Penn Bowl 2007: Escape From Lord Weary’s Castle Tossups by Virginia A (S.R. Sidarth, Leo Wolpert, Mike Wright, and Steve Yang) 1. Transgenic sheep have been engineered to produce this amino acid, necessary for the production of wool. Along with glycine and glutamate, it forms glutathione, a common antioxidant. A variant of it exists containing the element selenium, and its use in dietary supplements raises questions of cannibalism, as a primary source of this amino acid is human hair, where it strengthens the secondary structure of the protein keratin. For 10 points, name this amino acid, whose thiol group when oxidized can bond with another to form a dimer connected by a disulfide bridge. ANSWER: Cysteine 2. The narrator of this work takes pleasure in his toothaches and liver pains. A footnote states that the narrator continued writing after the end of the book, which is presented as an excerpt from his memoirs. His alienation from society manifests itself as he obsesses over whether or not to bump a soldier on the street, then as he invites himself to a farewell party for Zverkov. The second section of the book, titled “Apropos of the Wet Snow,” ends with the narrator’s inability to interact with the prostitute Liza. For 10 points, name this 1864 novel detailing its unnamed narrator’s hatred for causality and society, written by Fyodor Dostoevsky. ANSWER: Notes from the Underground [or Letters from the Underworld] 3. The first volume of Knuth’s The Art of Computer Programming brought about the modern age of its analysis. Aho, Hopcroft, and Ullman popularized the use of recurrence relations in analysis of recursive ones. This term is derived from the name of a 9th-century Persian mathematician. More commonly, asymptotic and running time analyses determine their effectiveness. It is unknown whether an efficient one exists for NP-complete problems, so approximation ones are normally used. For 10 points, name this computational procedure that produces the solution to a problem in a finite number of steps. ANSWER: algorithm 4. He wrote a novel, Hebdomeros, the Metaphysician, which was published alongside the story “Monsieur Dudron’s Adventure.” He depicted as Orpheus the poet of “The Mirabeau Bridge” and “The Bestiary,” while another work features an exaggerated bust of David juxtaposed with an orange glove. Similarly, a bust of Moses is depicted next to pineapples and bananas in Le Reve Transforme, which also features a train and his characteristic line of curved archways. A flagged tower is the subject of his Nostalgia of the Infinite, but better-known is a work depicting a girl with a hoop going up the titular roadway. FTP name this artist of Mystery and Melancholy of a Street. ANSWER: Giorgio de Chirico [or Népo] 5. Shortly after he denied sending the Cipher Dispatches, this man willed his estate to establish the original New York Public Library. Earlier, William Eaton Chandler and the Wormley Conference conspired to screw him, undoing the good will he had earned as governor of New York, when he helped suppress the Canal Ring and the Tweed machine. In his next race, a 51% popular vote tally did him no good, as an 8-7 vote of the corrupt Electoral Commission awarded the electoral votes of Florida to his Republican opponent. For 10 points, name this Democrat who probably won the election against Rutherford B. Hayes. ANSWER: Samuel Jones Tilden 6. One song often associated with this activity says to use Listerine strips, features Keak da Sneak’s claim to be “off that 18 purple juice,” and suggests that one put on stunna shades before doing it. Another song, by Mistah Fab, suggests that it should be done when you are “looking like a star” and that Patrick Swayze enjoys it. Sheldon Porochnavy and Davender Gulley have died doing this activity, usually accompanied by E-40’s “Tell Me When to Go.” For 10 points, San Francisco’s hyphy culture is the origin of what practice, in which one can “pull up, hop out, all in one motion” and dance “on the hood while the car still rollin?” ANSWER: ghost riding the whip [accept word forms] 7. Induction coils with spark gaps were the first devices to suggest its existence. When the receiving coil in an 1887 experiment was enclosed in a dark case, the observed spark was always smaller. The aforementioned work by Hertz was followed by contributions in the area from Thomson and Lenard.
