2007-6-17_Special_Hillside_Zoning_ppt by hijuney5

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									  Zoning Issues in the Oakland Hills                                     Meeting Agenda
                                                                 Citywide Zoning Update Overview
                                                                       Questions and Answers (Q&A)

                                                                 Hillside Zoning Framework and Lot Size Standards
                                                                        Questions and Answers (Q&A)

                                                                 Hillside Development and Design Standards
                                                                        Questions and Answers (Q&A)

                                Citywide Zoning Update           Next Steps
            Community and Economic Development Agency
                              Strategic Planning Division
                                           June 17, 2009                                            Citywide Zoning Update




    Goal of Today’s Meeting
• Review purpose and status of zoning
  update
                                                                    Oakland Zoning Update
• Gather your input on zoning and
  development issues in hill neighborhoods                                Overview
• Discuss options for regulating lot size
• Discuss options for regulating building
  size and footprint


                                        Citywide Zoning Update                                      Citywide Zoning Update




                                                                                                                             1
                  General Plan                                          General Plan Map
• State-mandated, long-range
  planning document
• Policies and maps provide
  framework for development
• Key elements governing hill
  area land use issues:
   – Open Space, Conservation, and
     Recreation (1996)
   – Land Use/ Transportation (1998)
   – Safety (2003)




                                       Citywide Zoning Update                                Citywide Zoning Update




          Zoning Regulations…                                           Zoning Regulations
   • …implement the General Plan                                • What does zoning control?
   • …create parcel-specific regulations                            •Uses (Permitted and Conditional)
      based on General Plan maps and                                •Height Limits
      policies                                                      •Density (lot size)
   • …refine General Plan to the specific                           •Setbacks
      character of an area
                                                                    •Off-street parking
   • …may be more restrictive than
      General Plan in certain areas                                 •Review procedures (e.g. design
                                                                     review, etc.)

                                       Citywide Zoning Update                                Citywide Zoning Update




                                                                                                                      2
                    Why now?                                                 Zoning Update Process
 • Current zoning has not been comprehensively                                                                             Institutional
                                                                                                                             & Other
   updated since 1965                                              General Plan      Downtown        Commercial            Development
                                                                     Adopted           (CBD)         Residential            Regulations
 • Certain aspects of current zoning are not
   consistent with City’s General Plan
 • Zoning update is a top priority for Mayor and                    1998……………2008                        2009                 2010

   City Council
                                                                    Open Housing        Industrial
                                                                    Space Business
                                                                            Mix




                                          Citywide Zoning Update                                                   Citywide Zoning Update




     Commercial and Residential Zoning
                    Meetings Summary                                  Proposed Formatting Changes
Citywide Workshops                                                   • Renaming zones to correspond to General
Round 1: Introduction             Sept/Oct ‘08                         Plan categories
Round 2: Issues                   Feb/ Mar ’09
Round 3: Draft Concepts/Maps      Fall ’09                           • Making code easier to use by integrating
                                                                       tables, diagrams, etc.
Other Meetings
                                                                     • Update to reflect current uses, issues,
Briefings to Neighborhood Groups and PACs
Topical issue-oriented meetings (hillside zoning, historic             best practices
   preservation, merchant groups, etc.)                              • Consolidation of zones to eliminate
Technical Advisory Group (TAG) meetings
                                                                       redundancies

                                          Citywide Zoning Update                                                   Citywide Zoning Update




                                                                                                                                            3
               Approach and Tools                                 Principles Guiding the Zoning Update
General Plan policy
direction
                                                                  • Maintain and enhance stable neighborhoods
Build on previous          Zoning
efforts                  framework              Draft             • Facilitate change and economic growth in
Evaluate efficacy of
                                                zoning              appropriate locations
existing regulations                            concepts
                       Permitted uses,                            • Avoid economic and fiscal hardship
                                                and
                        development
“Best Practices”                                mapping
research
                          standards,                              • Simplify and clarify code requirements
                            design
GIS analysis            standards and                             • Achieve consistency with General Plan
                          guidelines
     Community
      feedback

                                         Citywide Zoning Update                                 Citywide Zoning Update




                                                                    Residential Land Use Designations

               Zoning Framework
                       and
               Lot Size Standards



                                         Citywide Zoning Update                                 Citywide Zoning Update




                                                                                                                         4
         Hillside Residential                                                  Hillside Residential
                                                                                                                                   Parkridge
                                                                                                                            Skyline/                                           Grass Valley
                                                                                       Forest Shepherd                      Balmoral
                                                                                                                                        Hillcrest Estates     Sequoyah
                                                            Panoramic                   land    Canyon    Piedmont
                                                                        Claremont                                                        Ridgemont          Oak Knoll
                                                               Hill                        Montclair        Pines Butters Crestmont                                                Chabot Park
                                                                           Hills                                                                                        Knowland
                                                                                                                   Canyon         Leona Heights
                                                                                                         Oakmore                                                          Park
                                                                            Upper
                                                                           Rockridge




