Section 3 The Atlantic Slave Trade Page 132 –

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					Section 3 The Atlantic Slave Trade
Page 132 – 136
*Slaves were needed for Europeans sugar and tobacco farms. Natives were no longer a good source of
I. The Causes of African Slavery
          *1500 – Africans began to be used as slaves in the Americas
          A. Slavery in Africa
           - Spread of Islam in Africa increased slave trading (treated better than by Europeans)
          B. Demand for Africans
          - Advantages of African slaves:
                   1) Already exposed to diseases and had developed some form of immunity
                   2) Africans had farming experience or could be taught
                   3) Africans were less likely to run away because they were not familiar with the land
                   4) Skin color made it easier to catch if they did run away
          - Atlantic Slave Trade
                   - Europeans transported approximately 9.5 million to the Americas
          C. Spain and Portugal led the way in the slave trade
II. Slavery Spreads throughout the Americas
          A. England Dominates the Slave Trade
               -Transported 1.7 million Africans to the West Indies
               - By 1830, 2 million slaves were in the U.S
               (England participated in slave trading from 1609 until 1807)
          B. African Cooperation and Resistance
               -Many African rulers willing traded slaves to the Europeans because they desired trade
               products the Europeans had
III. Forced Journey
          *Slaves became part of a trade network called the Triangular Trade
          A. Triangular Trade
                   - Goods were transported from Africa to the West Indies in to Europe
                   - Bought sugar, coffee, and tobacco in the West Indies and took them to Europe
                   - Sold Slaves to traders in West Indies for sugar and molasses and sold that to rum
                   runners in New England
                   - Sold rum and other goods from New England for slaves in Africa
          B. The Middle Passage
                   -This was the journey from Africa to the West Indies and later to the Americas
                   - Traveled in horrible conditions that often led to death (Estimated approximately 20%
                    of slaves died during the journey)
      I.       Slavery in the Americas
          A. A Harsh Life
                   - Slaves were sold to the highest bidder
                   - Worked in mines, fields, and servants
                   - Horrible working conditions often suffering beatings
    B. Resistance and Rebellion
           - Coped with the horrors of slavery by keeping their heritage alive (music, oral
           - Often resisted by not working (breaking tools, working slowly)
           - Revolts occurred- South Carolina’s Stono Rebellion
II.    Consequences of the Slave Trade
           - Generations of families were lost to slave trade and families were torn apart once in
               the slave trade system
           - Slaves contributed greatly to the economic and cultural development of the
           - Their culture (music, religion, food, art all began to influence American society)
           - Helped establish African American populations in many nations where the slave
               trade was utilized
Section 4 The Columbian Exchange and Global Trade
         Page 137 – 141
         *Colonization of America changed the world dramatically
I. The Columbian Exchange
         - The global transfer of foods, plants, animals during colonization
         - Goods from the Americas to Europe:
                  - Foods: tomatoes, squash, pineapples, tobacco, coco beans, corn
                  - Corn and potatoes became diet staples
                  - These items led to people living longer and increasing the size of populations
         -Goods from Europe to the Americas
                  - Foods: Bananas, black eyed peas, yams; grains: wheat, rice, barley, oats
                  - Livestock: horses, cattle, sheep, and pigs
         Negative Impact: Diseases
                  - Small Pox, measles, Influenza, Typhus, Measles, Malaria, Whooping Cough
II. Global Trade
         *New wealth and trade created from the Americas led to new economic practices in Europe
         A. The Rise of Capitalism
                  - Capitalism is when the economic system is based on private ownership and the
                  investment of resources for profit
                  - European businesses flourished under this
                  - Increased economics and activity led to inflation, rise in prices due to the increased
                       demand for more goods
         B.Joint Stock companies
                  - Investors buy shares in a company and share in the profit or loss
                  - Used mainly in creating colonies in the Americas
                           - shareholders lost only small amounts if it failed and shared in great profits if it
III.The Growth of Mercantilism
                  - The idea that a country’s power depended on its wealth (to build strong militaries
                       and buy goods)
                  - Every nation now wanted to gain as much wealth as possible
         A. Balance of Trade
                  - A goal of nations to help them be economically strong
                  - Sell more than they bought and become self sufficient
         B. Economic Revolution Changes European Society
                  - This new influx of money created by colonization led to the growth of towns and a
                       class of merchants who controlled most of the wealth