Crop Profile by fjzhxb


									Crop Profile Type of Crop: Vegetables 2005 Original Author: Brian 2006 Contributing Author: Jamie Crop: Potato, also referred to as Irish White potato. Major types grown in Minnesota include White, Russet, and Red skin varieties Plant Family: Solanacea botanically related to Eggplant, Pepper, Tomato plants Botanical Name: Solanum Tuberosum Varieties & Cultivars: Minnesota rated hardiness varieties of interest. Red Skin Varieties: Dark Red Norland: Season, very early; appearance; lighter pale red skin; round to oblong tubers with high moisture content and white flesh; smooth skin has shallow “eyes” on seed potato, comments: make excellent “new” or B-size potato. Red Norland: Season: very early, Appearance: improved red color, very bright red skin color, oblong tubers also high moisture content white flesh, smooth skin, seed potato shallow eyes medium in number compared to Dark Red Norland; Comments: excellent mashing potato. Red Pontiac: Season: late, Appearance: deep red „thick‟ skin, crispy white flesh, very round tubers, Comments: Low specific gravity of tubers so hilling type, large yields and tolerant to heavy soils. Good boiling mashing type potato. Dakotah Rose: Season: early, Appearance: Improved red color, deep bright red skin hue is striking, round to oblong tubers also high moisture content white flesh, smooth skin, shallow seed potato eyes, tubers medium size in number compared to Dark Red Norland, Comments Excellent mashing potato, flesh has high moisture content, large Red River valley type. White to Russet Skin Varieties: Superior: Season: Early, Appearance: white to slight russet look, oval tubers less moisture content, seed potato has many “eyes” with large spreading vines and plants. Comments: Very popular potato type with consumers and growers. Russet Norkotah: Season, early, Appearance: Very good russet to brown skin appearance, large spreading plants, and large oblong tubers. Comments: good baking quality fair to specific gravity not hollow. Gold rush: Season, mid-season, Appearance, oblong long tubers very dry white flesh, and good baking quality, fair gravity. Cascade: Season: mid-season, Appearance: white dry flesh round tubers, moisture content fair. Snowden: Season: mid-season, Appearance: tubers sometimes rough dark brown to russet skin, white flesh very high dry matter low moisture content. Comments Ideal for baking and to produce French-fries. Exceptional ability to produce white potato chips. Somerset: Season: mid-season blocky, Appearance: tubers with very good russet appearance, white flesh, Comments: good for chips, lower moisture content, high specific gravity for plants and tubers.

Kennebec: Season: late, Appearance: round, oval and oblong tubers, white flesh not as dry as other varieties, high yielding high spreading plants. Katahdin: Season: late, Appearance: smooth skin round tubers shallow “eyed”. Comments: good drought resistance and shelf life. Russet Burbank: Season: very late likes cool fall like damp temperatures, Appearance: very long and blocky oblong tubers with deep brown to russet thicker skin appearance, white flesh. Comments: Dry moisture content ideal for baking or large bakers, common to Idaho, California. Novelty and Specialty markets: Yukon Gold; Season: very early, and Appearance: Pale white skin, yellow flesh dry moisture content. Good size round tubers with many A- and B-size grade potatoes, high yielding. Comments: Small plant size allows for closer then normal spacing for vines. Purple Chief; Season: Mid to late season variety, Appearance, large round and oblong tubers, Purple skin with white flesh. Baking, steaming, boiling or grilling novelty potato. Carola; Season: late season, Appearance, yellow skin and yellow flesh potato, oval and rounded tubers shallow “eyes”. Specialty and restaurant market potato Fingerling Types: Specialty and restaurant market potato but gaining popularity with consumers. Butterfinger, Butternut, and Russian Banana; Generally late season although Russian Banana is early season tuber. Fingerling types produce long narrow tubers finger length and plants produce large vigorous vines. Appearance: crescent shaped russet to yellow skin and dark yellow flesh. Comments: have nutty flavor and high in starch. Rose Finn Apple and All Reds; Season: early, Appearance: have rosey skin with intense yellow flesh sweeter than the other fingerlings.