                                                          •Many neighborhoods
                                                          •Varied character and density
                                                          •4 Council Districts
                                                          •46,000 residents
                                                          •14,783 parcels
                               Citywide Zoning Update                                                                                                       Citywide Zoning Update




      Important General Plan                                         History of Hill Area
       Directives for the Hills                                    Development Regulations
• Recognize road width, drainage, slope,                • 1920s-1970s; loose subdivision and development regs
  wildfire, earthquake, and landslide                      – Primarily small homes (1,500 – 2,000 sq. ft.) on
                                                             narrow, heavily wooded streets
  hazards as factors which limit future
  development potential                                 • 1980s – North Oakland Hills Area Specific Plan
                                                          (NOHASP) and Shepherd Canyon Area Plan
• Relate future density to prevailing slopes               – Included policies on density, erosion, fire hazards,
                                                             parking, property access, and infrastructure
• Prohibit creation of new lots smaller than                 deficiencies.
  8,000 square feet (with some exceptions)                 – Led to S-10 and S-11 Overlay Zones: related to
                                                             enhancing roadside vistas of hillsides, canyons,
                                                             ridges, bay, and other design concerns

                               Citywide Zoning Update                                                                                                       Citywide Zoning Update




                                                                                                                                                                                                 5
          History of Hill Area                                               History of Hill Area
        Development Regulations                                            Development Regulations
1991 Oakland Fire                                                 • 1992: New Post-Fire Zoning Regulations
• 3,000 homes destroyed                                             Established for North Hills
• Vegetation devastated                                             – S-14 Community Restoration Development Overlay Zone
                                                                      established a checklist format for design review
• After fire, new homes were
  built much larger, and without                                  • ~2000: R-1 zone (1-acre min. lot size) created in
  natural landscape screening                                       Hillcrest Estates
• Bulk becomes a major issue                                      • 2002: Comprehensive revision to 1- and 2-unit
                                                                    residential development standards
1990s: Home size and character becomes an issue in                  – S-18 Mediated Design Review Combining Zone pilot program
                                                                      adopted, with objective to resolve issues between the project
Oakland Hill neighborhoods                                            sponsor and neighbors.

                                         Citywide Zoning Update                                                   Citywide Zoning Update




           History of Hill Area                                         Current Zoning Framework
         Development Regulations
• 2005: Interim Design Review Manual for 1- and 2-Unit
        Residences adopted, includes special regulations
        tailored to the hills                                                            Minimum Lot Size
                                                                          R-1             43,560 sf. (1 acre)
• 2007: New design review procedures adopted
     – Standardized review procedures citywide                            R-10            25,000 sf.
     – All new homes require regular design review
                                                                          R-20            12,000 sf.
• Next Steps:                                                             R-30            5,000/ 8,000 sf.
     – Final Design Review Manual for 1- and 2-Unit
       Residences
     – Re-evaluation of hillside bulk regulations
                                         Citywide Zoning Update                                                   Citywide Zoning Update




                                                                                                                                           6
            Existing Zoning                                      Fundamental Questions
             # Parcels   Acres        %                   • Are there opportunities to consolidate
                                                            zones? If so, what should the lot sizes
R-1          201         262          1.4%
                                                            be?
R-10         467         286          3.2%                • How can the City better regulate density
                                                            based on slope?
R-20         862         261          5.9%
                                                          • Once the allowable lot sizes have been
R-30         12,771      3,698        87%                   set, what standards should the City
                                                            apply to ensure that homes themselves
Other        371         388          2.5%                  are attractive, safe, and consistent with
zones                                                       General Plan goals?
                                 Citywide Zoning Update                                                  Citywide Zoning Update




Proposed Zoning Framework                                 Zoning Framework – Preliminary Options
                                                          Option 1: no change               Option 2: 3 zones
•   R-1 zone to remain unchanged
                                                          RH-1 ~ R-1 zone                   RH-1 same
•   R-10 and R-20 zones may be merged                             Min. Lot Size 1 acre
                                                          RH-2    ~R-10 zone                RH–2     ~ Consolidate R-10 and
•   R-30 to have 8,000 SF lot size per GP                         Min. Lot Size 25,000 sf            R-20
                                                                                                     Min. Lot Size something
•   Slope density formula may be introduced               RH-3    ~R-20 zone
                                                                                                     between existing R-10
                                                                  Min. Lot Size 12,000 sf
                                                                                                     and R-20, e.g. 16,000 sf
•   Existing legal lots smaller than 8,000 SF
                                                          RH-4    ~ R-30 zone – hillside    RH-3     same
    remain developable                                            areas (slope > 20%)
                                                                  Min. Lot Size 8,000 sf
                                                          Potential to combine either option with slope-density requirement


                                 Citywide Zoning Update                                                  Citywide Zoning Update




                                                                                                                                  7
 Zoning Framework – Options                               Zoning Framework – Options
Questions to Consider in Option 2                       City can use GIS to “test” development
• What is net increase in subdivision                   capacity under different lot size limits
  potential for parcels now zoned as R-10?
• What is net decrease in subdivision
  potential for parcels now zoned as R-20?
• Are there areas now zoned R-10 that
  should be rezoned to R-1?


