canadian immigration history by samanthac

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									Canadian Immigration 2002 and Beyond: Expectation and Reality

By Jack Jedwab
Executive Director, Association for Canadian Studies



Highlights

- Between 2001 and 2002 there was a decrease of more than 8% in the annual numbers of
immigrants to Canada. In Quebec however levels remained stable-at about 37,000 -and thus the
decline outside that province-in the rest of Canada-rose to 14% over the year.

- In the year 2002 Montreal supplanted Vancouver as the country’s second largest immigrant
receiving metropolitan area. Vancouver and Ottawa had significant decreases in numbers of
immigrants they took in between 2001 and 2002 with respective declines of approximately 13%
and 15% over that period. Halifax incurred a near 20% drop in annual immigration and despite
the increase in Quebec’s overall numbers in its capital of Quebec City there was a 25% drop in
real numbers over that period.

- As Quebec’s increases were largely concentrated in Montreal the CMA increased its percentage
of overall provincial immigration from 86.2 to 87.7% in that single year.

- Between 2001 and 2002 there were decreases in several ‘classes’ of immigrants in Canada,
though most notable in skilled workers (10%) and business immigrants (25%), the latter of which
fell below 2000 levels. Quebec’s increase in immigrants during the 2001-2002 period was largely
an outcome of increased numbers of skilled immigrants and over the past two years the province
benefited from a 67% increase in such immigration while the rest of Canada a decrease of
approximately 15% between 2001 and 2002.

- On the other hand business class or investor immigrants dropped by nearly 25% in the province
of Quebec where such immigration was nearly cut in half between 2001 and 2002. Conversely
despite little change in its real numbers, the province of British Columbia saw its share of such
immigrants rise from about one quarter to one-third in one year.

- Montreal established a single year record for the percentage of bilingual immigrants with nearly
one quarter falling into this category in the year 2002. Whereas in 2001 some 55% of all of
Canada’s bilingual immigrants ended up in Montreal the percentage rose to 60% in the year
2002. The year 2002 likely saw the realization of the breaking of the 50% mark for French-
speaking immigrants that the Quebec government set out to attain several years ago. In Montreal
in 2002 some 49% of new arrivals were able to speak French although given the high percentage
of bilinguals some 41% were also able to speak English.

- The biggest increase in source counties for Canada was in Iranian immigrants between 2001
and 2002. Immigration from India remained stable while entrants from China dropped. In Montreal
it is immigration from Morocco and Romania that has been the object of increasing numbers and
in the case of the latter country there has been a 60% rise in one year. Immigration form China to
Montreal has dropped by more than 20% between 2001 and 2002 returning to the level that
approximated the figure for the year 2000.

See Conclusion
Introduction

Earlier this year, Immigration Minister Denis Coderre announced that Canada would admit
approximately 225,000 permanent residents in 2003. This will constitute a further drop from the
year 2002 that saw the country receive nearly 230,000 immigrants that represented a drop from
the previous year when 250,000 settled in Canada. In the year 2002 then Immigration Minister
                                                                                    s
Elinor Kaplan reaffirmed the federal government’s commitment to invest in Canada' economic
and social development through immigration. While committed to higher levels of immigration
appropriate infrastructure and other supports must be in place the Minister then contended.
A target of 210,000 to 235,000 immigrants was established for 2002. These numbers were
described as consistent with the long-term objective of moving gradually to immigration levels of
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approximately one percent of Canada' population (approximately 300,000) all the while bearing
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in mind Canada' absorptive capacity. That objective is not found in the speeches given by
Minister Coderre and thus remains an ever -elusive target.

As observed below between 2001 and 2002 there was a decrease of more than 8% in the annual
numbers of immigrants to Canada. In Quebec however levels remained stable-at about 37,000 -
and thus the decline outside that province-in the rest of Canada-rose to 14% over the year. Such
goals are not inconsistent with the numbers that the Quebec administration hopes to attract on
the coming years as it sets out to move beyond 40,000 immigrants (objectives set out by the Parti
Québecois).

Table 1
Immigration by provinces for Canada in real numbers, 2000-2002

                                     2000                       2001                        2002

Total                               227,346                    250,484                    229,091

Atlantic Provinces                   2,974                      3,057                      2,644

Québec                              32,489                     37,523                      37,627

Ontario                             133,440                    148,571                    133,641

Manitoba                             4,644                      4,588                      4,621

Saskatchewan                         1,891                      1,708                      1,665

Alberta                             14,332                     16,377                      14,729

British Columbia                    37,409                     38,352                      34,000

Yukon                                 60                          67                         49

Northwest                             82                          93                         61
Territories
Nunavut                               12                          12                         12

