What was happening in Idaho during Lincoln’s Life? Idaho 1803: The United States purchases Louisiana Territory. 1805: Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark enter area that would become Idaho at Lemhi Pass. 1809: Kullyspell House, first non-native establishment in Northwest, is erected near Lake Pend Oreille. February 12 - Abraham Lincoln was born in a one-room log cabin, near what is now Hodgenville, Kentucky. His parents were Thomas (a carpenter by trade; a farmer out of necessity) and Nancy Hanks. Lincoln had one sister, Sarah, who was 2 years older and a brother who died in infancy. Today, the birthplace is located at Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site. Lincoln 1810: Fort Henry, first American fur post west of Rocky Mountains, established near St. Anthony. 1811: Astorian parties under Wilson Price Hunt explore portions of the future Oregon Trail in Idaho. 1812 The Lincoln family moved from Abraham's birthplace to a farm ten miles East on Knob Creek. Abraham’s Brother, Thomas, was born. He died in infancy. For a few weeks, Abraham & his sister Sarah attended a “blab school.” There were no books. Lessons were recited December - The Lincoln family moved to Indiana, settling near present-day Gentryville. The first year was spent in a “half faced camp” Which was a three walled cabin utilizing the blank fourth wall as a door & chimney. Nancy Hanks' aunt and uncle (the Sparrows) and their foster son Dennis Hanks come at a later date. October 5 - Abraham Lincoln's mother, Nancy Hanks Lincoln, died of “milk 1815 1816 1818: U.S. & Great Britain sign Joint Occupation Treaty for Oregon Territory. sickness” contracted from cows grazing on a poisonous White Snakeroot.” The burial place is preserved in the Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial in Spencer County, Indiana. The Sparrows both died the same year. December 13 - Mary Ann Todd, future wife of Abraham Lincoln, was born. 1819: Donald Mackenzie holds a rendezvous with Native Americans on the Boise River. Adams-Onis treaty between Spain and the United States establishes Idaho's future southern border on the 42nd Parallel. Mackenzie attempts to set up a post on the Boise River. 1820: Mackenzie negotiates a peace treaty with the Shoshone on Little Lost River and explores most of what would become Goodale's Cutoff. 1821: Hudson's Bay Company and North West Company merge. 1822: William Ashley organizes the Rocky Mountain Fur Company, which institutes the practice of annual rendezvous. Mary' Ann Todd’s mother dies. Abraham’s Sister Sarah Lincoln Grigsby died in childbirth. Abraham was devastated. March 1-15 - The Lincoln family moved to Illinois and settled in Macon County near what is now Decatur. July - Abraham Lincoln left his family and arrived in New Salem. He was 22 years old. While in New Salem, he worked as a clerk in one store and became part owner of another store that eventually failed, was a 1819 December 2 - Thomas Lincoln remarried in Elizabethtown, Kentucky. Sarah Bush Johnston brought her 3 children from her previous marriage into the Lincoln family: Elizabeth, Matilda, and John. Abraham Lincoln had a wonderful relationship with his stepmother. 1825 1828 1830: Captain B.L.E. Bonneville takes a wagon train across South Pass to Green River. 1831 postmaster, and also a surveyor. While in New Salem, it appears he was romantically involved with two women- Mary Owens and Ann Rutledge. The relationship with Mary Owens seems to have been serious, as Abraham had intentions of marrying her. His relationship with Ann Rutledge is less clear, but apparently serious enough to drive Lincoln into deep depression when she died. 1832: A trapper's wheeled caravan travels over part of the Oregon Trail west of Casper to the Wind River rendezvous. April 21 - Abraham Lincoln enlisted in the local militia, the Thirty-First Regiment of Illinois, following the governor's call for troops at the breakout of the Blackhawk War. He served for 51 days but witnessed no action. His fellow militiamen elected him as their captain, an honor he said which gave him "more pleasure than any I have had since." He was mustered out by Lt. Robert Anderson (who would be in command at Fort Sumter in 1861.) August - Abraham Lincoln's political aspirations begin when he ran for a seat in the Illinois General Assembly as a candidate for the Whig Party. He finished eighth in a field of thirteen candidates. 