                               Citywide Zoning Update                                              Citywide Zoning Update




 Zoning Framework – Options                               Zoning Framework – Options
Other factors that affect actual                          Slope Density is one way to limit
                                                          subdivision potential in addition to a
  subdivision potential:                                  minimum lot size
• Potential slope-density requirement
                                                        • Establishes the minimum lot size and/or maximum
• Minimum lot width = 100 ft. (R-10)                      allowable units per acre based on the steepness of the
                                                          hillside. The steeper the hillside, the larger the lot size
• Maximum dead end street length                          required for subdivision
  (evacuation route)                                    • Protects steep slopes from potential erosion caused by
• Creek protection requirements                           development and thereby protects down slope assets



                               Citywide Zoning Update                                              Citywide Zoning Update




                                                                                                                            8
 Zoning Framework – Options                                                            Zoning Framework – Options
                  Method      Features                        Example Cities
                  Slope       average slope is calculated,      Orinda, Corte
                                                                                      • Potential Process/ Timing:
                  density
                  formula
                              and then a multiplier is
                              used to determine the
                                                                Madera,
                                                                Moraga, Santa
                                                                                      • A slope density overlay zone would be
  SLOPE DENSITY




                              allowable density                 Clara County            developed after the adoption of the base
                              more responsive to the site
                              features
                                                                                        zones in the hills

                  Established Sqft. of lot area/ unit           Mill Valley and
                  density     based on percent slope            San Rafael
                              Easier to administer




                                                             Citywide Zoning Update                                 Citywide Zoning Update




                       Zoning Framework
                      Discussion Questions
• Are there areas where the existing lot
  size limits are too large or too small?
• Any feedback on the R-10/R-20 merge?                                                       Hillside Development
• How should slope be used to determine                                                             Standards
  allowable density?
• What other factors should be used to
  determine allowable lot size?
• Other comments and questions?

                                                             Citywide Zoning Update                                 Citywide Zoning Update




                                                                                                                                             9
 Regulating Hillside Development                        Issue: Scale of house at front elevation


• Development on hillside lots presents
  unique design challenges
• Many existing hillside lots remain vacant
• Need to manage their development
  carefully



                               Citywide Zoning Update                               Citywide Zoning Update




Issue: Scale of house at rear elevation                      Issue: Excessive lot coverage




                               Citywide Zoning Update                               Citywide Zoning Update




                                                                                                             10
                                                                         Oakland’s Existing Hillside
       Issue: Homes out of scale with lot                             Development Regulatory Approach
                                                             Basic rear yard setback                  Max height UPSLOPE lots
                                                                                                      (>20% footprint slope):
                                                                                                      •Within 20’ of front
                                                             Basic side yard setback                  property line – max height
                                                                                                      = 24’ above edge of
                                                             Add’l side yard setback                  pavement
                                                                                                      •Elsewhere on property –
                                                                                                      max height = 30’ for
                                                             Maximum wall length                      walls, 35’ for pitched roof

                                                             Basic front setback                       Garage setback 20’
                                                                                                       from edge of pavement
                                                             Building width limit
                                                             within basic front                        Reduced front setback
                                                             setback                                   for slopes > 20 percent
                                 Citywide Zoning Update                                                 Citywide Zoning Update




            Oakland’s Existing Hillside                           Issues with Oakland’s Existing
         Development Regulatory Approach                        Hillside Development Regulations
 Basic rear DOWNSLOPE
Max height yard setback        Max height UPSLOPE lots
                                           DOWNSLOPE
lots (20%-40% footprint        (>20% footprint slope):
                               lots (>40% footprint            • Minor variances are frequently requested to
slope):                        slope): 20’ of front
                               •Within                           exceed:
 Basic side yard setback
•Max height of building =      Max height of –building =
                               property line max height
18’ above edge of              18’ above edge ofof
                               = 24’ above edge                    – Wall height limitations
 Add’l side
pavement yard setback          pavement                            – Maximum building width limit within front setback
•Elsewhere on property –       Elsewhere on property – –
                               •Elsewhere on property              – Maximum 35’ wall length along side yard setback
max height = 30’ for           max height = 30’ for
                               max height = 30’ for
 Maximum wall length
walls; for pitched roofs -     walls, for for pitched roof
                               walls; 35’ pitched roofs -
32’ by right/36’ with CUP      36’ by right/40’with CUP        • Buildings continue to appear bulky and out of
 Basic front setback            Garage setback 20’               scale with the neighborhood and
                                from edge of pavement
Building width limit                                           • Current regulations often result in excessive
within basic front              Reduced front setback
setback                                                          grading and impervious surfaces
                                for slopes > 20 percent
                                 Citywide Zoning Update                                                 Citywide Zoning Update