Source: Citizenship and Immigration in Canada -FACTS AND FIGURES 2002: IMMIGRATION
OVERVIEW
Consistent with the overall decline in the real numbers of immigrants to Canada, the country’s
major CMA’s also incurred drops in real numbers and percentage of new arrivals. Montreal was
the exception with an increasing in its overall share of Canada’s immigration as well as the only
major CMA that experienced an increase in real numbers of just below 20% between 2000 and
2002. In the year 2002 it supplanted Vancouver as the country’s second largest immigrant
receiving metropolitan area. Vancouver and Ottawa had significant decreases in numbers of
immigrants they took in between 2001 and 2002 with respective declines of approximately 13%
and 15% over that period. It is worth noting that despite these shifts in pattern Toronto, Montreal
and Vancouver still take in some three-quarters of all the country’s new arrivals.

Table 2
Immigration by five largest immigrant receiving CMA’s for Canada in real numbers and
percentage, 2000-2002

                                     2000                        2001                        2002
Toronto                             110 069                     125 114                     111 580
%                                    48.81                       49 .95                      48.71

Montreal                             28 138                      32 377                      33 004

%                                   12.38                 12.93                14.41
Vancouver                          33 289                34 234               29 922
%                                   14.64                 13.67                13.06
Calgary                             8 478                10 166                9 036
%                                    3.73                  4.06                 3.95
Ottawa                              7 774                 8 441                7 156
%                                    3.42                  3.37                 3.12
Source: Citizenship and Immigration in Canada -FACTS AND FIGURES 2002: IMMIGRATION
OVERVIEW



Prior to Minister Coderre’s arrival there was little optimism over the prospects of inducing
immigrants to settle outside the three largest cities. As noted in the 2002 CIC report, “…efforts to
encourage immigrants to settle in smaller urban centres have met with limited success. It will be
important to further explore how to attract immigrants to smaller centres and persuade them to
                                                           s
stay there in order to reduce the pressures on Canada' largest cities.” Other parts of the country
had yet to benefit from the federal government’s stated intention to encourage greater
immigration to the regions. Some cities did see slight increases in new arrivals between 2001 and
2002 amongst them Hamilton and Winnipeg. However between 2001 and 2002 Halifax incurred a
near 20% drop in annual immigration and despite the increase in Quebec’s overall numbers in its
capital of Quebec City there was a 25% drop in real numbers over that period. As that province’s
increases were largely concentrated in Montreal the CMA increased its percentage of overall
provincial immigration from 86.2 to 87.7% in that single year.
Table 3
Immigration by provinces for Canada in percentage, 2000-2002

 %
                                       2000                        2001                           2002

Total                                  100                          100                            100

Atlantic Provinces                     1.31                         1.21                          1.16

Québec                                14.29                        14.98                          16.43

Ontario                               58.69                        59.31                          58.34

Manitoba                               2.05                         1.83                          2.01

Saskatchewan                           0.84                         0.68                          0.73

Alberta                                6.31                         6.54                          6.43

British Columbia                      16.45                        15.31                          14.84

Yukon                                  0.03                         0.03                          0.02

Northwest                              0.04                         0.04                          0.03
Territories
Nunavut                                0.01                         0.00                          0.01

Source: Citizenship and Immigration in Canada -FACTS AND FIGURES 2002: IMMIGRATION OVERVIEW



Citizenship and Immigration Canada projected that refugees would account for more than 10
percent of newcomers to Canada in 2002. Skilled workers, business people and provincial or
territorial nominees, together with their families, will again make up about 60 percent of the
movement for that year. As observed below, there were decreases in several ‘classes’ of
immigrants, though most notable in skilled workers (10%) and business immigrants (25%), the
latter of which fell below 2000 levels.

Table 4
Immigration to Canada by Class, 2000-2002
                                 2000                              2001                           2002
Total                           227,346                           250,484                        229,091

Family                                60,566                      66,711                      65,277 (28.5)

Skilled workers                      118,510                      137,135                     123,357 (53.8)

Business Immigrants                   13,664                      14,589                       11,041 (4.8)

Refugees                              30,064                      27,905                      25,111 (10.9)

Other                                 4 542                        4 144                        4 305(1.8)
Source: Citizenship and Immigration in Canada -FACTS AND FIGURES 2002: IMMIGRATION OVERVIEW
These shifts in immigrant class admission were spread unevenly throughout the country. Indeed
Quebec’s increase in immigrants during the 2001-2002 period was largely an outcome of
increased numbers of skilled immigrants and over the past two years the province benefited from
a 67% increase in such immigration while the rest of Canada a decrease of approximately 15%
between 2001 and 2002 and therefore dropped below the number for the year 2000.