1834: Forts Laramie, Boise, and Hall are established. August 4 - Abraham Lincoln was elected to the Illinois General Assembly for the first time, representing Sangamon County, which was much larger than it is today. He ran as a member of the Whig Party. This was his second attempt to gain a political office. August 1 - Lincoln was re-elected to his seat in the state legislature. Lincoln was a member of the "Long Nine," a group of 9 Whig party members elected from Sangamon County noted for their height. The Long Nine were noted for their successful work in having the state capital 1836: Henry H. Spalding establishes a mission near Lapwai, where he prints the Northwest's first book, establishes Idaho's first school, develops Idaho's first irrigation system, and grows the state's first potatoes. Narcissa Whitman and Eliza Spalding are the first white women to cross the continental divide (South Pass). moved from Vandalia to Springfield. Abraham Lincoln received his license to practice law from the Illinois Supreme Court on September 9, 1836. Lincoln filed his first law suit on October 5, 1836. 1837 April 15 - Abraham Lincoln arrived in Springfield with all of his belongings in two saddlebags. He arranged to share a room with Joshua Speed, a Springfield store owner. He was 28 years old. April 15 - Abraham Lincoln officially became the junior law partner of John Todd Stuart, Mary Todd Lincoln's cousin. Mary visits Springfield for the first time. 1838 August 6 - Lincoln was re-elected for a third term in the Illinois General Assembly again, as a member of the Whig Party. September 23 - Lincoln began traveling the Eighth Judicial Circuit. He continued to ride the circuit until his election to the Presidency. Mary returns to Springfield and lives with her older sister Elizabeth, who was married to Ninian Wirt Edwards, son of Illinois Territorial Governor Ninian Edwards. Abraham Lincoln met Mary Todd at a ball. 1839 1840 Lincoln and Mary begin courting. August 3 - Lincoln was re-elected for a fourth term in the Illinois General Assembly. 1841 January 1 - Lincoln and Mary break off their engagement probably due to Elizabeth and Ninian Edwards' disapproval of Lincoln. April 14 - Lincoln's partnership with John Todd Stuart ends. At this time, he became a law partner with Stephen T. Logan. 1842 Lincoln and Mary begin courting in secret. November 4 - Reverend Charles Dresser marries Lincoln and Mary in the home of Ninian and Elizabeth Edwards (Mary's sister). Lincoln was 33 years old; Mary was 23. November 5 - The Lincolns rent a single room on the second floor of the Globe Tavern rooming house. The Globe Tavern was located on Adams Street between Third and Fourth Streets. 1843: First Oregon Trail wagons cross Idaho. August 1 - Robert Todd Lincoln, their first son, was born at the Globe Tavern rooming house. The Lincoln family (Abraham, Mary, and Robert) briefly rented a small cottage on Fourth Street between Adams and Monroe Streets. 1844 January 16 - Lincoln purchased his first and only home from the Reverend Charles Dresser for $1,500, $1,200 cash plus a lot valued at $300. May 1 - The Lincoln family (Abraham, Mary, and Robert) moved into the home on Eighth and Jackson Streets. Lincoln sets up his own law practice with William H. Herndon as his junior law partner. 1846: Treaty settles the Oregon boundary dispute with England. March 10 - Edward Baker Lincoln was born at the Lincoln Home. August 3 - Abraham Lincoln was elected to a seat in the United States House of Representatives, as part of the Thirtieth Congress, as a candidate of the Whig Party. This was the only United States Congressional seat he ever held. The first remodeling of the Lincoln Home occurred. The Lincolns added a bedroom and a pantry to the back of the home. 1847 Lincoln, Mary, Robert, and Eddie moved to Washington, D.C. December 6 - Lincoln takes his seat in the United States House of Representatives. 1848 Mary and the boys depart Washington, D.C., in part, because Lincoln thought Mary "hindered me some in attending to business." A few months later, Lincoln wrote that "having nothing but business no variety" made life "exceedingly tasteless." Lincoln proposes legislation in the United States House of Representatives to begin abolishing slavery in the District of Columbia. The second remodeling of the Lincoln Home occurred during the years of 1849 and 1850. At this time, stoves were installed in the parlor rooms, the brick retaining wall in front of the home was constructed, and the front walk was bricked over, replacing the wooden sidewalk. February 1 - Edward Baker Lincoln died at the Lincoln Home after fighting an illness (probably tuberculosis) for 52 days. He was 3 years and 10 months in age. December 21 - William Wallace Lincoln was born at the Lincoln Home. 1852: French Canadians discover gold on Mary becomes a member of the 1849: Over 20,000 emigrants who join the gold rush come through southeastern Idaho on the California Trail. Heavy traffic continues on the trail for many years. U.S. Military post, Cantonment Loring, is established near Fort Hall. 1850 the Pend Oreille River. 