Private Sector Participation in Municipal Solid Waste Management

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Private Sector Participation in Municipal Solid Waste Management Powered By Docstoc
					World Bank Experience in Landfill Gas
    and Prospects for Indonesia



                      Dr. John Morton
                   Environmental Specialist
                        The World Bank
                  East Asia and Pacific Region



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                         Overview
 Role of landfill gas management and carbon finance in
  Solid Waste Management
 The World Bank Experience
    • Latin America example
    • Some worldwide lessons
 Assessing prospects for Indonesia
    • What could Indonesias waste produce
    • Are there issues with quality of disposal sites
    • Assessing the potential of your site



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        The Role of Landfill Gas Management
            and Carbon Finance in SWM




THE WORLD BANK
The Role of Landfill Gas Management and Carbon Finance in Solid Waste Management

 Common Problems in SWM

    Lack of well managed solid waste
     disposal sites.

    Scavengers

    NIMBY and lack of information and
     communication

     Insufficient recovery of costs and
     financing inhibits good operation

    Lack of strategic planning at central
     and municipal level

    Low management and technical
     capacity at a municipal level



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    Role of Landfill Landfill Gas Management
The World Bank and Gas Management and Carbon Finance in Solid Waste Management


         Strategies for addressing solid waste issues
         Closure of open dumps and construction of sanitary landfills
         Promote decentralizaton and strategic planning mechanisms.
         Political dialog
         Create incentives for cost recovery systems
         Increase the knowledge on waste management practices to be able
        to take strategic decisions
         Include financing available for reducing greenhouse gas emissions
        as a tool to promote sound waste management practices.




   THE WORLD BANK
The Role of Landfill Gas Management and Carbon Finance in Solid Waste Management


        Reducing greenhouse gas emission from waste:
Composting                    Landfill Gas
  or other
 treatment                   CH4 emissions                         Landfill Gas
                                                                    Collection
    CO2
                                                                    CO2 CO2




                                                                    Flaring   Electricity
                                                                              Generation


   THE WORLD BANK
    Role of Landfill Landfill Gas Management
The World Bank and Gas Management and Carbon Finance in Solid Waste Management


 WB Financing for reducing greenhouse gas emissions:

 Global Environment Facility: Grant funds available for
   investment financing for climate change initiatives.

 Carbon Finance: Provides recurrent financing through
   purchases of “carbon credits” in exchange for
   monitorable and verifiable reductions in greenhouse gas
   emissions.



   THE WORLD BANK
    Role of Landfill Landfill Gas Management
The World Bank and Gas Management and Carbon Finance in Solid Waste Management


 Role of landfill gas and carbon finance opportunities

     Improves landfill safety, reduces odors and local air
      pollution.

     Incremental financing represents a key incentive to
      promote good SWM practices

     Carbon finance can improve cost recovery and
      contribute to the financing of closure of open dumps,
      programs for scavengers and help construct sanitary
      landfills.

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             The World Bank Experience




THE WORLD BANK
The World Bank Experience

                    Latin America Experience:
Demonstration GEF projects:
Grants to establish first-of-a kind power generation model

 Uruguay, Maldonado:
0.8 MW project

 Mexico, Monterrey:
7 MW project




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               Experience
The World Bank and Landfill Gas Management

                      Latin America Experience:
Carbon finance projects: High number of        projects in Brazil, but also Argentina, Mexico,
     Peru and Uruguay. Private sector very active in Brazil and Argentina in replicating model.


Mexico: 2 landfill gas to energy (10 MW) and 1 flaring project
Brazil: Novogerar 12 MW
Argentina: Olavarria flaring project


Capacity Building:

Grants to finance pre-feasibility studies for 10 landfills in Brasil, Colombia, México, Perú, y
    Uruguay

Brazil – WB partnership with public banks to finance landfill practices linked to carbon finance –
     wholesale of carbon projects in the waste management sector.


