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Introduction to the Flatworms
Members of the phylum Platyhelminthes are commonly called flatworms. There are both parasitic (dependent on a host organism for survival) and free-living forms of this group. Flatworms, either parasitic or free-living forms, have both sexes on the same individual, a condition referred to as hermaphroditic. Another term that describes this condition is monoecious. Some parasitic species will self-fertilize their own eggs if another individual is not present. This group does not have a body cavity (coelom) and is referred to as acoelomate. Flatworms are the first animal group to show all three tissue layers that we find in most animals (except Sponges and Cnidarians). This condition is referred to as triploblastic. These three embryonic tissues are: ectoderm, which forms the skin or epidermis and nervous tissue, mesoderm, which forms muscles and some organs, and endoderm, which forms the lining of the gastrovascular cavity or gut.

Introduction to the Roundworms
All roundworms, phylum Nematoda, are very similar in appearance: they have a cylindrical body with tapering ends. Most Nematodes are free-living, but some are important parasites of plants and animals. As for the flatworms, nematode development includes all three embryonic tissue layers. Flatworms have a body cavity, but it is only line on the outside by tissue derived from mesoderm. Such a cavity is called a psuedocoelom.

Introduction to the Segmented Worms
Some worms are comprised of many segments. These animals belong to the phylum Annelida. Members of this phylum may be most familiar: the common earthworm, leech and nightcrawler belong to this group. There are three general types of segmented worms. One group is entirely marine (the polychaetes), while the other two groups are either terrestrial or live in freshwater. Annelids have a true coelom, a condition called coelomate. That is the body cavity is lined on the inside and outside by mesoderm derived tissue.

Dissecting instruments, dissecting pan, pins Dissecting Scope Microscope

Prepared slides of Planaria Fluke Tapeworm Preserved specimens:


Worms, worms, worms!


Tapeworms Flukes Living specimens: Dugesia - planaria Colored hard boiled egg yolk to feed planaria. Video segment: Shape of Life

Live Tubatrix - Vinegar eels - nematode worms Protoslo – to help retard their fast movement in the water mount Preserved Ascaris -large roundworm parasite (use gloves when handling!!!) Prepared Slide Trichinella - parasite in uncooked pork, alternate host is humans Ascaris cross section

Model of dissected earthworm Earthworm, preserved for dissection Preserved annelid specimens Video Segment: Shape of Life

You will be looking at living specimens, preserved specimens for dissection, and preserved specimens for observation. Please handle all specimens with care. Follow the procedures below and document your findings on the lab report.

Free-living Flatworms
The free-living flatworm in the bowl at the front of the classroom is the common planarian Dugesia, which may be found under rocks in cold, clean streams. Observe the living planarian and note its general shape. What type of body symmetry does it possess? Does it have a head end? A head end with a concentration of nervous tissue is called cephalization. Watch a demonstration of the flatworm’s feeding response to egg yolk. Do you notice any difference in its behavior? Are any new structures apparent when feeding? Examine a cross section slide of planaria. Can you identify where the muscles occur on the body? You may need some assistance to ascertain what is muscle tissue. In general, muscle can be longitudinal (along the body length), circular (wrapped around the body), or diagonal (across the body). Which types can you observe in planaria?

Parasitic Flatworms
There are two types of parasitic flatworms: the tapeworm and the fluke. Parasites are organisms that spend some portion of their lives in close association with their host organism. This relationship weakens and can even kill the host. These organisms may live on the outside of the host (ectoparasites) or within the host (endoparasites). Tapeworms seem to specialize in the gut tracts of many kinds of vertebrates, while flukes are found in the blood stream or organs associated with the blood, like the liver. Look at the preserved specimens and slides of tapeworms and flukes. Notice the body shape of each. What do these animals use to anchor them in place on their hosts? Both of these parasitic worms have complex life cycles. Watch the video on one parasite, the Schistome worm to learn about flatworm parasitic life cycles.


Worms, worms, worms!


Place a dropper of ‘vinegar eels’ in a small watch glass or on your slide with a cover slip. Note the motility of these free-living roundworms. You may add a drop of Protoslo before adding a cover slip to slow down their activity. Note how they move. The parasitic Ascaris lives in small intestine of humans and pigs, feeding on partially digested food. Its life cycle is shown in the preserved model. Note that females can be distinguished from males because they are larger and do not have a curved or hooked posterior end. Look at a cross section slide of Ascaris. Note its structures as indicated in the report section.

