A BRIEF VIEW ON CLOUD COMPUTING
Abstract computing. In fact, it is a very independent Cloud computing is a computing paradigm in Which tasks assigned to a combination of connections ,software and services platform in terms of computing. The best example of cloud computing is Google Apps where any application can be accessed using a browser and it can be deployed on thousands of computer through the Internet. 1.1 Key Characteristics Cloud computing is cost-effective. Here, cost is greatly reduced as initial expense and recurring expenses are much lower than 1.Introduction traditional computing. Maintenance cost is reduced as a third party "Cloud Computing," to put it simply, means "Internet Computing." The Internet is maintains everything from running the cloud to independency, which make it easily adoptable for all sizes of businesses, in particular small and mid-sized. However, owing to redundancy of computer system networks and storage system cloud may not be reliable for data, but it scores well as far as security is concerned. is In cloud
accessed over a Network .This network of servers and connections collectively known as “cloud”. cloud computing is the idea of abstracting compuation(and storage)in a way that allows us to delegate away its management to a third party.
commonly visualized as clouds; hence the term “cloud computing” for computation done through the Internet. With Cloud Computing users can access database
resources via the Internet from anywhere, for as long as they need, without worrying about any maintenance or management of actual resources. Besides, databases in cloud are very dynamic and scalable. Cloud computing is unlike grid
improved because of a superior technology security system, which is now easily available important and affordable. Yet of another is
computing, utility computing, or autonomic
scalability, which is achieved through server. 1.2 Different forms of Cloud Computing Google Apps., Salesforce.com, Zoho Office and various other online applications use cloud computing as Software-As-Service (SAAS) model. These applications are delivered through browser, and multiple customers can access it from various locations. This model has become the most common form of cloud computing because it is beneficial and practical for both the customers and the services providers. For customers, there is no upfront investment and they can Pay-As-They-Go and Pay-AsThey-Grow. On the other hand, the service providers, can grow easily as their customer base grows. Aamzon.com, Sun and IBM offer ondemand storage and computing resources. Web service and APIs enable developers to use all the cloud from internet and allow them to create large-scale, full-featured application. Cloud is not simply limited to providing data storage or computing
1.3Cloud Computing Concerns Security of confidential data (e.g., SSN or Credit Card Numbers) is a very important area of concern as it can make way for very big problems if unauthorized users get access to it. Misuse of data can create big issues; hence, in cloud computing it is very important to be aware of data administrators and their extent of database access rights. Large organizations dealing with sensitive data often have well laid out regulatory compliance policies. However, these polices should be verified prior to engaging them in cloud computing. There is a possibility that in cloud computing network, sometimes the network utilizes resources from another country or they might not be fully protected; hence, the need arises for appropriate regulatory compliance policies. In cloud computing, it is very common to stored data of multiple
customers at one common location. Cloud computing should have proper techniques where data is segregated properly for data security and confidentiality. Care must be taken to ensure that one customer’s data does not affect another customer’s data. In addition, Cloud computing providers must be equipped with proper disaster recovery policies to deal with any unfortunate event.
resources, it can also provide managed services or specific application services through web.
2.Layers of cloud computing The term “Cloud” refers to on-demand services accessed over the Internet, however these services can be classified into 3 layers, each layer defining a “Cloud of services” on its own”: The “Infrastructure” Cloud provides ondemand access to server capacity, storage space, network connection and middleware software, with flexibility to increase or decrease capacity as required. These different “Clouds” are independent “IT Services" or the “Service” Cloud provides a set of software components from which the Independent Software Vendors (ISVs) can create end-user applications. These components are generally exposed as web services. Software-as-a-Service or the “Application Cloud” is a software application that is licensed for use as a service provided to customers on demand. and usually the ecosystem and business models are different. However every layer can leverage the services from the layer below. For example SaaS is much easier to provide today for a Service Provider running an infrastructure Cloud than it was a few years ago for traditional ASPs. Usually, the term “Cloud Fig 1.1 Layers of cloud
Computing” refers to the “Infrastructure” Cloud. This set of Cloud services includes on demand access to server, storage, network services as well as the ability to design and deploy complex IT configuration which supports the business applications. “Platform- as-a-Service” is another service within Cloud Computing which offers
developers a full suite of tools to design their applications without struggling with deployment details. 3.The Rise of the Cloud Storage and processing for the internet created huge data centers filled with thousands of computer servers that fed this data to an insatiable and growing global population of users. No one organization owns these centers, although there are large operators like Amazon, Google, IBM, Microsoft and Yahoo that have built capacity and applications. As data centers grew, so did the idea that the internet was turning into something like an electric utility. One should be able to plug into the internet from anywhere and get the processing, applications and data one needs. This idea required all these data centers to work together, however , using standard software and systems, so users could draw on power and applications wherever and whenever like plugging a lamp into a wall. This idea of computing is rapidly emerging as the Cloud. The Cloud has slowly taken the central position for data, applications, mobility and source of social media, multimedia and entertainment. The capacity of a Cloud is
beyond any one company to achieve but combinations of server warehouses spread about the world generate vast processing, storage and throughput power.