Lenard found that it was independent of the ultraviolet light’s intensity, but it took until the article On a Heuristic Point of View about the Creation and Conversion of Light for the concept to be widely diffused. For 10 points, the work function is associated with this effect, whose discovery won the 1905 Nobel Prize for Physics for Albert Einstein. ANSWER: photoelectric effect 8. The title character, working at the McGurk Institute, discovers “The X Principle,” but finds that it had previously been described by Félix D'Herelle. At its end, the protagonist and Terry Wickett retreat to the woods, where they plan to build a laboratory. After graduation, the titular figure explores different aspects of the scientist’s and doctor’s life in places like Wheatsylvania and Nautilis. His devotion to the lessons of his professor at the University of Winnemac, Max Gottleib, is tested in a plague on the island of St. Hubert, where his wife Laura dies. For 10 points, name this novel which merited the 1926 Pulitzer Prize, famously rejected by its author Sinclair Lewis. ANSWER: Arrowsmith 9. The opening phase of this battle, called “the Run to the South,” was a rematch between Hipper and Beatty, who had fought the year before at Dogger Bank. Hipper lured Beatty within the range of his commander Scheer’s forces, but Beatty escaped to the north, though he lost the Queen Mary and the Princess Royal. Scheer followed and met the Grand Fleet. Scheer’s High Seas Fleet escaped home to Germany due to the efforts of Admiral Jellicoe. The British lost more naval tonnage but the Germans failed to establish a naval presence on the North Sea in, for 10 points, this largest naval battle of World War I? ANSWER: Battle of Jutland [or Battle of the Skagerrak] 10. This religious group is based on a set of sutras telling of the vows the monk Dharmākara made prior to his ascension to buddhahood, especially his 18th vow. It was transmitted from China to Japan by Hōnen, whose disciple Shinran expressed this school’s final conclusion that enlightenment could only be achieved by faith in the grace of Dharmākara under his new name as a Buddha. Along with Chan or Zen, it is the most popular variant of Mahayana Buddhism in East Asia. For 10 points, name this school that focuses on the recitation of the Amitābha, or Amida Buddha’s name, to achieve entry into its namesake heavenly realm. ANSWER: Pure Land Buddhism [accept Amidism before “Amitābha”] 11. This biological process can be triggered through TFN-induced signaling or suppressed through the hedgehog signaling pathway. Other triggers include increased secretion of cytochrome c from mitochondria within the cell, which begins a cascade resulting in the activation of caspase-3, the effecter molecule for this action. The anti-cancer protein p53 induces this process as a last resort, and it is used in embryological and lymphocyte development as an effective way of removing excess cells. For 10 points, identify this orderly alternative to necrosis, the most common form of programmed cell death. ANSWER: Apoptosis 12. This ruler held power as regent of the infant Vaballathus, son of Odaenathus, who had led a certain city-state against the Parthians in the service of Emperor Gallienus. After an attempt to pacify Emperor Aurelian by proclaiming Vaballathus as Augustus failed, this ruler seized Antioch and Egypt in the late 260’s CE, claimed descent from Cleopatra, and became Queen. Along with the Gallic Empire of the west, her Empire posed a grave threat to the Roman Empire in the middle of the third century. For 10 points, name this Queen of Palmyra. ANSWER: Zenobia 13. He collaborated with Daniel Dennett to write The Mind's I. His more technical works include a book on artificial intelligence, Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies, while among his flightier efforts is Le Ton Beau De Marot, about the "music of language." His magnum opus is nominally about recent advances in the mathematics of recursion, though it is titled after a man who wrote a treatise on formally undecidable propositions, a Dutch optical-illusion artist, and the composer of the Goldberg Variations. For 10 points, name this author who described an “eternal golden braid” in Godel, Escher, Bach. ANSWER: Douglas Hofstadter
