2007 RU-FI presentation

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					                            Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                               Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                            ALD for advanced semiconductor and
                              nanotechnology manufacturing




                                             Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy




Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                            Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                               Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                Conventional methods for compound film deposition



                                             Heat treatment

                                                                                Final crystallization



                            Nucleation




              Vacuum evaporation                   Sputtering                                 CVD


Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                            Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                               Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                  Buildup of thin film in source controlled deposition




                               Source control




Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                            Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                               Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                        Buildup of thin film in source controlled and in
                                surface controlled deposition




                               Source control                                Surface control




Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                            Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                               Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                            The ALD sequences for compound AB




        Substrate surface      Introduction of         Completed              Introduction of            Completed
                               precursor 1             monolayer of           precursor 2                monolayer of
                               supplying element       element A              supplying element          element B
                               A of compound AB                               B of compound AB




Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                            Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                               Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                            The ALD sequences for compound AB




        Substrate surface      Introduction of         Completed              Introduction of            Completed
                               precursor 1             monolayer of           precursor 2                monolayer of
                               supplying element       element A              supplying element          element B
                               A of compound AB                               B of compound AB
                                                       -reduced                                          -reduced
                                                       monolayer density                                 monolayer density




Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                            Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                               Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                            The ALD sequences for compound AB




                                                                                           XY




        Substrate surface      Introduction of         Buildup of AX (+X)     Introduction of            Completed
                               precursor AX                                   precursor BY               compound AB
                               supplying element                              supplying element          monolayer
                               A of compound AB                               B of compound AB

                               removal of XY’                                 removal of XY




Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                             Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                                Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                                          Atomic Layer Deposition


                            heating elements




                                               substrates
                precursor feeding tubes




                                                                          A       B                       E




Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                                    Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                                       Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                                                                   The ALD reactor


                                                                                         B
                                                              HL


                            V                                                Z               L
                                                                                 S                  LC

                                                                    HZ
                            HS

                                              G

                                   SA                    SB              F           P                     C




                                 SA, SB           sources for metallic and non-metallic precursors
                                 V                precursor and purge gas valves + feeding lines
                                 G                purge gas supply
                                 Z                the reaction zone
                                 B                reactor body, vacuum chamber
                                 HS, HL, HZ       heating system for sources, gas lines and the reaction zone
                                 C                control system for valving and temperatures
                                 L, LC            load lock and the loading/deloading system for the substrate (S)
                                 F                filter in the exhaust line
                                 P                vacuum pump




Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                            Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                               Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                      ALD for advanced semiconductor and nanotechnology
                                        manufacturing




      F-850 reactor,                             Pulsar,                             SUNALE™ ALD Reactors,
      Microchemistry in 1998                     ASM                                 Picosun Oy




Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                                    Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                                       Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                                                   Conformal growth mode




                            10 kV           x 80 000




                                                                       2500 A



                                                                      4000 A
                             Al2O3


Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                            Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                               Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                                           Conformal growth mode




                            Superlattice by NEC, Japan



Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                            Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                               Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                                             Coating of microslices




                                                                             110°C, aspect ratio >25
                                                                            standard pulsing sequence
                                                                                conformality >96%

                                                                                                Samples by Riikka Puurunen, VTT Finland




Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                             Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                                Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                            Conformality at low processing temperature




                                                                              110°C, aspect ratio >25
                                                                             standard pulsing sequence
                                                                                 conformality >96%

                                                                                                 Samples by Riikka Puurunen, VTT Finland




Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                               Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                                  Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                            Conformality at low processing temperature
               SEM



                                                                                110°C, aspect ratio >25
                                                                               standard pulsing sequence
                                                                                   conformality >96%

                                                                                                   Samples by Riikka Puurunen, VTT Finland




                       20 nm




Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                               Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                                  Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                            Extreme of conformality: heterogeneous catalysts




                                                            precursor A

                                                            precursor B




Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                               Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                                  Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                            Extreme of conformality: heterogeneous catalysts



                                                                                               density of atoms [ /nm2 ]
                                                            precursor A

                                                            precursor B          surface
                                                                                 species /       at top           at
                                                                                 support                        bottom

                                                                                 ZrCl 4 /
                                                                                 SiO2          1,44   0,04   1,44    0,04

                                                                                 WOCl 4 /
                                                                                 Al2 O3        1,81   0,06   1,81    0,05

                                                                                 Ni(acac)2 /
                                                                                 Al2 O3        2,52   0,25   2,25    0,11

                                                                                 Cr(acac)3 /
                                                                                 SiO2          0,32   0,01   0,30    0,00

                                                                                 Mg(thd)2 /
                                                                                 SiO2          0,98   0,08   0,82    0,08




Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                            Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                               Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                                         Milestones in ALD research

                                       1974         1980                    1990                     2000

         Search for perfection in
         thin films for EL,
                                       Instumentarium, Lohja
         ZnS & dielectrics

         ALE & precursor chemistry                   ALE and precursor chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology
                                                       Helsinki University of Technology
         Search for perfection in III-V single
                                                            University & corporate groups in Japan
         crystals and super-grid structures
                                                               University groups in the US