1853: Washington Territory is created. Presbyterian Church. April 4 - Thomas (Tad) Lincoln was born at the Lincoln Home. The Lincoln Home was remodeled once again in 1853. It appears that the barn was added at this time. 1854 May 30 - The Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed. The passage of this act brought Lincoln back into politics. November 7 - Lincoln was re-elected to the Illinois legislature, but withdrew from office 20 days later to pursue a run for the US Senate, a race he eventually quit. Lincoln dropped out of the race so that the Republican Party would be guaranteed a win for the Senate seat. He directed his support to Lyman Trumbull. 1855: Salmon River mission (Fort Lemhi) is established by Mormon missionaries, to be abandoned in 1858. February 8 - Lincoln loses bid for Senate seat. The most noticeable remodeling of the Lincoln Home took place in 1855 at a cost of $1,300. It was at this time that the front of the home was raised from 11/2 stories to 2 full stories. The bedroom was moved to the upstairs portion of the home, allowing for the creation of the rear parlor. The wood folding doors were added to the parlor at this time and the front parlor windows were permanently closed. 1857 Lincoln received a fee of $5,000 for a suit against the Illinois Central Railroad. June 16 - After the Illinois State Republican convention unanimously selects him as their Senate candidate; Lincoln delivers his "House Divided Speech." In 1858, Lincoln made another run for the 1858 US Senate, running against Stephen Douglas. The campaign for this seat in 1858 sparked the famous Lincoln/Douglas debates. There were 7 debates, one in the following towns: 1) Ottawa- August 21, 1858 2) Freeport- August 27, 1858 3) Jonesboro- September 15, 1858 4) Charleston- September 18, 1858 5) Galesburg- October 7, 1858 6) Quincy- October 13, 1858 7) Alton- October 15, 1858 On November 2, 1858, Lincoln lost the Senate race to Stephen Douglas. The Republicans received 125,000 votes and the Democrats received 121,000 votes. However, due to legislative apportionment and thirteen holdover Senators, the Democrats have a majority of Senators in the State Legislature which chooses the next United States Senator from Illinois. 1859: Oregon is admitted as a state. Illinois legislature chooses Douglas for the U.S. Senate over Lincoln by a vote of 54 to 46. The final alterations of the Lincoln Home took place in the latter part of 1859 and the beginning of 1860. The backyard washing house was torn down and the woodshed was added to the existing Lincoln barn 1860-63: Major mining strikes occur near Idaho City, and Silver City. 1860: Mormon settlers founded Franklin, first permanent settlement in what became Idaho. At that time it was the Washington Lincoln was chosen by the Republican National Convention in Chicago to territory. The settlers thought they were in Utah. Spring 1860 Elias D. Pierce discovered gold on a tributary of the Clearwater River. It was part of the Nez Perce Reservation. It was illegal for Pierce to be there. represent the party in the 1860 Presidential election. The nomination was announced on May 18, 1860. October 19 - Lincoln received the famous Grace Bedell letter. Grace was an 11-year old girl from Westfield, New York. After apparently taking Grace's advice, Abraham Lincoln became the first bearded President. November 6 - Abraham Lincoln was elected the 16th President of the United States defeating Stephen Douglas (Northern Democratic Party), John C. Breckinridge (Southern Democratic Party), and John Bell (Constitutional Unionist Party). His Vice President was Hannibal Hamlin of Maine. December 20 - South Carolina becomes the first state to secede from the Union. 1861 April, The Nez Perce Reservation was substantially reduced in size by a new treaty. That opened the land to gold diggers Spring 1861 Miners rushed to the diggings in what would become Idaho Territory. Lewiston was founded, named after explorer Meriwether Lewis. Soon Pierce and Elk City flourished as temporary tent cities. February 4 - The Confederate States of America was established. Jefferson Davis was selected as president and Alexander Stephens as vice president. February 11 - Lincoln gave his Farewell Address to Springfield, just a day before his 52nd birthday. The journey to Washington D.C. took 12 days. March 4 - Abraham Lincoln is inaugurated as the sixteenth President of the United States. Delivers First Inaugural Address. Appointed William H. Wallace as Governor of the Washington Territory. April 12 - The Civil War began with the attack on Fort Sumter, South Carolina, by the Confederacy. April 14 - Fort Sumter surrenders. April 15 - Lincoln issues a call for 75,000 volunteers. As President he could only obtain 90 day enlistments. State Governors had to raise troops for longer enlistment periods and provide those with uniforms and supplies. Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee and Arkansas seceded. June 3 - Stephen Douglas died in Chicago at the age of 48. Following his death, Lincoln initiates a mourning period of 30 days. July 21 - Battle of First Manassas. Confederate victory. 1862 Gold was discovered in the Boise Basin and the Salmon River country, Florence (North of McCall) flourished with 8000 people. February 20 - William Wallace Lincoln (Willie), the third son of the President died at the White House, probably of typhoid fever. He was 11 years old. His remains were interred at Oak Hill Cemetery in 1862 The Mullen Road was completed by Georgetown until 1865. Mary Todd Lincoln believed God was punishing her. the military, linking fort Benton (now Montana) with Walla Walla, Washington. It took four years to build. The most June 3 - Stephen Douglas died in Chicago difficult work was in Idaho. There is a at the age of 48. Following his death, “Mullen Tree” near Coeur d’Alene Lincoln initiates a mourning period of 30 inscribed “July 4, 1861.” days. 1862 Lewiston's Golden Age is Idaho's first newspaper. 1862 A freight and stagecoach road was developed running from Salt Lake City to the mining camps of Grasshopper Creek (now Bannock, Montana). The Snake River (now eastern Idaho) was difficult to cross. Travel was risky. 1862 There were many anti-war men (“Copperheads”) and southern sympathizers in the mining camps. In Florence, when a territorial judge tried to hold court, the grand jury promptly indicted President Lincoln, the Cabinet, Many Draft Dodgers and political dissidents went west to the gold fields to avoid military service. Army deserters joined them. Lincoln was frustrated with General McClellan who demanded more men and guns, but refused to engage his men in battle. July 1 - Lincoln signs the Pacific Railway Act of 1862. It was one of the crowning achievements of his presidency, although it was not completed till four years after his death. several army officers, and the judge himself for treason. The judge dismissed court and quickly left town The Homestead Act and the Morrill Land Grant Act were passed by Congress, opening up the west to settlement by farmers and families. Land grant colleges and other schools were to be established in the western territories. Lincoln used his control over territorial appointments to maintain loyal governments in the West. He was not always successful. Many excuses were used by the newly appointed officials to stay in the East and delay the rigorous journey to the frontier. A few never made the trip, and resigned their commissions rather than leave the luxuries of life in civilization. July 21 - Battle of First Manassas. Confederate victory. August 30- Battle of Second Manassas. Confederate victory. September 16-18 Battle of Antietam. Inconclusive (Union strategic victory.) September 22 - Lincoln issues preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. August 30, 1862 - Battle of Second Manassas. Confederate victory. September 16-18 - Battle of Antietam. Inconclusive (Union strategic victory.) September 22 - Lincoln issues preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. 1863 January Bear River Indian massacre (Shoshone Tribe) near the present town of Preston. Hundreds of Indians and 20 soldiers died of battle wounds and cols The Idaho Territory was created. It included all of present day Montana & Wyoming. January 1 - Lincoln issued final Emancipation Proclamation. There was action in congress to divide Washington Territory. The coastal settlers wanted no association or connection with the coarse, rowdy miners of the interior. March 4, 1863 The new territory of Idaho was established, containing all the present state of Idaho, Montana, and most of Wyoming 1863 A ferry was built on the Snake River near the present location of Idaho Falls. Tolls were charged for horses, wagons, cattle, and pedestrians who used it Attended meeting at which the name “Idaho” was selected. March 4 – Lincoln signed the Territorial Organic Act creating Idaho as an independent territory. Appointed Idaho’s first territorial officers, which included a number of his legal and political associates form Illinois and Indiana, including: William H. Wallace as Governor of the Idaho Territory. July 1 - 3 - Battle of Gettysburg. Union victory. President Lincoln was furious because Gen. Meade allowed Lee’s army to leisurely cross the Potomac River and escape. July 4 - Vicksburg surrendered to Pemberton and Grant after a long siege. November 19 - Abraham Lincoln delivered his Gettysburg Address at the dedication of Gettysburg National Cemetery. Lincoln signed the Territorial Organic Act creating Idaho as an independent territory. 1863 Idaho becomes a territory on March 4 with Lewiston as its capital. The Bear River Massacre, the West's largest slaughter of Indians, is fought near presentday Preston. July 1863 Months after his appointment, Gov. William H. Wallace finally reached Lewiston, which he had selected to be the territorial capital. and guns, but refused to engage his men in battle 1863 There are no laws or books for lawyers and judges. 