14. This battle was fought on a site of General Navarre’s choosing, a crossroads town whose name means “Seat of the Border County Prefecture.” The battle began as paratroopers led by General de Castries took the town in “Operation Castor” and created eight strongpoints around it. The attackers amassed artillery before initiating the battle, which, combined with human wave tactics, allowed them to overwhelm the outlying Beatrice and Gabrielle strongpoints in early March. By April 22, the airstrip was overrun and on May 7, 1954, General Giap and the Viet Minh destroyed the last hope for French victory in Vietnam. For 10 points, name this decisive battle of the First Indochina War. ANSWER: Battle of Điện Biên Phủ 15. The main character of this work often conflicts with his boss in the Scholarship Board, the arrogant, paternalistic Mr. Green. The protagonist’s four years of study in England lead to his decision to marry Clara, but the engagement is called off when her class is revealed. Though he must pay off his student loans to the Umuofian Progressive Union, the main character falls deeper into debt as he buys a car and finances Clara’s abortion. After his mother’s death and his estrangement from Clara, Obi Okonkwo begins to take bribes, for which he is put on trial. For 10 points, name this Nigerian novel, a sequel to Things Fall Apart, written by Chinua Achebe. ANSWER: No Longer at Ease 16. One of this artist’s works depicts a group of people contemplating a poem featuring the line “The paths of glory lead but to the grave.” He imitated the painter Claude’s Landscape with Hagar and the Angel in a painting of a creek winding toward a distant tower, while his only prominent religious work to speak of is the Risen Christ for the altarpiece at Manningtree. He painted a series on his father’s flower and vegetable gardens, but better-known is a landscape featuring dark clouds and a rainbow over the titular structure, which is seen “from the Meadows.” FTP name this artist of Salisbury Cathedral and a painting of a scene on the River Stour, The Hay Wain. ANSWER: John Constable 17. In one of this author’s stories a boy in Surbiton is chastised by Mr. Bons for not having read any of the works of Percy Shelley. In one of his novels, Stephen Wonham is revealed to be the half-brother of Rickie Elliot, while another concerns the failing marriage of Gino Carella and Lilia Herriton. Lady Anne Wood marries Clive Durham after he renounces his affair with the titular Cambridge undergrad in Maurice, while his better-known characters the unlikely heiress Margaret Schlegel in Howards End and the westernized Dr. Aziz in A Passage to India. FTP name this author, also known for a novel about George Emerson and Lucy Honechurch, A Room with a View. ANSWER: E.M. Forster 18. Smaller ranges within this mountain range include the Apuseni Mountains and the Tatra Mountains, whose Mount Gerlach is the tallest of the chain. Bordered on one side by the Pannonian plain, they contain a relatively high concentration of the sandstone-shale compound flysch. Runoff from them has been stemmed by basins in the Bistrita and San valleys, and their foothills around Ploieşti contain oil deposits. They run from the southeast, where the Danube cuts through it at the Iron Gate, to the northwest around Bratislava, arcing around the Transylvanian Plateau and forming the northern and eastern boundaries of the Great Hungarian Plain. For 10 points, name this mountain chain of Romania and Slovakia. ANSWER: Carpathian Mountains or Range 19. This law was developed by its eponymous scientist and his colleague Milton Humason, a former janitor at their Mount Wilson facility. It supported the ideas of Father Lemaître and helped resolve the CurtisShapley Debate. For decades the value of its constant, originally estimated at 500 kilometers per second per megaparsec, was uncertain, until complications like peculiar velocities were dealt with. Scientists like Vesto Slipher had previously noted the Doppler effects in question, but this law utilized new observations of Cepheid variable stars. For 10 points, name this law, a strong support for the expanding universe theory, which states that the redshift of faraway galaxies is linearly proportional to distance. ANSWER: Hubble’s Law 20. Literature-inspired works by this man include a ballet score based on Nosferatu, Grohg, and a piano trio after Ansky’s The Dybbuk, Vitebsk. He wrote the “play opera for high-school performance” The Second
Hurricane and a “Scherzo Humoristique,” The Cat and the Mouse, while his biblical works include 4 Motets and In the Beginning. Known for orchestral works such as An Outdoor Overture and his “Short Symphony,” he created a musical and spoken word “portrait” of Abraham Lincoln along with a ballet containing a famous “Hoe-down,” Rodeo. Also known for Appalachian Spring, this is, FTP, what composer of a Fanfare for the Common Man? ANSWER: Aaron Copland TB. The statute in question in this Supreme Court case was designed after the “Model Law” of Harry Laughlin. The prosecution was incompetently carried out by Irving Whitehead, who is usually considered to have colluded with the defendant for the purpose of upholding the law. His client had been committed to the Virginia