         Heterogeneous catalysts,                                       Microchemistry, Helsinki University of
         advanced surface chemistry                                     Technology
                                                                             Colorado State University

         Diffusion barriers and passivation                                   Microchemistry, University of Helsinki
         layers enabling conformality in                                                  Semiconductor equipment
         semiconductor devices                                                            manufacturers
         Ultra-thin and high-k dielectrics for                                             University groups
         semiconductor devices                                                             Semiconductor manufacturers

         Molecular lay-up of oxide
         surfaces                       Prof. Aleskovski, St. Petersburg



Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                                   Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                                      Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki



                        Milestones in ALE-ALD development in Finland
             Instrumentarium                                Elcoteq
                       Lohja                            Planar International
                                                                                                Nanofin
                                                     Microchemistry                ASM
                                                                                                                Beneq
                                                                                                   Picosun

                    1974            1980                    1990                        2000                       2010
                            demonstration of ALE for ZnS (Instrumentarium)
                                travelling wave reactor (Lohja)
                                  exchange reactions for ZnS and oxides
                                     introduction of ALE-EL device performance
                                            introduction of first ALE-EL product
                                                production line for flat-panel matrix displays P-250 >> P-400 reactors
                                                  Commercial production of ALE-EL panels by Lohja > Planar

                                                          F-120 reactors (Microchemistry)
                                                               demonstration of ALE-CdTe solar cell performance
                                                                   introduction of ALE for catalytic surfaces
                                                                          F-450, F-850 reactors for large surfaces
                                                                                  F-200 reactors for wafers
                                                                                               Wafer cluster tool reactors (ASM)
                                                                                                  F-120 reactors (Nanofin)
                                                                                                     Sunale reactors (Picosun)
                                                                                                       TFS 500 reactor (Beneq)

Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                               Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                                  Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                      ALD for advanced semiconductor and nanotechnology
                                        manufacturing


                                                             substrate glass

                                                             passivation layer (ion barrier)
                                                             dielectric layers
                                                             light emitting layer, ZnS(Mn)


                                                             electrodes


                                                             passivation layer

                                                             black back layer




                     Structure of thin film                                                    EL- character module
                     electroluminescent display




Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                            Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                               Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                            Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                               Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                            Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                               Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                            Number of active elements on an IC chip




    http://www.intel.com/technology/mooreslaw/index.htm



Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                            Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                               Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki



                               Moore’s law for the complexity of IC’s




       From 1960 to 1970, ‘complexity’ is the number of components as initially described by Moore. After 1970,
       it was often cited as the number of bits in a DRAM or the number of transistors in a microprocessor.
       Source: Semiconductor International

Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                            Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                               Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki



                               Moore’s law for the complexity of IC’s

                                               Introduction
                                               of ALD




       From 1960 to 1970, ‘complexity’ is the number of components as initially described by Moore. After 1970,
       it was often cited as the number of bits in a DRAM or the number of transistors in a microprocessor.
       Source: Semiconductor International

Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                            Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                               Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki



                               Moore’s law for the complexity of IC’s

                                               Introduction                    ALD contribution to
                                               of ALD                          the learning curve




       From 1960 to 1970, ‘complexity’ is the number of components as initially described by Moore. After 1970,
       it was often cited as the number of bits in a DRAM or the number of transistors in a microprocessor.
       Source: Semiconductor International

Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                                Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                                   Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                                        Wafer Size Conversion history




    100 mm
    1970


                            Re-edited from:
                                                                     ALD: In-situ chemistry at
                                                                     molecular level
Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                                Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                                   Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                                        Wafer Size Conversion history




    100 mm                   150 mm
    1970                     1980


                            Re-edited from:
                                                                     ALD: In-situ chemistry at
                                                                     molecular level
Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                                Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                                   Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                                        Wafer Size Conversion history




    100 mm                   150 mm             200 mm
    1970                     1980               1990


                            Re-edited from:
                                                                     ALD: In-situ chemistry at
                                                                     molecular level
Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                                Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                                   Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                                        Wafer Size Conversion history




    100 mm                   150 mm             200 mm              300 mm
    1970                     1980               1990                2000


                            Re-edited from:
                                                                     ALD: In-situ chemistry at
                                                                     molecular level
Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                                Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                                   Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                                        Wafer Size Conversion history




    100 mm                   150 mm             200 mm              300 mm              450 mm
    1970                     1980               1990                2000                2010


                            Re-edited from:
                                                                     ALD: In-situ chemistry at
                                                                     molecular level
Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                                Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                                   Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki




                                        Wafer Size Conversion history




    100 mm                   150 mm             200 mm              300 mm              450 mm               675 mm
    1970                     1980               1990                2000                2010                 2020


                            Re-edited from:
                                                                     ALD: In-situ chemistry at
                                                                     molecular level
Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                            Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                               Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki


                                     The MOS elements – 1970’s




                                             Source: P.Gargini, International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors

Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                            Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                               Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki


                                     The MOS elements – 1980’s




Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy
                            Nanotech in Russia: Development of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials
                               Russian-Finnish Scientific Conference, 12 – 13 September 2007, Helsinki


                             The MOS elements – nanotechnology




Tuomo Suntola, Picosun Oy