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					Simulation Games
A Selected list of intercultural games, publications and distributors

Aid to Minorians / Intercultural Sourcebook Participants are divided into two groups: The Minorians are a poor and underdeveloped society; while the Majorians are wealthy and are trying to plan a project to help the Minorians. Cultural assumptions and the relationship between donor and receiving parties are examined. Albatross / Beyond Experience This is a nonverbal role-playing activity that can incorporate a variety of themes, such as male-female relationships and privilege. Participants are asked to watch a brief role-play and then describe what they saw. Most will interpret what they saw and begin to judge the characters in the role while only having seen, but not heard, anything. This exercise provides a good example of how people give meaning to unique events based on their own experiences. Alternatives: A Game of Understanding / Intercultural Press This board game examines the relationship bewteen gay, lesbian, and bisexuqal groups and heterosexual groups in contemporary society. Any number of people can play and it includes aspects of both board games and role-playing exercises. Bafa' Bafa' / Simulation Training Systems Participants are divided into two cultures, and are asked to travel back and forth between them. Players try to understand the other culture through these visits while maintaining their own cultural role. This simulation shows how easy it is to misinterpret actions and exchanges when the rules are unfamiliar, and it demonstartes the need for thought-out strategies when learning about a new culture. Barnga / Intercultural Press A nonverbal game in which participants are divided into groups to learn a card game based on a number of simple rules. What the participants do not know is that each group's set of rules is slightly different, so when they begin to play the game with others conflict develops. As players are not allowed to talk, they must rely on other means of communication. While sometimes explosive, this game demonstrates how quickly ingroupoutgroup dynamics form. Brief Encounters / HRD Press The purpose of this cross-cultural simulation game is to explore how people perceive cultural differences. It explores concepts and skills such as enculturation, ethnocentrism, first impressions, and interacting with culturally different groups. Chatter / HRD Press This simulation encourages participants to pay attention to the dynamics of small group interactions. The purpose is to have participants experience variations in conversational styles and to modify their behavior 1

appropriately. The Cost of Your Shirt / Resource Center of the Americas This simulation exercise is based on the real-life drama of a Guatemala City maquiladora. Exploring the global issues behind a union dispute, students play the roles of plant managers, workers, government representatives, and concerned US citizens. Crisis / Simulation Training Systems Participants form teams and each team is instructed to manage the affairs of a fictional nation. The nations vary in their resources, strengths, and weaknesses, but must work together to solve an international conflict. Death of a Dissident / Myrin Institute & American Forum This game looks at economic and social development issues. Set in a Carribean nation, participants are given roles and asked to negotiate with each other to solve the problems that arise. Diversophy: Understanding the Human Race / George Simons International A board game that helps develop the skills necessary to understand and collaborate with people from diverse backgrounds. A conference version is available for large groups, average playing time is 60-90 minutes. Ecotonos / Intercultural Press Participants take on roles as members of different cultural groups and are then asked to interact with others to solve a problem. This simulation looks at how homogenous groups work as opposed to how heterogeneous groups work, as well as examining the assumptions that groups make about the decision making process and how to work out a problem. The Emperor's Pot / Intercultural Sourcebook Vol. 1 This simulation focuses on the different cultural assumptions and values of different groups as one group tries to obtain a valued object from another. Also known as the East-West Game. Exclude / HRD Press This game gives participants a chance to experience the frustrations of being left out of a group or being ignored by its members. Fire in the Forest / American Forum The learning themes for this simulation include environmental protection, respect for other cultures, and economic development. Set in the Amazon Rain Forest, participants represent conflicting claims to the land and try to negotiate a solution. Grocery Store / American Forum In a culturally diverse neighborhood in the inner city, tensions arise between diverse culture groups. A critical 2