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               Experience
The World Bank and Landfill Gas Management

                    Worldwide Lessons Learned
       Important to identify ownership of landfill gas and hence the
        seller of carbon credits – Municipality, concessionaire – division
        of carbon credits is possible

       Gas capture can be optimized by specific landfill engineering,
        but is only feasible when landfill is well managed (no
        scavengers, leachate treatment, etc.)

       Tropical countries produce more biogas in less time than in
        colder countries

       Energy generation is not always feasible, in many cases high
        taxes and transmission fees are prohibitive


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         Assessing Prospects for Indonesia




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 \
Prospects Bank and Landfill Gas Management
The Worldfor Indonesia

              Indonesia’s major urban centers
          produce nearly 10 million tons of waste/yr



        0.7
        Medan
                                                    Samarinda
           0.3
           Pakanbaru                 0.2
                                     Pontianak           0.2
           0.4 0.2
           Padang Jambi                                    0.2
                                                      Balikpapan
                  0.6
                Palembang
                  0.4
                  Tanjungkarang                   0.2
                                                Banjarmasin
                           3.5
                           Jakarta
                                     0.5
                                     Semarang                   0.5
                                                                Ujungpandang
                                                  0.8
                                                  Surabaya
                          0.8
                          Bandung
                                   0.1
                                Yogyakarta          0.2
                                                    Denpasar




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Prospects for Indonesia

                  What could this amount of waste do?
                                 Methane emissions (m3/yr)



        27
             11                  7                    9
             16                                   6
                  7
                       23
                      15                 7
                             140 21                       19
                                         33
                            32
                                     5        9



                            404 million m3 methane per year

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Prospects for Indonesia

            What could this amount of waste do?
                                      Electricity (MW)




        5
                                                      2
            2                 1
            3    1                                    1
                 5
                  3                           2
                      29
                                  4                       4
                                          7
                          7
                                  1               2


                              79 MW of electricity

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 i
Prospects for Indonesia
                What could this amount of waste do?
                        Revenues from carbon finance (Rp bill/yr)




        9
                                     2                3
                4
            5                                         2
                    2
                        7
                            4                2
                                40
                                         7                6
                                9            11
                                         2
                                                  3


                                     Rp118 billion/yr

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Prospects Bank and Landfill Gas Management
The Worldfor Indonesia


        Is the quality of disposal practices important?

                   Favorable conditions      Unfavorable
 Depth:                    >10 m                <5 m
 Cover:                    Daily                No cover
 Compaction:               yes                  none
 Liner:                    yes                  none
 Leachate:                 well drained         not well drained
 Fires:                    none                 frequent
 Scavengers:               none                 living on site




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Prospects for Indonesia

           Understanding the potential of your landfill
                      Landfill: from City X                                                            PROJECTED LANDFILL GAS GENERATION AND RECOVERY
                                                                                                              BANGKOK- KAMPANGSEAN LANDFILL

                                                                                        16,000
                         Landfill Conditions
              Categorization: engineered landfill                                       14,000




                                                      LFG Flow at 50% Methane (m3/hr)
              Suitability for LFG Development:                                          12,000

              medium                                                                    10,000
              Actual Landfill Area: 13 hectares
                                                                                         8,000
              Area Filled: 6 hectares
              Average Depth: 24m                                                         6,000


              Frequency of Cover Application: daily                                      4,000

              Compaction: mechanical                                                     2,000

              Liner: plastic                                                                0
              Leachate Drainage: yes                                                        1985     1990     1995   2000   2005     2010       2015     2020     2025    2030

              Leachate Contamination: occasional                                                   LFG Generation     LFG Recovery          Actual LFG Recovery in 2000
              Gas Ventilation: passive
              Scavengers Living on Site: 60
              Fires: occasional

                            Landfill gas
              Average annual LFG recovery over 15
              years (2004-2018): 54,459,581m³
              Project capacity (MW): 10
              Average annual revenue based on $4.50
              per ton of CO2e: $917,609




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                 Terima Kasih




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