The term Cloud Computing is relatively new, and some say it is no different than“Utility Computing,” the idea that the internet is the electric company. The image of a cloud comes from engineers and technicians who use a fluffy cumulus cloud in wiring diagrams to designate a network built and maintained outside of an
organization. The faster internet connections have become – 10mbps, 20 mbps,40 mbps, the more applications and storage have moved to the Cloud and out of internal servers and PCs. In fact, all processing power, applications and storage a
communications professional might need today are available already through Cloud Computing.
broadband service and enormous data storage, but current predictions are that nothing will stop the internet from reaching petabyte size and speed. That is a thousand trillion bytes of storage, an unimaginable
size, and equally astonishing speed. This means millions of people can download multi-billion-byte, high- definition, featurelength movies at the same time without slowing down or straining the internet. There are serious capacity and economic issues to achieving this scale, but internet service providers are moving to solve them. Some countries have already achieved extraordinary speed and volume such as Korea, Japan and Australia.
information online where hackers originate is more than many can bear. It will depend on the reputation of and credibility of the Cloud vendor whether a CIO of a major corporation can adjust to having sensitive data kept in a Cloud. There also will be vital information that CIOs will bar from the internet far into the future, such as financial data. This is likely to remain on well-guarded internal networks. Many
communications in a corporation, however, do not rise to the level of sensitivity as
The uses of Cloud Computing for professional communicators are ubiquitous, especially since high-speed speed service comes not only through fiber-optic landlines but also through WiFi and cellular
financial information and much of this could go into a Cloud today. Much of the work of professional communicators could be Cloudbased, for example with the IT department apprised of where the data is and how to access it, if needed. 5. Cloud Computing Architecture
4. Security When talking about a cloud computing If there is one stumbling block to Cloud Computing it is security. Chief Information Officers stay awake at night with fears of hackers sneaking into system, it's helpful to divide it into two sections: the front end and the back end. They connect to each other through a network, usually the Internet. The front end is the side the computer user, or client, sees. The back end is the "cloud" section of the system.
wellguarded systems and stealing vital information. The idea that one would store all of one’s
communicate with each other. If a cloud computing company has a lot of clients, there's likely to be a high demand for a lot of storage space. Some companies require hundreds of digital storage devices. Cloud computing systems need at least twice the number of storage devices it requires to keep all its clients' information stored. That's because these Fig 1.2 A Typical cloud computing system The front end includes the client's computer (or computer network) and the application required to access the cloud computing system. Not all cloud computing systems have the same user interface. Services like Web-based existing e-mail programs like leverage Internet devices, like all computers, occasionally break down. A cloud computing system must make a copy of all its clients' information and store it on other devices. The copies enable the central server to access backup machines to retrieve data that otherwise would be unreachable. Making copies of data as a backup is called redundancy. 6.Server virtualization Most of the time, servers don't run at full A central server administers the system, demands monitoring to ensure traffic and client runs capacity. That means there's unused
Explorer or Firefox. Other systems have unique applications that provide network access to clients.
processing power going to waste. It's possible to fool a physical server into thinking it's actually multiple servers, each running with its own independent operating system. The technique is called server virtualization. By maximizing the output of
smoothly. It follows a set of rules called protocols and uses a special kind of software called middleware. Middleware
individual reduces machines.
servers, the need
collaborate between Australia and New York as it is from Madison Ave to Fifth Avenue in Manhattan.
7. A way to think about the Cloud There are several considerations in thinking about Cloud Computing: Time. Cloud Computing provides 24/7 presence. Communicators who need that need Cloud Computing. It should be as easy as flipping on a light switch, although it isn’t yet for some services, such as videoconferencing – that is, depending on where one is in the world. In Australia today, one can videoconference simply by holding a cell phone in front of one’s face. In the US that is not possible yet. Data and application needs. Cloud Computing provides the ability to process and mine mountains of data while doing one’s work. That is the benefit of search engines and of continued increase of data storage online. Cloud Computing already offers the world’s largest library to users, and it is getting larger every second. It is Place. If clients are far-flung, Cloud Computing is a natural solution. Conversely, if clients are close by or down the hall, there is probably little need to get involved in Cloud Computing. Increasingly with global business, even internal clients are located around the earth. Distances have collapsed as a concept. Except for time of day, it is as easy to Appliance and Network: Full use of Cloud Computing requires a network robust unlikely there are many communications practitioners left who do not use the internet as a resource in some way. Method of working. If one needs to work closely with clients, Cloud Computing is the way to approach it. If one completes assignments and projects without need for interaction, there is little need for Cloud Computing.
