterness of slavery and also helps to fulfil
      the commandment in Shemot (Numbers) 9:11 to eat the Pesach lamb with unleavened
      bread and bitter herbs.

      Z’roa (shank bone) – This reminds of the lamb that was sacrificed at Pesach in temple
      times. It also reminds us of how the blood of a lamb was used to mark the doorposts of
      the Hebrew homes in Egypt to protect the Hebrew first born sons from succumbing to the
      last of the ten plagues- the death of the first born son.

      Haroset – a mixture of ingredients such as apples, nuts and spices which reminds us of
      the cement used by the Hebrew slaves to build in Egypt. The charoset is sweet as it
      reminds us of G-d’s kindness in freeing us from slavery. There is also an idea that
      apples are used to make haroset because pregnant Hebrew women used to go to
      orchards to have children so that they could keep births a secret from the Egyptians
      when Pharoah made a law saying that all Hebrew male babies had to be killed.

      Hazeret (bitter vegetable) – Like the maror, this reminds us of the bitterness of slavery.

      Karpas (vegetable, usually parsley) – This is dipped in salt water during the Pesach
      seder to remind us of the tears that the Hebrews cried as slaves in Egypt. It also reminds
      us of the vegetables that were used like a paint brush to put lamb’s blood on the
      doorposts of the Hebrew homes to protect the inhabitants from the tenth plague.

      Betzah (egg) – This reminds us of the sacrifice made at Pesach during temple times.
      The egg is a symbol of mourning, and we mourn for the temple. The egg is also a symbol
      of Spring and Pesach occurs during the Spring.


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Seder Plate Worksheet 2:

An Alternative Seder Plate

There are items on the seder plate at Pesach that remind us of the times when the Jewish
people were slaves in Egypt.

If we had a special seder plate to remind us of the life of the slaves during the transatlantic
slave trade, what items would you put on it?

Draw your chosen items on the seder plate below. You can also include items to remind us
that slavery still exists today.




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Assemblies

Summary:

This section includes songs and readings that can be used in assemblies on the topic of slavery.
Stories for assemblies can also be found the ‘modern slavery section of this resource’.

Song List:

This is a list of song titles which can be used in a ma’amad on the theme of slavery. Song lyrics
can also be used as readings. If you need the full lyrics and guitar chords please contact Hannah
at JCORE (hannah@jcore.org.uk/ 07882 864 924)

      -      ‘Ani V’ata’ (You and I Shall Change the World)
      -      ‘Gesher Tzar Meod’ (All the World’s a Very Narrow Bridge)
      -      ‘Lo Alecha’ (It is not your duty to complete the work, but neither are you free to desist
             from it.)
      -      ‘Sacki Sacki’ (You may laugh, laugh at all the dreams which I, the dreamer will weave,
             laugh that I still believe in mankind).
      -      ‘Go Down Moses’
      -      ‘By the Rivers of Babylon’
      -      ‘Not by Might’




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      Readings:




       ‘You shall not oppress a stranger, for you know the feelings of the stranger, having
       yourselves been strangers in the land of Egypt.’
                                                                               - Shemot/Exodus 23:9




                   There is no stumbling block one cannot push aside, for the stumbling block is only there for
                   the sake of the will, and there actually are no stumbling blocks save in the spirit.
                                                                                                        - Chasidic




The world is judged by the majority of its people, and individuals are judged by the
majority of their deeds. Happy are those who perform a good deed: that it may tip
the scales for them and the world.
                                                                          - Kiddushim


                       Love your neighbour, and love the stranger, as you love yourself. I am the Eternal.
                                                                                            Leviticus 19:18, 34


Justice, justice you shall pursue.
                                                                                        Deuteronomy 16:20



 Prayer for Overcoming Indifference

 I watch the news, God. I observe it from a comfortable distance. I see people suffering, and I
 don't lift a finger to help them. I condemn injustice but I do nothing to fight against it. I am pained
 by the faces of starving children, but I am not moved enough to try to save them. I step over
 homeless people in the street, I walk past outstretched hands, I avert my eyes, I close my heart.

 Forgive me, God, for remaining aloof while others are in need of my assistance.

 Wake me up, God; ignite my passion, fill me with outrage. Remind me that I am responsible for
 Your world. Don't allow me to stand idly by. Inspire me to act. Teach me to believe that I can
 repair some corner of this world.

 When I despair, fill me with hope. When I doubt my strength, fill me with faith. When I am weary,
 renew my spirit. When I lose direction, show me the way back to meaning, back to compassion,
 back to You. Amen.

 – Rabbi Naomi Levy

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                                          The Jewish Council for Racial Equality, London.
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                                                                   - 43   -
                                 In order to change the world, we must start by changing ourselves. We must
                                 become the change we want to see in the world.

                                                                                                              Ray Birch, Aboriginal Leader



There is a silence so utterly complete,
That will fill your ears with a calling,
The sound of a million marching feet,
It is the sound of a world in mourning.