Table 5
Immigration to Canada, Quebec and the ROC by Skilled Workers, 2000-2002

                                      2000                        2001                            2002
Canada                               118,510                     137,135                         123,357
Quebec                            12 468 (10.5)               17 128 (12.5)                   20 597 (16.7)
Rest of Canada                    106 074 (89.5)              120 041 (87.5)                  102 782 (83.3)
Source: Citizenship and Immigration in Canada -FACTS AND FIGURES 2002: IMMIGRATION OVERVIEW

There were very significant reductions in business class or investor immigrants in Canada
between 2000 and 2002 with a drop of nearly 25% the biggest decline being in the province of
Quebec where such immigration was nearly cut in half between 2001 and 2002. Conversely
despite little change in real numbers the province of British Columbia saw its share of such
immigrants rise from about one quarter to one-third in one year.


Table 6
Immigration to Canada, Quebec and the ROC by Business Class Immigrants, 2000-2002

                                      2000                         2001                           2002
Canada                                3 842                       4 084                           3 047
Quebec                             1 055 (27.4)                1 305 (31.9)                     669 (22.0)
Ontario                            1 268 (33.0)                1 372 (33.6)                    1 098 (36.0)
British Columbia                   1 083 (28.2)                1 051 (25.7)                    1 031 (33.8)
Rest of Canada                      436 (11.4)                   356 (8.8)                      249 ( 8.3)
Source: Citizenship and Immigration in Canada -FACTS AND FIGURES 2002: IMMIGRATION OVERVIEW



As to immigrants that hold university degrees Montreal has made important gains in the year
2001-02 with a better than 20% real increase in numbers over that period. It has pulled ahead of
Vancouver in this regard.

Table 7
Immigrants to Canada, Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver with Bachelor’s degree or better,
2000 to 2002

                                      2000                         2001                           2002
Canada                               77 475                       88 049                         81 986
Montreal                           7 280 (9.4)                 9 394 (10.6)                   11 333 (13.9)
Toronto                           41 782 (53.9)                48 349 (54.9)                  43 159 (52.6)
Vancouver                         12 378 (15.9)                12 710 (14.4)                  10 538 (12.8)
Source: Citizenship and Immigration in Canada -FACTS AND FIGURES 2002: IMMIGRATION OVERVIEW
Another objective of the federal government was an increase in the number of the country’s
French-speaking immigrants and a desire to encourage a higher number to settle outside of
Quebec in support of minority francophone populations in need of demographic stimulus. Despite
overall decreases in immigration to Canada between 2001 and 2002 the numbers of French
speakers stayed approximately the same largely due to the rise in bilingual entrants. More than
one in ten new immigrants were able to speak French and there was a sharp decline in persons
that spoke English only.

Table 8
Immigration by Language Ability for Canada, 2000-2002
LANGUAGE                          2000                             2001                           2002
ABILITY
Total                           227,346                           250,484                        229,091

English                           107,791 (47.7)              114,833 (45.8)                  99,527 (43.4)

French                            10,363 (4.56)                 11,314(4.5)                    10,648 (4.6)

Both French and                    9,908 (4.36)                13,032 (5.2)                    13,720 (6.0)
English
Neither                           99,284 (43.67)              111,305 (44.4)                  105,196 (45.9)

Source: Citizenship and Immigration in Canada -FACTS AND FIGURES 2002: IMMIGRATION OVERVIEW



However upon closer examination it is Montreal and likely the rest of the province that absorbed
nearly the entire increase in French-speakers. Indeed Montreal established a single year record
for the percentage of bilingual immigrants with nearly one quarter falling into this category in the
year 2002. Whereas in 2001 some 55% of all of Canada’s bilingual immigrants ended up in
Montreal the percentage rose to 60% in the year 2002. The year 2002 likely saw the realization
of the breaking of the 50% mark for French-speaking immigrants that the Quebec government set
out to attain several years ago. In Montreal in 2002 some 49% of new arrivals were able to speak
French although given the high percentage of bilinguals some 41% were also able to speak
English.

Table 9
Immigration by Language Ability for Montreal, 2000-2002
LANGUAGE                          2000                             2001                           2002
ABILITY
Total                            28,138                           32,377                         33,004

English                            5,575 (19.8)                5,510 (17.0)                    5,533 (16.7)

French                             7,331 (26.0)                7,962 (24.6)                    7,949 (24.1)

Both French and                    5,296 (18.8)                7,154 (22.0)                    8,239 (24.9)
English
Neither                            9,936 (35.3)                11,751 (36.2)                  11,283 (34.1)

Source: Citizenship and Immigration in Canada -FACTS AND FIGURES 2002: IMMIGRATION OVERVIEW
As to the rest of Canada while it received a lower share of persons that spoke English only upon
arrival it saw an increase in persons speaking neither official language upon arrival between 2001
and 2002.