enough to deliver applications and data and an appliance
that can process them. That appliance will have a powerful CPU, multiple network connections from direct linkage through Ethernet cable to WiFi and cellular communications cards, a
Trust and confidence to be acquired
Corporates and large Enterprises have existing Data Centres running their mission critical applications Large Enterprises are not likely to move their core or strategic
keyboard and phone. Some say Apple Computer’s iPhone is the nearest application to a Cloud Computing device developed thus far. More such devices are on the way. They will be limited, however, by the networks to which they are connected. Some communicators today can take advantage of Cloud Computing and others cannot. It will be a matter of time before most can.
applications onto Public Cloud in the short to medium time frame. 8.2 Private Cloud
For Enterprises and Corporates with large scale IT
To take Cloud Computing benefits
8.Types of Cloud
and reduction of Capex Opex automation for on demand
8.1 Public Cloud
computing and IT resources
Amazon, Google, IBM... Huge adoption by SMEs and currently tested by Enterprise
quality of service 8.3 Cloud Hybrid
Enterprises will continue to test and adopt Public Cloud
Maturing and Limited SLA Reliability and availability to be improved
Overflow management and peak adaptation via Public Cloud
Security to be demonstrated
Hybrid Cloud = Private Cloud with connections to Public Cloud
Reduce business process cycles Location independence for
customers and Data Centre assets
hardware/software usage – “Pay as You Go” (PAYG) model
Increased Enterprise agility Usage billing (PAYG model in IT Units)
9.Revenue Growth & Cost Reduction The Benefits of Cloud Computing By implementing Cloud Computing to enable a more dynamic and flexible use of an enterprise’s IT resources and allowing assets to be shared across multiple internal customers in a scalable, on-demand The US Government just announced that the US has been in a recession since December 2007. To most people, this is simply stating
Predictions for 2009 by analyst of cloud computing( Michael Sheehan)in his blog: 10.1 Clouds Reduce the Effect of the Recession:
fashion. The top line benefits to your organisation include: Reduced Capital investment On demand scalability – scale up when you need it, scale back in a downturn
the obvious. Many in the Cloud Computing field have been touting how moving to the Cloud can lower high Capital Expenditures (CapEx) and shift this to Operating
Get processes right first time around
Expenditures (OpEx). Coupling that with a
need model, and Cloud Computing becomes a panacea for extending the runway of your business. Prudent companies are slashing budgets and looking to weather the turbulent market for as long as possible. Those companies that are heavily dependent on advertising will be seeing the effects of cash hording in Q1 and Q2 of 2009. Utility-based spending is a shift in mind-set that could potentially slow the freefall and domino effect we are currently experiencing.
dependence on foreign oil, establish new businesses and competition for charging station infrastructure and move towards bettering the environment. While not exactly the same, similarities can be drawn between this idea and the shift from self-hosted servers to Cloud Infrastructures. CapEx is reduced (e.g., green cars become less expensive to buy/no need to purchase servers that are under-utilized) and costs are moved to OpEx (e.g., charging your car when you need to/paying for only the infrastructure you use). 10.2 Hybrid Solutions
Recently, he heard about a similar type of idea that could potentially help the sales of hybrid or electric cars. One of the primary barriers that is preventing users from purchasing “green” cars is the high cost associated with a purchase. If the auto industry were to adopt a cell phone business model where you pre-buy your electrical charges and the cost of the car is “subsidized” through the use of recurring and predicable revenue, users might more readily opt for a purchase (at a discounted price). However, several infrastructure
Not every corporation or business is looking to the Cloud as the next sliced bread. While the Cloud can be the catalyst for a potentially more sound IT and financial strategy, it will not solve every IT challenge. There are some IT infrastructures that must remain in a private datacenter or running on dedicated, bare-metal servers. Database intensive environments may not be
changes would be required in order for such a pricing-shift to take place, meaning that charging stations would have to be abundant (and possibly government subsidized as well). In the long term, building the green
conducive to exclusively residing within the Cloud. This year, GoGrid launched the 1.0 version of Cloud Connect as a way to allow for these types of hybrid (dedicated servers connected to Cloud servers) solutions.
