MONETARY POLICY IN ISLAMIC FRAMEWORK
Ausaf Ahmad Presentation at the Azerbaijan State Economics University Baku April 7-11,2008
.Monetary Policy is a catch all name for monetary management, monetary control, regulation of commercial of commercial banks, and management of money market. Is multiple deposit creation possible under Islamic banking? Power of deposit creation is not with a single bank. It is with the banking system Power of deposit creation is because of fractional reserve. With 100 percent Reserve Requirement, all money is representative money and no further deposits are created.
CENTRAL BANK IN ISLAMIC ECONOMICS
Functions of central bank in Islamic economy are similar to modern economy Regulation of money supply according to requirements of the economy Influencing the movement and direction of bank finance in desirable directions Providing a measure of safety and ensuring prudent banking
ISLAMIC BANKS AND CREDIT CREATION
Controversy: Do Islamic banks create credit? Deposit creation through Mudarabah The Deposits never leave the banking system. It comes back to the system through deposit in another bank Role of Fractional Reserve System
OBJECTIVES OF MONETARY POLICY IN AN ISLAMIC ECONOMY
To Promote a sustained and balanced economic growth and mobilize resources for economic development. To maintain stability in the value of money so as to avoid excessive periodic fluctuations To maintain stability in the external value of money To promote an equitable distribution of income and wealth.
INSTRUMENTS OF CREDIT CONTROL
Quantitative Measures Qualitative Measures Prudential Measures
Legal Reserve Ratio Bank Rate Policy Open Market Operations Credit Rationing
Margin Requirements Maximum and Minimum rates of interests Selective Credit Controls
Minimum Capital Requirements Maximum Exposure restrictions Mandatory Appropriation of Profits Moral suasion
Suitability of conventional Measures
Method of Credit Control 1. Legal Reserve Ratio Suitability to Islamic economy Suitable
2, Bank Rate Policy
3.Open Market Operations 4. Credit Ceilings 5. Selective Credit Control 6. Lender of Last resort 7. Issue of Directives 8. Moral Suasion
Modification Necessary Suitable Suitable Modification Necessary Suitable Suitable.
Instruments of Monetary Policy in Islamic Economy
Conventional Instruments New Instruments Bank Rate Policy
1.Profit Sharing Ratio 2. Refinance Ratio 3.Public share of demand deposits 4. Value Oriented Allocation of Credit. 5.Qard Hasan Ratio
Legal Reserve Ratio, Credit Rationing, Selective Credit Controls, Issue of Directive, Moral Suasion
LEGAL RESERVE RATIO
Required Reserve Ratio does not involve interest in any manner. Controversy: Fractional reserve system Vs.100% required reserve Application of cash reserve system only to investment deposits
OPEN MARKET OPERATIONS
Open market Operations are based on interest. Direct manipulation of interest rates and indirect manipulation of money supply Modification necessary Should the central bank be allowed to buy and sell equity of companies? Mudarahah/ Musharakah/ Certificates
BANK RATE POLICY
The bank rate policy refers to interest rate which the central bank charges to commercial banks to lend money. Through changes in bank rate, the central bank indirectly changes the quantum of credit in the economy Unsuitable for the Islamic Central Bank.
More popular techniques in developing countries because financial infrastructure is not fully developed. A credit ceiling is allotted to each sector and to each bank Because of its non interest nature, suitable for controlling Islamic banks. Issue of Penalty
SELECTIVE CREDIT CONTROL
Quantitative measures control volume of credit, SCC control direction of credit. May be more relevant in developing countries. Matching finance if bank finance projects in the desirable sectors. Either as an interest free loan or at a lower profit sharing ratio.
LENDER OF LAST RESORT
Loans are provided to face liquidity crises. In Islamic economy, central banks would continue to function as Lender of Last Resort. Interest free loans with or without service charge. Special Fund at the Central Bank The case of International Bank for Investment and Development in Cairo.
ISSUE OF DIRECTIVES
In the conventional system, this is used to regulate interest rates and channel credit in the desired direction. In the Islamic system, the same directives may be used to influence profit sharing ratios. The central bank may prescribe ranges for profit sharing ratios for Mudarabah contacts and for mark up in the case of Murabaha contracts.
Informal contacts, consultations, meetings, to explain position of central bank on various issues. The technique remains available in the interest free system. Some economists are of the opinion that this technique may have to play greater role in the new system.
INTEREST FREE INSTRUMENTS OF MONETARY POLICY
PROFIT SHARING RATIO REFINANCE RATIO PUBLIC SHARE OF DEMAND DEPOSITS VALUE ORIENTED ALLOCATION OF CREDIT QARD HASAN RATIO MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM MARK UP RATIO.
PROFIT SHARING RATIO
Potentially it may perform the same role as interest rate as it may work as a signaling device. Depositors’ and borrowers’ profit sharing ratio Management of first may influence supply of money and of the latter may affect demand for money.
RE FINANCE RATIO AND LENDING RATIO
Re-finance ratio would move in the opposite direction of cash reserve ratio To reduce expansion of credit, refinance ratio would be lowered, to increase supply of credit, it would be raised. Appropriate changes in lending ratios would reinforce the impact
PUBLIC SHARE OF DEMAND DEPOSITS
It is suggested that 25% of total demand deposits may be diverted to public treasury. It is argued that: Commercial banks do not pay any thing for these deposits and public does not bear any risk on these deposits if they are fully insured. The share may vary in accordance with the economic conditions and objectives of economic policy.
It may encourage the governments to spend more. It may reduce Monetary Base (high powered money) and hence indirectly reduce credit creation. Lacks swiftness of response The proposal appears to be in conflict with the Islamic concept of property.
Any fear of chaos in monetary management on account of Islamic banking is not well founded. There are enough tools in the battery of central bank to control commercial banking activity and achieve the goals of economic policy.
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