Table 10
Immigration by Language Ability for Canada outside Montreal, 2000-2002

LANGUAGE                               2000                        2001                           2002
ABILITY
Total                                219,250                      218,107                       196,087

English                           102,216 (46,6)              109,323 (50.1)                  93,994 (47.9)

French                              3,032 (1.3)                 3,352 (1.5)                    2,699 (1.3)

Both French and                     4,612 (2.1)                 5,878 (2.7)                    5,481 (2.8)
English
Neither                           89,348 (40.7)                99,554 (45.6)                  93,913 (47.9)

Source: Citizenship and Immigration in Canada -FACTS AND FIGURES 2002: IMMIGRATION OVERVIEW



The year 2002 also saw shifts in the number of immigrants arriving from the major source
countries for Canada. As observed below the biggest increase was in Iranian immigrants between
2001 and 2002. Immigration form India remained stable while entrants from China dropped.


Table 11
Top 5 Source Countries of Immigrants Settling in Canada, 2000-2002
                                 2000                     2001                                    2002
China’ People’s                 36 716                   40 315                                  33 231
Republic
India                           26 088                   27 848                                  28 815
Pakistan                        14 184                   15 341                                  14 164
Philippines                     10 088                   12 914                                  11 000
Iran                            5 608                     5 737                                  7 742
Source: Citizenship and Immigration in Canada -FACTS AND FIGURES 2002: IMMIGRATION OVERVIEW



In Toronto, the year 2002 saw India become the largest metropolis’ principal source country
surpassing China which previously held that title.

Table 12
Top 5 Source Countries of Immigrants Settling in Toronto, 2000-2002
                                 2000                      2001                                   2002
India                           15 841                    17 625                                 18 290
China’ People’s                 18 544                    21 476                                 17 854
Republic
Pakistan                        10 753                    11 581                                 10 357
Philippines                      4 034                     6 028                                 5 260
Iran                            3 036                      2 977                                 4 711
Source: Citizenship and Immigration in Canada -FACTS AND FIGURES 2002: IMMIGRATION OVERVIEW
In Montreal it is immigration from Morocco and Romania that has been the object of increasing
numbers and in the case of the latter country there has been a 60% rise in one year. Immigration
form China to Montreal has dropped by more than 20% between 2001 and 2002 returning to the
level that approximated the figure for the year 2000.


Table 13
Top 5 Source Countries of Immigrants Settling in Montreal, 2000-2002
                                 2000                      2001                               2002
Morocco                         1 872                      2 916                              3 244
China’ People’s                 2 677                      3 556                              2 760
Republic
France                          3 055                      3 059                              2 731
Algeria                         2 001                      2 466                              2 584
Romania                         1 142                      1 562                              2 569
Source: Citizenship and Immigration in Canada -FACTS AND FIGURES 2002: IMMIGRATION OVERVIEW



Similarly Vancouver also incurred a drop of around 20% in immigration form China between 2001
and 2002. There were similar reductions in immigration from the Philippines and Korea whereas
the numbers of immigrants from India and Taiwan remained stable.

Table 14
Top 5 Source Countries of Immigrants Settling in Vancouver, 2000-2002
                                 2000                    2001                                 2002
China’ People’s                 9 479                    9 535                                7 646
Republic
India                           3 826                    3 955                                3 951
Philippines                     2 619                    3 131                                2 456
Korea, Republic of              1 995                    2 654                                2 168
Taiwan                          2 175                    1 861                                1 863
Source: Citizenship and Immigration in Canada -FACTS AND FIGURES 2002: IMMIGRATION OVERVIEW




Conclusion

It is widely acknowledged that Canada faces serious demographic challenges in the years ahead.
The federal government has repeatedly declared that birth rates are at a historic low, and
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Canada' largest age cohort--the baby boomers--is ageing. Though immigration cannot
significantly change the resulting age structure of the population, the federal authorities recognize
it as an important tool to mitigate its effects. By 2011 immigration will likely account for all net
labour force growth and by 2031 it will account for all population growth.

In 2002 Citizenship and Immigration Canada seeks to ensure that immigrants and refugees have
the skills to succeed in the Canadian labour market. They add however that available data point
to gaps in labour market performance between immigrants, refugees and the Canadian-born.
Clearly this condition is having a bearing on the numbers of immigrants admitted into the country
and points to the need for a clearer debate over the reconciliation of demographic and economic
needs in this country as well as a discourse that more properly reflects such discussion. If
Canada incurs further reductions in immigration and Quebec moves higher the percentage
decline in the rest of Canada will continue to rise. Currently the discourse that expresses a need
for greater immigration and moves higher in that regard is Quebec where expectation and reality
as it pertains to levels of immigration are somewhat more in line.

								
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