1864 January - A “Vigilante Committee” was organized in Virginia City (Then Idaho Territory, now Montana) and hung Sheriff Henry Plumber and his gang on the gallows he had built for someone else. 1864 In May, the Montana Territory was established and the size of Idaho Territory was reduced substantially. 1864 Legislation passed to move the capital to Boise. Due to hostility in Lewiston, Gov. Lyon sneaked out of town on foot, never to return. Townspeople February 22 - The National Union Party (a temporary name for the Republican Party used to spark interest in the notion of a once-again United States) convention in Baltimore unanimous nominated to Lincoln for re-election. Gov. Wallace resigned and returned to the east to be the Territorial Delegate to Congress. He was Governor only 4 months. Local people claimed election fraud, but Wallace was back in Congress trying for appropriations for surveys, telegraphs and post roads. locked up territorial records in the jail. The first public school in Idaho was held at Florence. Winter 1864-65 Taylor’s bridge was built across the Snake River at present Idaho Falls. Work was done in the winter when the river was frozen thick enough to walk on. President Lincoln appointed Caleb Lyon, a very vain man to be the 2nd governor of Idaho. Lyon delayed going west as long as possible and arrived in August. September 1 - Union forces took control of the city of Atlanta, Georgia. November 8 - Lincoln was re-elected to the Presidency defeating former General George B. McClellan. Lincoln's Vice President was Andrew Johnson. Soldiers were allowed to go home and vote. December 22 - General William T. Sherman presented the captured city of Savannah, Georgia, to Abraham Lincoln as an "early Christmas gift." The Civil War dragged on. Sherman marched across Georgia. Petersburg, VA was under siege by Grant with Lee’s army slowly running out of supplies. 1865 March - Eight month after his appointment, Clinton DeWitt Smith arrives in Idaho as the territorial secretary. He assumes duties running the government since Gov. Lyon fled. March 4 - Lincoln was inaugurated President for his second term and delivered Second Inaugural Address. Lincoln traveled to army headquarters at City Point, VA to confer with Gen. Grant and Sherman about (in addition to other April - Smith obtained a military escort and things) terms of surrender. went to Lewiston to rescue incarcerated territorial documents. He also managed to On April 2, General Grant continued to pay some officials their salaries. It was the attack the confederate army at Petersburg, first time territorial debts had been paid. VA... If was a resounding Union victory, and the beginning of the end for Lee, though most of his troops escaped. Soon April 14, 1865 Clinton DeWitt Smith arrived in Boise with the territorial records Richmond was captured. Lincoln went and received a hero’s welcome. The cheers there to the house and office of Jefferson Davis, the Confederate President. Lincoln were brief. Smith did not provide real was melancholy. leadership, and with the absent governor the territory drifted towards chaos. April 12th, April 9 - The Civil War officially ended, with the surrender of the General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Court House, Virginia. April 14 - Appointed Milton Kelly to Idaho Supreme Court April 14 - Appointed James H. Alvord as Idaho’s Territorial Marshal April 14 - Invited Idaho’s First Territorial Delegate, William H. Wallace to “Our American Cousin” and Wallace declined due to wife’s health. April 14 - Abraham Lincoln was shot in Ford's Theatre while watching the play Our American Cousin. April 15 - Abraham Lincoln died at 7:22 a.m. in the Petersen Boarding House. He was 56 years old. April 19 - Funeral services for Abraham Lincoln were held in the White House. William Wallace, the first Territorial Governor was a pallbearer at his funeral. April 21 - The Funeral Train, with Lincoln's remains and those of his son Willie, departed Washington, D.C. accompanied by the Congressional Delegation, beginning a 12-day trip back to Springfield, Illinois. May 3 - The Funeral Train arrived in Springfield. Lincoln’s remains lay in state at the Old State Capitol. May 4 - Lincoln’s remains were interred at Oak Ridge Cemetery. May 22 - Mary departed the White House. 1866: Telegraph service reaches Idaho. March 25, 1867 (Some reports say 1871) Gutzon Borglum was born at St. Charles, Idaho Territory, near Bear Lake. He became the foremost Lincoln sculptor. His works include Mt. Rushmore and the Lincoln Tomb at Springfield. He died in Chicago in 1941. His son Lincoln finished work on Mt. Rushmore.