Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline 101 by li3490

VIEWS: 217 PAGES: 16

									Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline 101
Terry Boss INGAA 202-216-5930 www.ingaa.org tboss@ingaa.org

Natural Gas
Other names Molecular formula Appearance

Natural Gas
General Marsh gas, Swamp gas CH4 Clear Gas, Blue Flame Properties Density and phase Melting point 0.717 kg/m , gas −182.5°C (90.6 K) at 1 atm 25 °C (298 K) at 1.5 GPa Boiling point Triple point −161.6°C (111.55 K) 90.7 K, 0.117 bar Hazards MSDS EU classification NFPA 704 R-phrases S-phrases Flash point R12 S2, S9, S16, S33 −188°C External MSDS Highly flammable (F+)
3

Autoignition temperature
Maximum burning temperature: Explosive limits

537°C
2148°C 5–15%

Source :

Wikipedia

Pipeline Operation is Well Below Materials Limit of the Pipe Steel
Stress UTS

YS
SMYS MAOP (Class 1) MAOP (Class 4)

Pipe begins Pipe to burst Yields

Stress P

Stress Strain Experience Demonstrates a Two Times Safety Factor Over MAOP

The Natural Gas Industry
Marketers Storage Commercial

Residential 272,500 Gas Wells Producers • Majors • Independents 30 Major Interstate Pipelines Industrial & Utilities Storage 1200 Distributors

Gathering

Gas Demand Outlook
U.S. and Canada Gas Consumption
(Trillion Cubic Feet, Tcf)
40,000

35,000

30,000

Power Generation

25,000

20,000

Industrial

15,000

Commercial
10,000

Residential
5,000

Other
0
2001 2006 2011 2016 2021

Change in System Load Profile
1995 2002

Jan

Load
Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Typical LDC Hourly Flow vs. Scheduled Nominations
18,000 16,000 14,000

12,000

10,000

Dth
8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000

0
Thu, 3/6/03 Fri, 3/7/03 Sat, 3/8/03 Sun, 3/9/03 Mon, 3/10/03 Tue, 3/11/03 Wed, 3/12/03 Thu, 3/13/03 Fri, 3/14/03 Sat, 3/15/03

Nom

Flow

Note: days are gas days commencing at 9:00 am

Model of Gas Transmission Network

Courtesy of EEA

Transmission Pipeline Right of Way

Engine Powered by Natural Gas

Natural Gas Compressor

Measurement

Remote Terminal Unit

Typical Unit Control Scheme

Typical Station Control Scheme

2002 to 2006 Incidents by Hour Onshore Mechanical Damage
18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Hour of Day
12:00 AM 6:00 AM 12:00 PM 6:00 PM 1:00 AM 7:00 AM 1:00 PM 7:00 PM 2:00 AM 8:00 AM 2:00 PM 8:00 PM 3:00 AM 9:00 AM 3:00 PM 9:00 PM 4:00 AM 10:00 AM 4:00 PM 10:00 PM 5:00 AM 11:00 AM 5:00 PM 11:00 PM

5-Year data, 2002 to 2006, Download date 10-15-06, 419 Onshore and 155 Offshore Gas Transmission and Gathering Incidents


								
To top