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					Developing a Piece of Children’s Literature
1) Brainstorm all possible connections to the story. Think in terms of vocabulary, grammatical structures, culture, and other content areas. This will help you to prepare appropriate activities and to anticipate questions and problems before they occur. 2) When preparing activities, include several tellings—do not expect detailed comprehension after the first telling. Have students read for meaning first, then analyze the story for cultural components, form, vocabulary, and grammatical structures. 3) Plan pre-reading, during reading, and post-reading activities for the story. Often, one of each will suffice, depending upon how much time you wish to devote to the story. Pre-reading Activities . . .   activate students’ background knowledge and previous experiences regarding language, content, culture, and stories prepare students for the vocabulary, content, cultural concepts, and grammatical structures they will encounter in the story (content-obligatory: required in order for the learner to comprehend the story; contentcomplementary: necessary in order for the learner to comprehend minor details of the story) set students’ expectations and enable them to make predictions set students’ schemata

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During Reading Activities . . .      allow students to revise their expectations and predictions check for comprehension give the students opportunities to interact with the text help students to read for meaning and to understand main ideas and important details support comprehension

A Plethora of Communication, Culture, & Content Through Children’s Literature 1998 ♦ Richard Ladd & Cherice Montgomery

Developing a Piece of Children’s Literature
Post-reading Activities . . .         allow students to evaluate their predictions and hypotheses allow students to integrate all four skills ask students to analyze the grammar and culture contained within the text ask students to synthesize the text by providing them with opportunities to react to the text, and explore its intertextuality check for comprehension through recognition and recall activities give students a chance to process the information in the text through graphic organizers give students the chance to apply what they’ve learned from the text and to make new connections to it through extension and expansion activities recreate the text using main ideas and important details

A Plethora of Communication, Culture, & Content Through Children’s Literature 1998 ♦ Richard Ladd & Cherice Montgomery

Sample Pre-reading Activities
In order to prepare students for the content, culture, or theme of the story by activating background knowledge, setting schemata, and encouraging predictions, use:  Art-based activities  Associogram  Brainstorm what students already know about a given topic—using a graphic organizer or web  Create a link with a song, current event, or something taken from personal life  Distribute pictures, students sequence them and invent a story  Have students read relevant material such as advertisements, a poem, a cartoon, or another story  How would you react/what would you say in this situation . . .?  Look at titles, sub-headings, and illustrations/charts/graphs/tables  Make predictions: Which of the following will happen . . ./Which of the following will we find . . .?  Opinionnaire/survey  Read first line of the text and predict the story  Read the first paragraph of the text and create a title  View slides or watch a video  What would you do if . . .? In order to prepare students for the grammatical structures in the story, use: Cloze passages Fly swatters Give students pictures--they sequence them and tell a story Gouin series Hear/Circle or Hear/Say Inside/Outside Circles Jeopardy Journals Mystery picture Scan the text to anticipate problems (archaic vocabulary, unfamiliar verb tenses)  Show & Tell  Signal cards  Unscramble a biography or passage          

A Plethora of Communication, Culture, & Content Through Children’s Literature 1998 ♦ Richard Ladd & Cherice Montgomery

Sample Pre-reading Activities
In order to prepare students for the vocabulary from the story, use: Brainstorm vocabulary based on an object or picture Cloze passages Describe & Draw Draw grid Fly swatters Games such as Charades, Taboo or Twenty Thousand Dollar Pyramid Gouin series Hear/Circle Magic box Make own story from given list of words Mystery Picture Priming the pump Put these activities in a logical order TPR and realia/stuffed animals, etc. Unscramble vocabulary labels What do we already know? Word Splash: invent a story that might take place using these words (from the story)  Worksheet (coloring)  Write sentences that might be found in the story                 

A Plethora of Communication, Culture, & Content Through Children’s Literature 1998 ♦ Richard Ladd & Cherice Montgomery

Sample During Reading Activities
 Check off items as they are seen/heard in the story  Choose key words (for later reconstitution of the story)  Cloze passages (nouns, verbs, adjectives)  Color according to description in text  Comprehension checks along the way (either/or questions, thumbs up/thumbs down, true/false)  Divide the structure into segments and create a subtitle for each  Draw a map as it is described in the text  Graphic organizers or other worksheets  Help session after a period of individual silent reading in which cognates, synonyms, paraphrasing, drawing, or gestures are used to make the text more comprehensible without resorting to English  Hold up picture when hear word in story  How to read the text in class questions  Illustrate cause & effect, characters, events, key concepts, predictions  Illustrated dictation (to be used in reconstituting the story at a later time)  Live investigations  Mark unknown words/segments and guess meaning from context  Participation in the reading: choral response, litanies, when you hear . . ., say . . .  Predictions: the next page, the result of a certain action, the climax, the ending  Read aloud  Scavenger Hunt  Story map  Trace a journey on a map  Vocabulary notes sheet

A Plethora of Communication, Culture, & Content Through Children’s Literature 1998 ♦ Richard Ladd & Cherice Montgomery

Sample Post-Reading Activities
 Battleship (vocabulary reinforcement)  Big books  Board game  Cause and effect worksheet  Charades  Character comparisons/maps  Choose 5 to 10 previously unknown words and create sentences for them  Class tell-a-story  Compare different versions or stories with similar plots  Create comprehension activities  Cut-up stories and assemble  Dialogue journals between students or students/teachers  Discussion web  Divide the story into segments and create a subtitle for each  Drawings (of characters, major events, sequences of events, story extensions)  Game  Gouin series  Grammar worksheets  Graphic organizers: story map, T-map, Venn diagram, web  Greeting cards  Illustrate  Incomplete sentences  Interview characters  Mini-books  Multiple choice test  Oral reports  Pictionary
A Plethora of Communication, Culture, & Content Through Children’s Literature 1998 ♦ Richard Ladd & Cherice Montgomery

Sample Post-Reading Activities
 Poll  Pronunciation  Reconstitute the text from key words or with pictures (as individuals, in pairs, in groups, or as a class)  Rewrite paragraph in a new tense  Role-play  Self-assessment (Yo puedo . . . )  Sequence pictures/text, events from the story  Show & Tell  Skit sacks  Story map in a group—another group must retell the story from the map  Story switches  Table Talk  Theatrics  Time capsule  Use list of key vocabulary words to retell story  Video  Write essays  Write in journals  Write love notes between characters  Write a modern version of the story  Write a new ending  Write a newspaper article or record a newscast  Write to a pen pal about the story  Write a poem  Write postcards between characters  Write from a different perspective  Write own story using similar plot or style  Write true/false statements
A Plethora of Communication, Culture, & Content Through Children’s Literature 1998 ♦ Richard Ladd & Cherice Montgomery


				
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