                                                                                                                                    11
   Example: Height requirement in front setback                                                            Example: 35’ wall length requirement
                                                               Diagram of Existing Regulations


                                                                                                                                       10’
   30’ Height

                                                                                                                                                                         10’
                 20’ Height
                                                                                                                                         20’
                 20’ Height
                 20

24’ Max                                                                                                                                                                35’
 Height
                                                                                              Edge of
                10’ Above Edge
                10’ Above Edge     Property Line
                                   Property Line                                              Pavement
                10
                   of Pavement
                   of Pavement
                                                                                                                                         15’
                                                                                       20’ Min. from                              5’                                         5’
                                                                                       edge of pavement     35’
                Edge of Pavement

          A variance was requested for this house because the height of a portion
          of the house within the front 20 foot setback exceeded the maximum
          24 feet above pavement allowed.                                                                  Current regulations require that wall length may not exceed 35 feet
                                                                                                           if located within 10 feet or less of the side property line.
                                                                     Citywide Zoning Update                                                              Citywide Zoning Update




          Unintended consequences from                                                                        Oakland’s Existing Hillside
            some of the requirements                                                                      Development Regulations Fall Short
                                                                                                          • Due to difficulty in meeting current
                                                                                                            regulations, numerous variances are
                              Building
                                                                                                            granted to exceed setback, height and
                                                                                                            other requirements
                                                                        30’
                                                                        24’
                                                                                                          • Regulations are too prescriptive and can
                    Hillside                                                                                hinder flexibility and creativity
                                                                        12’
                         Graded Area                                           Height at Edge             • Some hillside development continues to
                                                   15’   5’    20’
                                                                         0’     of Pavement                 be bulky and out of scale with the
     Rear 20’
      Setback            Front 20’ Setback
                                                                      Edge of Pavement                      neighborhood
                                                              Front Property Line
                                                                     Citywide Zoning Update                                                              Citywide Zoning Update




                                                                                                                                                                                  12
 How do other cities regulate bulk?                                                                           FLOOR AREA RATIO (F.A.R.)
Piedmont                                                      FAR
                                                              Lot Coverage                                       F.A.R. = Gross Building Area (All Floors)
                                                              Height Limits                                                        Lot Area
Orinda                                                        FAR
                                                              Height Limits
Mill Valley                                                   FAR
                                                              Lot Coverage
Corte Madera                                                  FAR
                                                              Lot Coverage
                                                              Height Limits
San Rafael                                                    Lot Coverage
                                                              Height Limits                                                      F.A.R. = 0.5
Santa Clara County                                            FAR
                                                              Height Limits
San Francisco                                                 FAR
                                                              Height Limits

                                                                              Citywide Zoning Update                                              Citywide Zoning Update




                               Lot Coverage                                                               Development Standard Options
"Lot coverage" means the total land area covered by all of the
structures on a lot measured from outside of all exterior walls and
supporting columns, including all projections.
              Includes balconies and stairs over 6 feet in height



                                                                                                                                                        Potential
                                                                                                                                                        Alternative
                                                                                                                                                        maximum lot
                                                                                                                                                        coverage
                                                                                                                                                        combined with
                                                                                                       Current                                          F.A.R. and
                                                                                                       Zoning                                           design
                                                                                                       Regulations                                      guidelines
                                 Lot Coverage



                                                                              Citywide Zoning Update                                              Citywide Zoning Update




                                                                                                                                                                           13
                                                                   Next Steps
                                                      •Comment Cards
    How could the City improve
                                                      •TAG Meetings (on-going)
        its current hillside
     development standards:                           •Community meetings (Fall/Winter ’09 – tbd)

          your thoughts?                              •Public Hearings (2010)




                             Citywide Zoning Update                                  Citywide Zoning Update




             Stay Involved                                           Contacts
• Comment Cards
• Community meetings                                  Website www.oaklandnet.com/
• Public Hearings
                                                               zoningupdate
• Regularly scheduled
  neighborhood meetings                                Email        zoningupdate
• Website
• Email distribution list                                           @oaklandnet.com
• Phone and Email Message                             Message
  Lines
                                                       Line   (510) 238-7299
                             Citywide Zoning Update                                  Citywide Zoning Update




                                                                                                              14

								
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