incident occurs and is interpreted differently by each party. This game looks at race relations, cultural diversity, and the different cultural meanings that are attached to different behaviors. Heelotia /Simulation Training Systems Similar to Bafa Bafa, this game is easier to conduct. In this game, the cultural rules are intentionally vague so as to make the participants decide on their own cultural rules. Thus, this exercise looks at howdecisions are made, as well as how one interacts with another culture group. Hostage Crisis / Moorehead Kennedy Institute In this game, terrorists threaten to harm U.S. hostages unless their demands are met. As the demands are not feasible, negotiation becomes critical. The main themes in this game are Middle Eastern nationalism, issues of justice, and cross-cultural understanding. IDE-GO / Intercultural Sourcebook Vol. 1 Participants separate into two groups: one simulates North American culture while the other simulates South American culture. This game is designed to provide insight into the interaction processes and behaviors of these two groups. Lump-Sum / Weeks, Pederson, & Brislin Participants are separated into four groups with differing backgrounds and interests. They meet to negotiate the allocation of a specific amount of money. They must decide within an allotted amount of time or the money will be lost. Likewise, the game requires unanimous agreement rather than simply majority rule on the decision, so the only way for any group to win is for all groups to win. The Malonarian Cultural Expedition Team / Meridian House International In this simulation, participants play a team of cultural anthropologists from the Republic of Malonaria. The team's assignment is to study the United States in order to prepare for educational and diplomatic exchanges between the two cultures. A values approach is taken, and members of the team are asked to compare American and Malonarian values as a way to further understanding. The Martian Anthropology Exercise / Beyond Experience In this exercise, participants are supposed to pretend that they are studying a new culture, that of the "Martians". The players are divided into groups, and each group is given a task to complete before all reconvene as a large group. Each small group has a different assignment, and assignments can be altered to fit the specific themes that the teacher would like to discuss. Suggested group tasks include going to the public library to study kinship patterns, or going to a cafe to study communication patterns. Each group is to pretend that they have never had contact with this "Martian" culture before, so they must try to make sense of it and then report back to the larger group.

The Owl / Beyond Experience Vols. 1 & 2 3

A group of reporters are assigned to interview members of another country and, if acting appropriately, can gain access to a mysterious cultural event. If they accomplish the task, the reporters will have their story. Communication problems arise, though, and the reporters are faced with the dilemma of needing information while also needing to find a culturally appropriate way to ask for it. Same Difference / HRD Press This game helps participants identify several cultural groups to which they belong, to discover similarities and differences between themselves and others, to identify personal attributes which are immediately recognized and the ones which require time and effort to discover, as well as to differentiate between relevant and irrelevant attributes in a given situation. Starpower / Simulation Training Systems Participants form groups with different economic statuses and learn to trade with each other as a way to improve their economic status. The most economically viable group is allowed to alter the rules, though. Alliances quickly form and ingroup-outgroup dynamics become evident as well as assumptions about the uses and abuses of power. Tisouro: Creating Felt Needs / Beyond Experience (2nd ed.) In this simple exercise players gather in a circle and pass a pair of scissors to each other. They are only allowed to say how they are passing the scissors, either closed, crossed or open. The facilitator gives the instructions in a way that is ambiguous between participants having the scissors or their legs be closed, crossed, or open when they pass the scissors. This exercise examines nonverbal communication, conflicting signals, and feelings of beinf left out or not understanding within a group context. Where Do You Draw the Line / Simulation Training Systems Designed by Gary Shirts, this ethics game explores what "should be" without excluding consideration of what "is". Publications

Adams, D. (1973). Simulation Games: An approach to Learning. Worthington, OH: Charles A. Jones Publishing Company. Batchelder, D. & Warner, E.C. (1977). Beyond Experience. Battleboro, VT: Experiment in International Living. Buckley, R. & Caple, J. (1990). The Theory and Practice of Training. San Diego, CA: University Associates. Fowler, S. M. (1977). Intercultural Sourcebook. Pittsburg, PA Fowler, S.M. & Mumford, M.G. (1995) Intercultural Sourcebook. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. 4