Classification: Is a perennial plant, but almost always grown as annual plant. Habit: Large low gravity Vines, vigorous plants, create mounds or hills when plants grouped in threes. White flowers to purple flowers with yellow stamens. Cool/ Warm Season Plant: Long cool growing season. Cool season plant mostly grown in northern tier states. Seeding: Seed potatoes should be warmed to temperature of 50-55 ^F for 3-5 days at high humidity. Depth of seeding is 4” Location of First Planting (field/ greenhouse): Field for “Seed Pieces” green house for early season seed plants started 6 weeks before transplant. Potatoes prefer well-drained loamy soil. Sandy soils require irrigation. Hill soil up around after plant emerges. Build ridges 4-5‟ high as cultivated Approximate First Date of Planting: estimated April 15 for early season varieties, begin field planting when soil temperature to 4” reaches 45^ F. Can use cold tunnels or hoop houses for establishment in containers. These transplants should be field planted when soil is dry enough to work. Late season varieties should be planted by June 1st. Are Multiple Plantings Needed? Yes, depending on what season of varities and USDA sizes you want to harvest. Early and mid-season varieties are recommended for Minnesota. This schedule will vary depending on frost out. Potato plants are semi-hardy

Seed and Spacing: Cut tubers into four seed pieces that will weigh 1-2 ounces containing at least one “eye”. 2-3 once pieces can be cut for B-size “new potato” plantings. Rows will typically need to be 24 to 36 inches apart depending on varieties. Cut “seed pieces” should be spaced 9 to 11 inches apart in each row. Rows will typically be 10 ft in length. This also depends on variety and intended use. See seed packet or zone literature. Cropping Schedule for 2006: Sowing Date st 1 sowing Early Season April 15th 2nd sowing 3rd sowing

Typical Harvest

Mid Season varieties May 1st Late Season Varieties by May 15th Begin June 24th

Transplant Date 6 Weeks after seed pieces planted in containers. 5-gallon containers needed. 6 weeks 6 Weeks

Harvest Date Maturity 70 days. B and C sizes harvested 2-4 weeks before maturity 60-80 days 60-90 days depends on sizing. October 8th

End harvest

Transplanting /Growing: Transplants usually require fertilizing. Use fish emulsion 2500/500 ppm or 2-4 tablespoons of emulsion per gallon of water. When plants emerge need to hill soil up around plants. Depth to plant: 4” deep. Furrow soil mounds with even blade not hoe or hills at least 3-6” deep. Plant seed cuts from these depths depending on variety or instructions. Note: Tubers exposed to light turn green and produce solance an alkaloid that is toxic. Keep tubers under soil surface and, remove cherry like green potatoes. Support Structures: Typically none other then hills and mounds of soil. Some specialty varieties and varieties with high specific gravity for vines can use trellises. PH, Nutrient Requirements: Soil PH is recommended to be 5.0 to 5.2. Optimum ph is below 5.2 Magnesium application when levels are low or when potassium's levels high Water Requirements: Bottom of plants require 1 to 2” of rainfall or irrigation a week in sandy or loamy soils Temperature Requirements: Early season varieties tolerate temperature between 40-45 degrees F but plant growth is not optimal unless soil temperature is 45 degrees. Optimum soil temperature for initiating tuber plantings in greenhouse is 61-66 degrees. Plants grow best when temperature is between 60-65 degrees F. Sun/ Shade Requirements: Plants like partial shade. Tubers must not be exposed to light. Frost Tolerance: Semi-hardy, 35- 40 degrees tolerant with above 38 ^F preferred Companion Plants & Function (if known): Anti-Companions: Cucurbits compete for same resources and space. Spacing Requirements: Rows will typically need to be 24 to 36 inches apart depending on varieties. Yukon gold has smaller plants and would be the benchmark for the lower end of spacing Harvest:

Days until first Harvest: Harvest only when soil is dry. Kill vines mechanically before harvest 7-10 days and avoid harvesting when temperatures above 60 degrees F. Maturity will vary by season planting and tuber variety as well as sizing. 60-90 days is typical for A-size USDA maturity. See Post Harvest for USDA sizing of potatoes. Expected Yield from 10 Ft Row: estimated... Potato lbs/10 ft section x multiplication factor. Standard case weight is 40 lbs. Multiplication factor is by row width, row 33” wide = 16.4, row 34” wide = 15.4 and row 36” wide = 14.5. # Of Harvests Per Plant Per Season: Only one harvest after desiccating vines but there should be 3 total harvest based on planting of early, mid-season and late season plantings. Harvest mature potatoes after tops begin to yellow and they begin to dry. Harvesting Tools: Lift tubers with garden pitchfork, garden spade shovel with care. Harvesting Equipment: Can be harvested with machinery, but for our purposes likely fork and shovel. Post Harvest: handling; Pre-Market Preparation: Handle with care as tubers susceptible to bruising and injury. Curing promotes suberization, the build up of waxy water impervious layer on skin. Cure for a week or two in arable crates at 65-75 degrees with 85-90 % relative humidity. This is to allow skin to toughen and wounds to heal in tubers. Wash and dry with cotton terry cloth towels after curing. Cure tubers before washing. New “potatoes” B-size dug before maturity 10-14 days before maturity. Requires Rapid Cooling after Harvest: Not required. Storage Requirements: No light in storage containers, dark room 38-42 degrees F, high humidity 80-85 % and well ventilated area. Optimal Temperature for Storage: 42 degrees F Optimal Relative % Humidity: 85-90 Storage life after harvest under optimal conditions: 2-9 months depending on variety. USDA Sizing: A-size at least 40 % of case weight are 2 ½” in diameter or larger and weigh 6 ounces or more. Typical case weight is 40 pounds or 5 lb bags. B-size tender smaller potatoes tubers 1 ½” to 2 ¼ ” diameter less that 6 ounces in weight. C-size smallest baby potato less than 1 ½” in diameter. Pests & Solutions: Pollinators & Beneficial Insects: Competitive Asian Lady beetles, North American Lady beetle, Syrpid fly (flower fly) resembles a bee with yellow and black stripes, carabids beetles, parasitoid wasp, bees, and honeybee hives highly desirable as pollinators as well as birds and bats. Problematic Pest #1: Colorado potato beetle, most common potato insect pest in MN. Adult‟s large globes yellow, orange with black stripes. Symptoms: Larvae and adults feed on plant material and foliage. Will notice holes in plants, leaves and stems. Organic Control Options to Pest #1: Can use flamer, Bt spray is effective on young CPB when needed, Plant as far away from first year plantings as possible cultural rotation with buffer between area 1st and 2nd yr plantings. Trap crops to lure insects away Problematic Pest #2: potato leaf hopper, wedge like lime green insects, cannot fly unless above 70 ^F.

Symptoms: Leaf “hopper burn”, V shaped brown area on ends of leaves suck on sap from plant leaves, leaves turn brown after significant hopper burn. Organic Control Options to Pest #2: Keep plants healthy harvest before temperatures above 70 ^ constantly, will be important, parasites like wasp parasitoids eat the larvae and eggs. Problematic Pest #3: aphids green pea, lime green soft flesh Symptoms: Sap sucking, will see spotting and dotting from larvae and adults Organic Control Options to Pest #3: Spray with hose flood and drown out in greenhouse. Lady bugs, carapid beetles that eat soft flesh insects, birds and bats also like aphids. Diseases & Solutions: Problematic Disease #1: potato scab, fungus Symptoms: wilting, blotchy scab like appearance on plant foliage Organic Control Options to Disease #1: Preventative, Keep soil PH below 5.2. When planting. Always rotate the plantings to areas where botanically related plants were not grown the previous year. Tillage buries dead plant material 7-10 days before planting. Mulch beds and hills only after temperatures above 65 ^ F. Problematic Disease #2: Early or late blight Symptoms: Grayish to brown spots and circles on leaves, sunken water soaked looking. Organic Control Options to Disease #2: Preventative. Buy resistant varieties. Rotate plantings to not botanical family related like areas. Remove or Till decaying plant material into soil. Problematic Disease #3: Fusarium dry rot, Black or silver scurf Symptoms: Spots on tubers, rings spots on foliage. Organic Control Options to Disease #3: Preventative. Remove decaying infected plant material, mulch only after soil warms to 65 ^ F. 2005 Notes: Number of plants grown last year: 158 plants Red, blue, fingerling potatoes. Unknown distribution Number of Units Sold Last year: Unknown if lbs or Dollars per unit. Potato Blue 23, Potato Red 48, Potato fingerling 10 Observations on harvest, markets, 2005 etc.: Unknown Seed Sources: unknown Additional Information: Weed control issues. Potato plants not competitive with weeds so plant potatoes in areas where weed infestation low; previously mulched areas or areas planted in cover crop. Tillage and weed removal will be key to yields. Annual and perennial grasses and weeds that will compete better than potato plants are velvet leaf, redroot pigweed, giant and common ragweed, common lambs quarters, foxtail, crabgrass, yellow nut sedge, quack grass. References: Information referenced from 02/15 to 03/09/06 1. Continuing Education and Extension, Organic Vegetable production

2. University of Wisconsin Extension Fresh Market Vegetable Production and Planting Harvesting dates 3. How to plant your vegetables 4. The Commercial Storage of Fruits, Vegetables and Floral and nursery stocks, Handbook #66. USDA 1977. Page 48 5. Planting harvesting dates dependent on varieties selected for Northern Tier states 6. Beneficial bugs pollinators and predators 7. Planting vegetables in South Dakota 8. Planting the vegetable garden

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