Colony after she was raped by a member of her adopted family, but in 1924 she was deemed “promiscuous” and “feeble-minded.” Only one Justice dissented, and Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote the majority opinion, in which he famously stated that “three generations of imbeciles are enough.” For 10 points, name this case in which the legality of eugenic sterilization was upheld. ANSWER: Buck v. Bell [accept Bell v. Buck] Extra. This man’s non-fiction works include a History and Adventures of an Atom, and he wrote the dramas The Regicide and the farce The Reprisal. The snooty Jew Joshua and the Count de Melvil are characters in his novel about a “shrewd villain of monstrous inhumanity,” while the Gobbles and Samuel Crowe befriend the titular knight-errant of another work. One of his better-known characters is thrown into prison for writing satires but ultimately settles down with Emelia Gauntlet, while Hugh Strap and Tom Bowling are respectively the companion and godfather of his Roderick Random. FTP name this author, best-known for The Expedition of Humphry Clinker. ANSWER: Tobias Smollett Extra. In his original mythological setting, he is the son of Nyame and Asase Ya. In some areas his wife is known as Shi Maria, a possibly Christian-inspired adaptation. Although separate from the hare myths which gave rise to Br’er Rabbit, he shares stories with that figure, especially the “tar-baby” tale. His most famous exploit is his successful attempt to become King of All Stories, a story which features in most cultures in which he appears, from the Caribbean to his origin in West Africa among the Ashanti. For 10 points, name this trickster god, usually seen in the shape of a spider. ANSWER: Anansi [or Nanzi] Extra. Based at Thistle Mountain, its leaders included Shi Dakai. Dakai wanted to preserve this movement’s ideological base, a mixture of traditional myths like the Jade Emperor and the tracts of Issachar Roberts, as well as the identity of the Hakka people from whom the movement’s leader sprung. After its capture of Nanjing, the segregation of the city’s population by sex and the reform of society along nominally Christian lines began, but slowed as endemic warfare limited the regime’s actions for the rest of the 1850s. For 10 points, name this most potent rebellion against the Qing [CHING] Dynasty, led by Hong Xiuquan, which killed tens of millions in the name of the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace. ANSWER: Taiping Rebellion [accept “Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace” before mentioned in the question]
Penn Bowl 2007: Escape From Lord Weary’s Castle Bonuses by Virginia A (S.R. Sidarth, Leo Wolpert, Mike Wright, and Steve Yang) 1. The protagonist is loved by both William Boldwood and Gabriel Oak. For 10 points each:  Name this novel in which Wessex was introduced for the first time. ANSWER: Far from the Madding Crowd  Name the work’s protagonist. Her Biblical namesake won the throne for Solomon upon David’s death. ANSWER: Bathsheba Everdene [EITHER name acceptable]  Bathsheba Everdene first marries this man, who is killed by Mr. Boldwood after trying to force his wife home from a party ANSWER: Seargent Francis Troy 2. Toby Huss is on a lot of TV shows. For 10 points each:  On The Adventures of Pete & Pete, Huss played this superlative fellow, whose powers derive from his red and blue costume. ANSWER: Artie, the Strongest Man in the World  Huss performs two regular voices on King of the Hill: Hank’s father Cotton, and this next-door neighbor, who boasts that his mathematical genius should not blind you to his mystical side, and was kicked out of both Laos and Anaheim for being obnoxious. ANSWER: Kahn Souphanousinphone Sr. [prompt on Souphanousinphone]  Huss has a recurring role as Big Mike on this Comedy Central series, where his character doesn’t know the difference between panthers and dragons and ignores a lawn dart in his skull while being arrested by Deputy Travis and Lieutenant Dangle. ANSWER: Reno 911! 3. Questions about linear algebra, for ten points each.  