# Subject Area Pacing Guide

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```					Subject Area Pacing Guide COURSE DESCRIPTION: This course stresses the processes and activities of science. It provides an understanding of basic concepts in physics and chemistry. Basic Algebra I skills are required.

EOC

VOCATS

AP/IB exam CHAPTER REFERENCES ARE FROM: Holt Science Spectrum: A Physical Approach

NC SCOS Goal #/Unit 1 14 days

Day of Unit

Chapter Reference in Textbook

Essential Questions

Learning Objectives

General/Modified Tasks/Strategies From EC to Honors

1-4

8.1, 8.2

What is the difference between speed and velocity? What is acceleration? What is the relationship between forces and motion? How are velocity and acceleration calculated? How are velocity and acceleration graphs interpreted?

The learner will construct an understanding of mechanics. 1.01 Analyze uniform and accelerated motion

Calculating the velocity of a moving object, such as a car passing in front of the school or a person walking at various rates through a defined distance HONORS: design an experiment to calculate the average velocity and acceleration of a matchbox car Velocity problems in text p.255 #1-4 Acceleration problems in text p. 260 #1-5

Day

Date

Content / Unit of Study

Essential Questions

Learning Objectives

General/Modified Tasks/Strategies From EC to Honors

5-8

8.3

What are Newton’s 3 laws of motion? What is free fall acceleration? What is the difference between mass and weight? How is force calculated using Newton’s second law? What are work and power and how are they related? What is the relationship between energy and work? How are work, power, and energy calculated? How is energy transformed and conserved?

1.02 Analyze forces and their relationship to motion, Newton's Three Laws of Motion

Orbiting a penny on a hanger to illustrate Newton’s first law Construction of rocket cars to illustrate Newton’s third law of motion Newton’s second law of motion practice problems in text p. 270 #1-3

9-14

9.1. 9.3, 9.4

1.03 Analyze the conservation of energy and work: * Work. * Power. * Kinetic Energy. * Potential energy. * Conservation of mechanical energy.

Illustrate conservation of energy by measuring height of bouncing ball Pendulum construction activity Stairclimbing activity to calculate work, power, kinetic energy, and gravitational potential energy HONORS: Rube Goldberg project construction

2 7 days 1-5 10.1, 10.2, 10.3 What is the relationship between temperature and heat?

The learner will build an understanding of thermal energy 2.01 Assess molecular motion as it relates to temperature and phase changes:

Shaking sand in cups to observe the effects of granular motion on temperature

Day

Date

Content / Unit of Study

Essential Questions

Learning Objectives

General/Modified Tasks/Strategies From EC to Honors

What are the different ways to measure temperature? How is heat energy transferred? What are phase changes matter undergoes? How is specific heat used identify substances?

* Thermal energy . * Expansion and contraction. * Temperature. * Phase change, heats of fusion and vaporization. * Specific heat.

Holding ice cube in hand to illustrate conduction Phase change diagrams/graphs Specific heat calculations (see goal 5.4) Lab: Calculating heat of fusion of ice Provide students with opportunities to measure temperature using both thermometers and temperature probes Discussion of enthalpy and the entropy it causes

6-7

What are the first and second laws of thermodynamics? How are the laws of thermodynamics applied in everyday life?

2.02 Analyze the conservation of the total amount of energy, including heat energy, in a closed system; the First Law of Thermodynamics.

3 10 days 1-4 13.1 Which charges attract and repel? What factors affect the strength of charges?

The learner will construct an understanding of electricity and magnetism. 3.01 Analyze the nature of static electricity and the conservation of electrical charge:

Rubbing balloons with wool cloth and observing the repulsion/attraction Van de Graaf generator

Day

Date

Content / Unit of Study

Essential Questions

Learning Objectives

General/Modified Tasks/Strategies From EC to Honors

What is static electricity and how does it arise? How are electrical charges transferred between objects?

* Positive and negative charges. * Opposite charges attract and like charges repel. 3.02 Analyze the electrical charging of objects due to the transfer of electrons by friction, induction, or conduction. Electricity kits Circuit diagrams Ohm’s Law problems from test p.443 #1-4 HONORS: Wiring a cardboard box “house”

5-8

13.2, 13.3

What are the two types of electrical circuits?

3.03 Analyze direct current electrical circuits: * Electrical potential How are voltage, difference. resistance, and current * Resistance. calculated using Ohm’s * Ohm's Law. Law? * Simple direct current circuits. * Series circuit. * Parallel circuit.