Others are calling Hybrid Infrastructure “Cloudbursting.” Ihe expect s that some of the strategic partnerships coming in 2009 will include other hybrid solutions of this nature. In fact, they may give way to full mirrored failover or redundancy solutions where traditional infrastructures are
aggregation of technologies, will drive the innovation of Web 3.0. These integrations will help create new and unique SaaS and even PaaS offerings to the market. The hurdle here will be in the explanation and usability of said solutions.
mirrored within the Cloud, sharing common datastreams to ensure near-real-time 10.4 Technology Advances at the Cloud Molecular Level 10. 3 Web 3.0 There is probably a new layer to the Cloud Web 3.0 is upon us. I have long thought that it will be all about Integration and Standards (#7 below). I have written about “mashups” and integrations as being a large component of Web 2.0. Web 3.0 will make these integrations much more seamless and go well beyond that of simple visible shared data applications. What we saw with mashups was essentially proof-of-viability and with some experimentation thrown in. Like a strategic partnership, successful integrations are critical to the furthering the power of the Cloud. In 2009, we will see integrations taking place at a much lower level of IT. Data integrations will remain as they are fairly established. Infrastructure integration and companies offering this as a Pyramid that needs to be added, one that resides at the “molecular” level. Chip makers such as Intel, are making plans on enabling Cloud-optimized CPU and other types of chips to allow for a more unique control of built-in switches. They are extremely interested in many of the open and proprietary virtualization technologies out there (Xen, VMware, Virtual Iron, etc.) and are strategizing on how to make their chipsets more compatible and efficient for use in the Cloud. Obviously, their vision is to have all Cloud infrastructures running with “Intel Inside” stamped on them. Many Cloud GoGrid, Computing already providers, hook into including chip-level
availability of data and services.
switches and controls to make better use of
the processors. Dell, HP and IBM will most certainly designed release and servers specifically for running
presence is to furthering the concept of “change.” The Obama-Biden Technology Agenda points to the obvious importance of Technology, especially with the
optimized Clouds. Since all Clouds are powered by physical hardware and as advances are made further propelling Moore’s Law into the stratosphere, Clouds will become more powerful and able to take the place of traditional servers even more readily.
appointment of a Chief Technology Officer for the US Government. And, as always, Web 3.0 and Startups will remain on the bleeding edge of hosting technology yet conserving cash for a sunnier day (ok, it can be a bit “cloudy”).
10. 5 Larger Adoption
11 .Cloud computing applications:
If one factors in many if not all of the items mentioned previously, the obvious
Here are just a few Cloud applications you could use at the time of writing. · Google Docs: http://www.google.com/ Online word processing, spreadsheet, presentations and collaboration software. · EFAX: http://www.efax.com/ Faxes and voice mail by e-mail. · YouTube: /www.youtube.com/ Online storage of videos. · Webex: http://www.webex.com/ Online meetings. · YouSendIt: http://www.yousendit.com/ A digital delivery service for large files. · Gliffy: http://www.gliffy.com/ Online diagram drawing.
conclusion is that Cloud adoption will be significant in 2009. The Enterprise will move beyond simply testing the waters and just using the Cloud for project work. Private Clouds will help with their
acceptance and the undeniable call for costsavings through reduced CapEx will be too loud to be ignored. My gut also tells me that Government will play a much larger role as well. In 2008 I spoke with a person from the French government whose mission it was to bring the Cloud to their government infrastructure. This is only the tip of the iceberg. With the 2008 US Election, Barack Obama proved how critical an online
· Yahoo! Calendar: www.yahoo.com. An online calendar. · Mozy: http://mozy.com/. File backup service. · LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/home Social networking for business. The business answer to MySpace and FaceBook. · Picnik: http://www.picnik.com/. Online photo editing. · Zamzar: http://www.zamzar.com/ Online file conversion. · PBWiki: http://pbwiki.com/. Online
will find entirely new applications in the Cloud to help send messages more
effectively to target audiences. Young practitioners today will stand back and listen with wry smiles to their seniors who talk about the “good old days” when the PC first appeared and early Local Area Networks provided the first hint of productivity. In fact, they are smiling already at the old fogies.
12.Cloud computing references: ssment (including recommendations) - November 2009, ENISA (with PDF file; 2 MB)
collaboration software. · Blogger: www.blogger.com. A service for online publishing – blogs.
A. 12.Cloud computing conclusion:
Whether you call it Cloud Computing or utility computing, the omnipresent power of high-speed internet connections and linkages to databases, applications and processing power will change the way we work in communications. We may use Cloud Computing tools without being aware of what they actually are. We may learn our way into Cloud Computing applications that seem strange today. We
Internet Computing", 12(5), Sep. 2009. ditor), "Cloud Computing: IT's Day in the Sun?", Cutter Consortium, 2009.
Clouds: Toward a Cloud Definition, ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication
Review, Volume 39, Issue 1 (January 2009), Pages 50–55, ISSN:0146-4833
? - Web 2.0 expo - A video where Tim O’Reilly, Dan Farber, Matt Mullenweg and others answer this question