A common procedure in linear algebra is this method for finding the inverse of a matrix as well as the solution to a matrix of linear equations, assuming the unknowns and matrix dimensions match correctly. ANSWER: Gaussian elimination (do not accept Gauss-Jordan elimination, it is a different process)  Linear algebra centers on the study of these objects, formally defined as modules over a field which satisfy vector addition and scalar multiplication closure axioms, as well as other familiar properties, notably not associativity. ANSWER: linear space or vector space  The generating element for a vector space is this linearly independent subset for which the set of all its linear combinations denotes the space. For R^2, it is the vectors (1,0) and (0,1). ANSWER: basis 4. A red curtain hangs behind a cherub who holds a mirror up to this work’s title figure, FTPE:  Name this painting in which the goddess of love gazes into her own reflection while lying on a bed. ANSWER: The Toilet of Venus or The Rokeby Venus  The Toilet of Venus is a work by this artist, also known for The Surrender of Breda and Las Meninas ANSWER: Diego Velazquez  Velazquez executed a portrait of this pope seated in his throne wearing a red and white robe. It was later deconstructed by Francis Bacon. ANSWER: Pope Innocent X (prompt on Innocent) 5. Name these Wallace Stevens poems, for 10 points each:  The title character of this poem claims that the sounds of playing the titular instrument “On my spirit make a music, too” and likens his love to the hold the biblical Susanna had over the elders. ANSWER: “Peter Quince at the Clavier”  The speaker of this poem bids the reader to “call the roller of big cigars” to produce the titular dessert. ANSWER: “The Emperor of Ice-Cream”  A woman who “sang beyond the genius of the sea” is imagined walking along the beach at the title location in this Wallace Stevens poem. ANSWER: “The Idea of Order at Key West”
6. Questions about the center of our galaxy, for 10 points each.  A strong, complex radio source in this constellation labeled “A*” [read: A star] has been identified as the galactic center. Because the central mass of stars in our galaxy lies in that direction, the Milky Way is densest as it passes through this constellation. ANSWER: Sagittarius  The radio emission is believed to emanate from heated gas and dust associated with a supermassive variety of this celestial object, believed to be at the center of most if not all galaxies. ANSWER: Black hole  The supermassive black hole itself may or may not emit this controversial sort of radiation due to quantum effects, named after the British scientist who theorized it in 1974. ANSWER: Hawking radiation 7. Name these people and groups important during the Time of Troubles, for 10 points each.  This dynasty, tracing its origin to the eponymous Varangian prince of Novgorod in the ninth century, ruled from Moscow until 1598. Its rulers included Ivan the Terrible and Ivan the Great. ANSWER: Rurik Dynasty  Three pretenders to the crown during the Time of Troubles are known by this title, as each claimed to be this brother and successor of the last Rurik Tsar, actually assassinated as a child. ANSWER: False Dmitris [or Pseudo-demetrius]  This man, whose election as Tsar in 1613 brought the Time of Troubles to a close, was the first Romanov Tsar. ANSWER: Michael Romanov 8. Name these colleagues of Charles Darwin, for 10 points each.  A pioneer of weather forecasting and early governor of New Zealand, he became an opponent of Darwin on religious grounds. He is best known for captaining the Beagle during Darwin’s voyage. ANSWER: Robert Fitzroy  His biological discoveries include discussions on island biogeography in the Indonesian archipelago, defining an eponymous Line separating Oriental and Australasian fauna. These discoveries led him to formulate a theory of natural selection independently of Darwin, prompting its publication. ANSWER: Alfred Russel Wallace  This Scottish geologist popularized uniformitarianism in his Principles of Geology, one of Darwin’s strongest influences. In later years, he was an important supporter of natural selection in the scientific community. ANSWER: Sir Charles Lyell 9. Name some religious works of literature, for 10 points each.  The oldest written collection of post-Biblical Jewish oral law, it supplements the Pentateuch in Jewish law. This work, plus a set of later commentaries called the Gemara, forms the Talmud. ANSWER: Mishna  This book, containing hymns by figures such as Arjun, was declared by the tenth Guru, Gobind Singh, to assume the spiritual role of the Guru in Sikhism after his death. ANSWER: Adi Granth [or Guru Granth Sahib]  The basic beliefs of Bahai, including the unity of all religions and the allegorical nature of scripture, are outlined in this book written by Bahaullah. ANSWER: The Book of Certitude [or Kitáb-i-Iqán] 10. Name these people who built Britain’s empire in India, for 10 points each.  He established a tradition of incorruptible officialdom as Viceroy of Ireland and Governor-General of India, where he also won the Third Mysore War, securing his place in history despite defeat in the American Revolution. ANSWER: Charles Cornwallis  This clerk for the British East India Company became its greatest general, winning the Battle of Plassey in 1757 and beginning the Company’s conquest of India. ANSWER: Robert Clive