Gochenouz, T. (ed.) (1993). Beyond Experience: The Experiential Approach to Cross-cultural Training (2nd ed.) Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. Greenblat, C.S. (1988). Designing Games and Simulations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Horn, R.E. & Cleaves, A. (Eds.) (1980). The Guide to Simulations / Games for Education and Training. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Jones, K. (1983) Simulations for Language Teaching. New Directions in Language Teaching Series. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Jones, K. (1985) Designing Your Own Simulations. New York, NY: Routledge Chapman and Hall. Jones, K. (1987) Simulation: Handbook for Teachers. New York, NY: Nichols Publishers. Jones, K. (1988) Interactive Learning Events. New York, NY: Nichols Publishers. Kohls, L. R. & Knight, J. M. (1994) Developing Cross-cultural Awareness. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. Pfeffer, J. W. & Bronstein, R. H. (1988). Simulations and Games. Training Technology Series. San Diego, CA: University Associates. Pusch, M. D. (Ed.). (1979). Multicultural Education: A Cross-cultural Training Approach. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. Simile II Catalogue. Simulations Games for Universities and Colleges: Games for other Ages. Del Mar, CA: Simile II. Taylor, J. & Walford, R. (1978). Learning and the Simulation Game. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Weeks, W., Pederson, P.P. & Brislin, R.W. (1977). A Manual of Structured Experiences for Cross-cultural Learning. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press. There are a number of journals that devote much of their effort to experiential learning activities as well, such as:
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Journal of Experiential Education http://www.aee.org/publications/journal/aeejourn.html Simulation and gaming: An International Journal of Theory, Design, and Research http://www.unice.fr/sg/ 5

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Game Distributors

American Forum for Global Education 120 Wall Street, Suite 2600 New York, NY 10005 Phone: (212) 624-1300 Email: globed120@aol.com Website: http://www.globaled.org George Simons International EUROPE Domaine les Résidences de l'Argentière - Bâtiment A 637 Boulevard de la Tavernière 06210 Mandelieu-La Napoule, France Phone: +33 4 92 97 57 35 Fax +33 1 53 01 35 04 USA 236 Plateau Avenue Santa Cruz, CA 95060 Voice Mail & Fax: 1 888 215 3117 Website: http://www.diversophy.com HRD Press (in association with Workshops by Thiagi) 22 Amherst Road Amherst, MA 01002 Phone: (800) 822-2801 Website: http://www.hrdpress.com/ Intercultural Press P.O. Box 700 Yarmouth, ME, 04096 Phone: (800) 370-2665 Website: http://www.interculturalpress.com Meridian International Center c/o Norma McCraig 1630 Crescent Pl. NW Washington, DC 20009 Phone: (202) 667-6800 Email: info@meridian.org Website: http://www.meridian.org Moorehead Kennedy Institute 45 John St., Suite 909 New York, NY 10038 Phone: (212) 964-4622 Resource Center of the Americas 3019 Minnehaha Avenue So. Minneapolis, MN 55406-1931 Phone: (800) 452-8382 Website: http://www.americas.org 6

Simulation Training Systems P.O. Box 910 Del Mar, CA 92014 Phone: 1-800-942-2900 Fax: (619) 792-9743 Email: sts@cts.com Website: http://www.stsintl.com/ Workshops by Thiagi 4423 E. Trailridge Road Bloomington, IN 47408-9633 Phone: (812) 332-1478 Website: http://www.thiagi.com

Professional Associations

ISAGA International Simulation and Gaming Association Membership secretary c/o Markus Ulrich USC Ulrich Creative Simulations Blaufahnenstrasse 14 Ch-8001 Zurich, Switzerland Email: ucs@access.ch Website: http://www.isaga.info North American Simulations & Gaming Association (NASAGA) P.O. Box 78636 Indianapolis, IN 46278 Phone: 1-888-432-game, or (317) 387-1424 Website: http://www.nasaga.org Society for the Advancement of games & Simulations in Education & Training (SAGSET) 53 Prince's Gate Exhibition Road London, SW7 2PG United Kingdom Website: http://www.ms.ic.ac.uk/sagset/

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