Anatomy & Physiology Practice Exam #3 Name___________________________________ MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Most muscles contain ________. 1) _______ A) muscle fibers of the same type B) a mixture of fiber types C) a predominance of fast oxidative fibers D) a predominance of slow oxidative fibers 2) Which of the following would be recruited later in muscle stimulation when contractile strength increases? A) motor units with the longest muscle fibers B) motor units with larger, less excitable neurons C) many small motor units with the ability to stimulate other motor units D) large motor units with small, highly excitable neurons 3) Calcium ions bind to the ________ molecule in skeletal muscle cells. A) actin B) myosin C) tropomyosin D) troponin 4) An elaborate network of membranes in skeletal muscle cells that functions in calcium storage is the ________. A) sarcoplasmic reticulum B) myofibrillar network C) intermediate filament network D) mitochondria 5) Rigor mortis occurs because ________. A) no ATP is available to release attached actin and myosin molecules B) the cells are dead C) sodium ions leak out of the muscle D) proteins are beginning to break down, thus preventing a flow of calcium ions 6) The term aponeurosis refers to ________. A) the rough endoplasmic reticulum B) the tropomyosin-troponin complex C) the bands of myofibrils D) a sheetlike indirect attachment to a skeletal element 7) The site of calcium regulation in the smooth muscle cell is ________. A) troponin B) myosin C) actin D) calmodulin 2) _______
8) The main effect of the warm-up period of athletes, as the muscle contractions increase in strength, is to ________. A) enhance the availability of calcium and the efficiency of enzyme systems B) tone the muscles and stabilize the joints for the workout C) increase the myoglobin content D) convert glycogen to glucose 9) When a muscle is unable to respond to stimuli temporarily, it is in which of the following periods? A) fatigue period B) latent period C) relaxation period D) refractory period 10) The cells of single-unit visceral muscle ________. A) are chemically coupled to one another by gap junctions B) exhibit spontaneous action potentials C) contract all at once D) consist of muscle fibers that are structurally independent of each other 11) Scissors demonstrate which type of lever? A) a third-class lever B) a first-class lever C) a fourth-class lever D) a second-class lever 12) What is the major factor controlling the manner in which levers work? A) the weight of the load B) the direction the load is being moved C) the structural characteristics of the muscles of the person using the lever D) the difference in the positioning of the effort, load, and fulcrum 13) What primarily determines the power of a muscle? A) the number of neurons innervating it B) the total number of muscle cells available for contraction C) the shape D) the length 14) To produce horizontal wrinkles in the forehead, which of the following muscles is involved? A) the frontal belly of the epicranius B) the temporalis C) the medial pterygoid D) the zygomaticus major 15) Which of the following muscles is involved in crossing one leg over the other while in a sitting position? A) the sartorius B) all of the hamstrings C) the quadriceps femoris D) the gastrocnemius
16) Which of the following does not compress the abdomen? A) internal oblique B) coccygeus C) transversus abdominis D) external oblique 17) Spasms of this straplike muscle often result in wryneck or torticollis. A) zygomaticus B) platysma C) serratus anterior D) sternocleidomastoid 18) Which of these is not a way of classifying muscles? A) the type of action they cause B) muscle shape C) the type of muscle fibers D) muscle location 19) The extensor digitorum longus has which type of fascicle arrangement? A) convergent B) unipennate C) bipennate D) circular 20) Which of the following muscles is most involved in abduction? A) deltoid B) latissimus dorsi C) teres major D) subscapularis 21) Direct-acting neurotransmitters ________. A) require cyclic AMP B) mediate very slow responses C) act through second messengers D) open ion channels to provoke rapid responses 22) Ciliated CNS neuroglia that play an active role in moving the cerebrospinal fluid are called ________. A) astrocytes B) Schwann cells C) oligodendrocytes D) ependymal cells 23) An excitatory neurotransmitter secreted by motor neurons innervating skeletal muscle is ________. A) acetylcholine B) norepinephrine C) cholinesterase D) gamma aminobutyric acid 24) A neuronal circuit that concentrates or directs a large number of incoming impulses to a rather small number of neurons is called a(n) ________. A) parallel circuit B) converging circuit C) diverging circuit D) oscillating circuit 25) The part of a neuron that conducts impulses away from its cell body is called a(n) ________. A) neurolemma B) axon C) Schwann cell D) dendrite 26) Which of these ions is actively transported through the cell membrane to establish a resting potential? A) Cl B) Mg C) Na D) Ca
27) Which of the following is a good example of a neuromodulator? A) acetylcholine B) nitric oxide C) any carbohydrate D) any protein 28) Bipolar neurons are commonly ________. A) motor neurons B) found in the retina of the eye C) found in ganglia D) called neuroglial cells 29) Collections of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system are called ________. A) nerves B) tracts C) nuclei D) ganglia 30) Select the correct statement about serial processing. A) Smells are processed by serial pathways. B) Input travels along several different pathways. C) Memories are triggered by serial processing. D) Spinal reflexes are an example of serial processing.
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