 This brigade commander was held responsible for the Amritsar massacre, which didn’t do much for Anglo-Indian relations in the last three decades of British rule. ANSWER: General Reginald Edward Harry Dyer 11. Medea has been the subject of a number of works of literature and theater. For 10 points each:  The first version of the play was written by this Greek dramatist. In it, Medea murders Creon, Creon’s daughter, and her own two sons to gain revenge for Jason deserting her. ANSWER: Euripides  A tragedy based on the work of Euripides was written by this author of Epistulae morales and Consolationes. ANSWER: Lucius Annaeus Seneca  This poet of Tamar and Other Poems and Be Angry at the Sun made a 20th-century adaptation of Euripides’ Medea. ANSWER: John Robinson Jeffers 12. Answer the following about mathematical descriptions of income distribution, for 10 points per part.  This curve represents the proportion of a quantity held by the bottom x percent of a population. If the income distribution were perfect, this curve, named after its American inventor, would be a line with a 45 degree slope. ANSWER: Lorentz curve  This Italian economist developed an eponymous coefficient, the ratio between the area between the Lorentz curve and perfect distribution line and the total area beneath the perfect distribution line. High values are often held to be a measure of social inequality. ANSWER: Corrado Gini  This Indian economist developed a poverty index that measures the extent and severity of poverty in a society. An important figure in welfare economics, his work on the causes of famines and inequality won him the 1998 Nobel Prize. ANSWER: Amartya Sen 13. Name some American generals of the Revolutionary War, for 10 points each.  This general was the Conway Cabal’s proposed replacement for Washington. He presided over the victory at Saratoga. ANSWER: Horatio Gates  This man, expelled from the Quaker church for his military zeal, rose from the ranks to become Quartermaster General at Valley Forge, then replaced Gates. Despite tactical defeats at Guilford Courthouse and Eutaw Springs, he stopped the British offensive in the Carolinas in 1781. ANSWER: Nathanael Greene  Though it was an army under this man’s command that lost Charleston to the British, he returned to high command by the end of the War. A Massachusetts native, after the war he led a state militia force to victory at Petersham, ending Shays’ Rebellion. ANSWER: Benjamin Lincoln 14. It was composed for eight soloists, double choir, and orchestra. For 10 points each:  Name this 1907 work, officially titled Symphony No. 8 in E Flat Major. ANSWER: Symphony of a Thousand  Mahler refused to call this work Symphony No. 9 due to an informal tradition established by Beethoven. This six-movement symphony was originally a song cycle to Chinese poems in German translations. ANSWER: The Song of the Earth [or Das Lied von der Erde]  This other Austrian composer also followed Beethoven’s tradition and made Symphony No. 9 in D Minor his last work. He is best known for a seven-part Ave Maria and his love of Wagner. ANSWER: Josef Anton Bruckner 15. Figures in the mythology of the British Isles, for 10 points each.
 This figure of modern literature and popular culture came about when Geoffrey of Monmouth fused a prophetic madman and the semi-historical figure Aurelius Ambrosius, placing this fictional character within the legends. He is usually described as a wizard. ANSWER: Merlin Ambrosius  This son of Fionn mac Cumhail [read: Fin MacCool] traveled to Tír na nog with the nymph Niamh, where they had his son Oscar. Yeats wrote poems on the “Wanderings of” this man, and James Macpherson published poems purporting to be translations of this man’s work. ANSWER: Ossian [or Oisín]  These figures from the mythology of the Orkney Islands could transform from seal to human, usually for the purpose of romantic relationships, but if they could find their seal skins, they would return to the sea. ANSWER: Selkies 16. Goya works, for 10 points each.  This painting exhibited in the Prado was painted in 1814 as a pair with a related work. It depicts a street battle between citizens of Madrid opposed to King Joseph and Mameluke cavalry. ANSWER: The Second of May 1808 [or Segundo de Mayo 1808] [PROMPT ON “Charge of the Mamelukes”]  The best known of Goya’s Black Paintings, it depicts an act of cannibalism from Roman mythology in stark flesh tones on a black background. ANSWER: Saturn Devouring His Son [or Satorno Devorando a su hijo]  This painting of a reclining nude female caused the Spanish Inquisition to remove Goya from his position of court painter. An identical but clothed version was later made in mockery of those who insisted he paint clothes on the original. ANSWER: The Nude Maja [or The Naked Maja or Maja Desnuda] 17. Here are some questions about Australian history, for 10 points each.  