Annelida Dissection Instructions for Earthworm
1. Dissection should be done with care. Pin each end of the preserved roundworm to the bottom of a waxed dissecting pan.. 2. Refer to the Computer and search for earthworm dissection to find illustrations of worm dissection (diagrams are clearer than the photographs). Identify the dorsal (back) side of your earthworm. It is darker than the ventral (belly) side of the worm. Place your earthworm dorsal side up in a dissecting pan. Pin the earthworm to the dissecting pan by inserting a pin in the first and last segments. Try to place pins as close to the end of the worm as possible to avoid so that you do not pucturing any important structures. Stretch the worm slightly as you add the second pin. 3. Next, identify the clitellum, a distinctive landmark. The clitellum is a section of the worm that is about 1 cm long, where it appears lighter colored and has a slightly larger circumference than the rest of the worm. It is found closer to the anterior (front) end of the worm. The end of the worm further from the clitellum is the posterior (rear) end. Most of the interesting structures are found at the anterior end of the earthworm. Posterior to the clitellum, all of the segments are essentially identical. 4. You must now carefully cut the skin of the earthworm and open it up to view internal structures without destroying them in the process. The best way to open the earthworm is with scissors. Insert the tip of the scissors about one inch posterior to the clitellum. Then lift up on the scissors to pull the skin away from the delicate structures below as you cut. Carefully cut forward from this point to the anterior end of the worm, keeping the scissors held up where they will not damage structures below. You may also cut posteriorly towards the pin holding the end of the worm in place. 5. Pin open the incision as you cut so that the body cavity is exposed. Place the pins at such an angle that they will not obstruct your view. You may need to gently use a dissecting probe to pry the skin away from the structures below. 6. Trace the digestive system from mouth to anus, paying special attention to the sections of the digestive tract that are modified to aid in digestion: pharynx, crop, gizzard, intestine. 7. Examine the circulatory system. Find the ten hearts (two on each of five consecutive anterior segments) and locate the dorsal blood vessel that runs along the top of the digestive tract. 8. Note the size (relative to other structures) of the seminal vesicles and seminal receptacles --sperm storage areas. 9. Finally, pull the intestine out of the way to reveal the ventral nerve cord.

Observe a cross section slide for the earthworm. Note where its muscles are located. Also Observe any preserved specimens that are out on display.


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Lab Report: Flatworms, Roundworms, and Segmented worms
Lab day: ____________ Name ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________

What is the body symmetry of planaria? Radial or bilateral? Draw a sketch of a planarian from either the living specimens or a whole mount microscope slide. Are the anterior and posterior ends the same or different? Where would you expect to find the animal’s sensory receptors and ‘brain’? Label the head end on your sketch. Do you see any structures that may be sensory organs? Describe them.

Using a prepared slide (planaria digestive tract w.m. or planaria plain and digestive tract w.m.), sketch the digestive tract of a planarian. Is it simple like the cnidarians or more complex? How many openings to this tract do you see? What is similar and/or different about the gastrovascular cavity of the planarian compared with the hydra or jelly from last week? What might an advantage of the highly branched gastrovascular cavity be to flatworms?


Worms, worms, worms!


After obtaining and examining a cross section (cs) slide of planaria, sketch what you see. Can you see any tissues that might be muscle? Label these.

Parasitic flatworms
Sketch and label the tapeworm and fluke from the prepared whole mount slides (the tapeworm slide is labeled Taenia pisiformis and the fluke is Clonorchis sinensis. These are the species names for each animal. Where do these organisms attach to their host? Label these parts on the drawings.

From the Video: Shape of Life-the First Hunters In what type of habitats do you find flatworms?

Describe some adaptations that tapeworms have for a parasitic lifestyle.

What are species where individuals have both male and female reproductive parts called? What are some hypothesized advantages for these types of species?


Worms, worms, worms!


What type of movements did the vinegar eels have? Think about how muscles work. Predict what types of muscles nematodes have (longitudinal, circular, diagonal).

Sketch a cross section of a nematode (Ascaris lumbricoides m. & f. c.s.). Find and label the muscles. Was your prediction supported by the cross section slide?

Draw and describe the Ascaris preserved specimen located on the counter with other specimens. Can you identify males from females? How?


Worms, worms, worms!


Watch an earthworm move. Based on its movement, predict what types of muscle annelid worms have.

Draw a cross section of the earthworm (Earthworm intestinal region, c.s.). Identify the muscles in the drawing. What advantage might a segmented worm have over a non-segmented worm (e.g. Ascaris) have in terms of movement?

Draw the dissected annelid and label some of the major organs you discovered.

Draw and describe some of the preserved segmented worms you observed in class.


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Video Segment: Shape of Life—explosion of life Where are annelids found (types of habitats)?

Describe the adaptations that leeches have to gain blood meals.

Describe the body plan of annelids and for what this body plan is most effective?

Why are annelids thought to have caused climate change on the earth?


Worms, worms, worms!


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