                                                                              Spike Milligan




                     Share your food with the hungry; bring the homeless into your home.
                                                                                                                           Isaiah 58:7




Isn't it arrogant?

We always make such a fuss about some trivial things.
Create huge problems out of banalities.
We grieve about meaningless unimportant matters.
Instead of being happy every day to live in such a happy world.
Somewhere else, in India, children have to work at primary school age.
Where children wound their fingers in carpet production
Where they have neither hope nor future.
There is no whining because there they do not know differently
Actually it is rather unfair to behave like a mimosa in front of such misery.
Isn t it actually arrogant?

Maybe we should think about such things
Maybe we would see things with different eyes.
                                                                                      Daniela Chana
                                                          http://www.smart-art.at/strassenkinder.htm



                                                                 Hate evil and love good,
                                                              And establish justice in the gate.

                                                                                                                            Amos 5:15




                                                          www.jcore.org.uk
                                          The Jewish Council for Racial Equality, London.
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                                                                   - 44   -
Unto Waters we scattered,
transplanted like seedlings,
to a strange land,
we lived to transport, and became "transported".
For courage was a wish that we hoped to find after stepping through so many
doors.

No longer estranged we transpire,
for the new land has only to hear our song, our song, of lands forlorn, our song in a
multitude of tongues.

With cotton balls still stuck to our shrouded heads, We shall cry in jubilation to our
mistress the Sun, for she alone did bear witness to our desperation.
For she alone can weigh the heart of justice.


                                                          Semira Tesfai Ghermai, Paris, France
                                                  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6485263.stm




     Memories of slavery

     Bound with heavy iron chains trembling
     We dragged our bare feet in agony
     Pack'd like sardines
     In merchant ships
     Working, sweating and burning in the plantation
     Our padlock'd mouths wept bitterly
     Fragrant memories of our dear motherland
     Flash'd across our minds eyes
     Backs danced to the not so melodious
     Tunes from our masters' whips
     In strange manners
     The more pungent thoughts
     The more cold shivers creep down my spine
     Like waves in a bar beach

                                                              Omoefe Onoriobe, Houston, USA
                                                  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6485263.stm




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                              The Jewish Council for Racial Equality, London.
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                                                       - 45   -
4. Further Information

Websites:

Anti-Slavery International            www.antislavery.org

Ethical Trading Initiative            www.ethicaltrade.org

Fairtrade Foundation                  www.fairtrade.org.uk

Not for Sale Campaign                 www.NotForSaleCampaign.org

Stop the Traffik                      www.stopthetraffik.org

Spartacus Educational                 www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/REantislavery.htm

iAbolish                              www.iabolish.org

100 Black Men                         www.100bmol.org.uk

Black History Walks           www.blackhistorywalks.co.uk
BBC British Anti-Slavery
www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/antislavery_01.shtml

BBC Historic Figures Olaudah Equiano
www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/equiano_olaudah.shtml

Spartacus Schoolnet Olaudah Equino
www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Sequiano.htm

BBC Historic Figures William Wilberforce
www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/wilberforce_william.shtml

Jewish Virtual Library
www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org

Slavery in the Modern World
www.infoplease.com/spot/slavery1.html




                                                      www.jcore.org.uk
                                      The Jewish Council for Racial Equality, London.
                   Pages from this resource can be reproduced without permission, but this footer must be included.
                                                               - 46   -
Books:

Muhsen, Z & Crofts, A (1994) Sold: Story of Modern-day Slavery

Reddie, R (2007) Abolition! The Struggle to Abolish Slavery in the British Empire

Ali-Kamouhi, M, Wain, J & Ali, M (1996) Without Mercy: Women's Struggle Against Mdoern
Slavery

Hall, R & Moore, D (2006), Some Kind of Different as Me: A Modern-day Slave, an International Art
Dealer, and the Unlikely Woman Who Bound Them Together

Heuman, G & Walvin, J (2003), The Slavery Reader

Mannix, D P. & Cowley, M (2002), Black Cargoes

Le Breton, B (2003), Trapped: Modern-Day Slavery in the Brazilian Amazon

Equiano, O & Eversley, S (2004), The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or
Gustavus Vassa the African

Beah, I (2007), A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier

Batstone, D (2007) Not for Sale: The Return of the Global Slave Trade and How We Can Fight It




5. Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the following people for their detailed input in helping JCORE produce this
resource:

−   Tobias Green, PhD, Centre for West African Studies, University of Birmingham
−   Rachel Heilbron, Educational Projects Officer, Save the Children
−   Mike Kaye, Communications Team Manager, Anti-Slavery International
−   Rabbi Lee Wax, responsible for Bnei Mitzvah, Finchley Reform Synagogue
−   Nikki Shall, Youth Movement Leader, RSY-Netzer
−   Tony Warner, 100 Black Men




                                                   www.jcore.org.uk
                                   The Jewish Council for Racial Equality, London.
                Pages from this resource can be reproduced without permission, but this footer must be included.
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