James Cook gave this first colony of Australia its name. Currently its largest state by population, settlement began at modern-day Sydney in 1788. ANSWER: New South Wales  This 1854 revolt of gold miners in Ballarat, Victoria, whose cause was supported by most Australians, led to the establishment of full male suffrage in Australia. ANSWER: Eureka Stockade  The Royal Australian Navy played a supporting role at this battle of May 1942, where the USS Lexington was lost but the Japanese threat to Australia was averted in a turning point of World War II. ANSWER: Battle of the Coral Sea 18. The title character’s mistress, Antonia Mancebo, leaves him over his Apartheid nostalgia, FTPE:  Name this novel about the industrialist Mehring, who attempts to control the activities on his remote farm. ANSWER: The Conservationist  The Conservationist is a novel by this author, also known for A World of Strangers and Burger’s Daughter ANSWER: Nadine Gordimer  This other Nadine Gordimer novel concerns Maureen and Bam Smales’ escape from Johannesburg to the village of their titular houseboy. ANSWER: July’s People 19. Answer some questions about a Spanish Queen, for 10 points each.  The daughter and eldest surviving child of Ferdinand and Isabel, as the heir to Castile and Aragon, she was married to the Habsburg Philip I. Upon his death, she became deranged; modern historians believe she was schizophrenic. ANSWER: Joanna the Mad [or Juana la Loca]  This younger sister of Joanna became the first wife of Henry VIII. ANSWER: Catherine of Aragon
 Joanna’s eldest son, he became Holy Roman Emperor, was the first Habsburg to personally rule all the family’s lands in Europe, and presided over Cortez and Pizarro’s conquests in the Americas. ANSWER: Charles V of Germany [or Holy Roman Emperor or Charles I of Spain; accept foreign word forms like Carlos or Karl] 20. Questions about early 19th-century chemistry, for 10 points each.  This Italian is remembered for his namesake law stating that at the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of different gases contain the same number of molecules. ANSWER: Amedeo Avogadro  In this process, current is passed through a substance, causing a chemical change which can be applied to water, resulting in the production of hydrogen and oxygen gas in a 2 to 1 volumetric ratio. This correspondence between volume and stoichiometry was important in leading Avogadro to his conclusions. ANSWER: electrolysis  Given the importance of electrical studies in elucidating Avogadro’s Law, it is no surprise that this French electromagnetic pioneer, known for his eponymous law describing the magnetic force between two currents, reached the same conclusions as Avogadro. ANSWER: André-Marie Ampère Extra. Rivers of Siberia, for 10 points each.  Russian expansion into this river’s basin was checked by the 1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk with China. The 1858 Treaty of Aigun gave the mouth of the river to Russia, near which lies the city of Khabarovsk, and set the modern Russia-China border, most of which lies along this river. ANSWER: Amur River  Rising in the Altai Mountains and flowing through China and Kazakhstan before reaching Russia, cities along it include Omsk and Tobolsk. It is the chief tributary of the Ob River in western Siberia. ANSWER: Irtysh River  Its origin lies near Lake Baikal, though it receives none of that lake’s outflow, from whence it heads east, then north to the Laptev Sea. It is the easternmost of the great south-to-north Siberian rivers, flowing around the Verkhoyansk Mountains and past the city of Yakutsk. ANSWER: Lena River Extra. Evelyn Waugh works, for 10 points each.  Waugh wrote this theological 1950 novel about the mother of Constantine the Great. Her name is shared by a U.S. state capital. ANSWER: Helena  Tony Last is forced to read Dickens to a hermit in South America in this Waugh work, which takes its title from a line in The Waste Land ANSWER: A Handful of Dust  Sir Alastair Digby-Vaine-Trumpington helps Paul Pennyfeather escape from prison after he is wrongly accused of being a white slaver in this Waugh novel. ANSWER: Decline and Fall Extra. Their name was taken from a passage in James Joyce’s Finnegans Wake. For 10 points each:  Name these subatomic particles which have an associated color. ANSWER: quarks  The term quark was coined by this American physicist, who also introduced the concept of strangeness. ANSWER: Murray Gell-Mann  Gell-Mann and Israeli physicist Yuval Ne’eman introduced this classification scheme in 1961 to put particles in families. The name is analogous to a fundamental concept in Buddhism. ANSWER: Eightfold Way [DO NOT ACCEPT Eightfold Path]