9-10

14.1, 14.2

What are magnetic fields? What is the relationship between electricity and magnetism? What is the difference between permanent

3.04 Analyze the practical applications of magnetism and its relationship to the movement of electrical charge. 3.05 Analyze permanent magnetism and the practical applications of the characteristics of permanent magnets.

Construction of an electromagnet Diagramming magnetic fields Induction of magnetic field on an iron nail

Day

Date

Content / Unit of Study

Essential Questions

Learning Objectives

General/Modified Tasks/Strategies From EC to Honors

and temporary magnets? How are electromagnets constructed? 4 5 days The learner will develop an understanding of wave motion and the wave nature of sound and light. 1-4 11.1, 11.2, 11.3 12.1, 12.2, 12.3 What are the basic properties of waves? What is the relationship between the frequency and period of waves? How is the velocity of a wave calculated? How do waves behave when they meet an obstacle, pass into another medium, or pass through another wave? What are the factors that affect the speed and quality of sound? How is the 4.01 Analyze the characteristics of waves; * * * * Wavelength. Frequency. Period. Amplitude. Demonstrate parts of a sine wave using a slinky Calculate wave velocity problems (p.370 #1-4 practice problems) Diagram pathways of reflected and refracted rays Have students make a list of the practical applications of sound and light energy. Provide students with opportunities to use lenses and mirrors.

4.02 Analyze the phenomena of reflection, refraction, interference and diffraction.

Day

Date

Content / Unit of Study

Essential Questions

Learning Objectives

General/Modified Tasks/Strategies From EC to Honors

electromagnetic spectrum organized?

5

11.2

What is the Doppler Effect? How does a sound generated by a moving object appear to change?

4.03 Compare and contrast the frequency and wavelength of sound produced by a fixed source with a moving source of sound, the Doppler Effect.

Place alarm clock in mesh bag tied to a cord and as clock is alarming, swing the bag in a circle around your head. Have students stand below the plane of the circle and observe the apparent change in the sound. This can also be demonstrated by striking a tuning fork and moving it in an arc around the student’s head.

5 15 days

The learner will build an understanding of the structure and properties of matter. 1-2 3.1 Who are the scientists responsible for the development of the atomic theory? What made Dalton’s theory more successful than Democritus’ atomic theory? 5.01 Analyze development of current atomic theory. * * * * Dalton. J.J. Thomson. Rutherford. Bohr. Construct tree map of the scientists and their discoveries related to the atomic theory HONORS: Power Point presentation of scientists and their contributions Manipulative models of Bohr’s electron configuration

Day

Date

Content / Unit of Study

Essential Questions

Learning Objectives

General/Modified Tasks/Strategies From EC to Honors

3-4

3.2

How can the periodic table be used to determine the structure of an atom? How can atoms of the same element differ in structure?

5.02 Examine the nature of atomic structure: * * * * * * Protons. Neutrons. Electrons. Atomic mass. Atomic number. Isotopes.

HONORS: 3D model of Bohr’s electron configuration Construct a chart showing the relationship between atomic number and mass of elements to their number of protons, electrons, and neutrons. HONORS: Create an imaginary element and design a 3D model of its atomic structure.

5-7

7.1, 7.2, 7.3

What are the types of nuclear decay and how are their products calculated? How are fission and fusion comparable? What are some practical applications of nuclear decay? How are physical properties used to identify unknown substances?

5.03 Describe radioactivity and its practical application as an alternative energy source: * Alpha, Beta, and Gamma decay. * Fission. * Fusion.

Activity: Half-life/nuclear decay of M&M’s Nuclear decay practice problems p. 225 #1-4 Make a list of positive and negative impacts of nuclear energy.

8-9

2.3, 10.2

5.04 Assess the use of physical properties in identifying substances: * * * * Density. Specific heat. Melting point. Boiling point.

Calculate the density of regular and irregular solids. Density practice problems p.56 # 1-9 Lab: Observe melting points of unknown substances and using standardized tables, compare lab

Day

Date

Content / Unit of Study

Essential Questions

Learning Objectives

General/Modified Tasks/Strategies From EC to Honors

results to accepted results to identify unknowns. Specific heat problems p.338 #17 ( Specific heat can be taught with goal 5 or goal 2) Manipulative models to illustrate ionic and covalent bonding. Provide students with a list of nomenclature rules. 5.06 Analyze the periodic trends in the physical and chemical properties of elements. * * * Symbols. Groups(families). Periods. Guide students in labeling a copy of the periodic table with the following details: *Metals/nonmetals/metalloids *Alkali, alkaline earth, Halogen, noble gas elements *Transition metals *Valence electrons *Oxidation states Have students make flash cards of most commonly used elements; one side of flash card will have name, the other side will have symbol

10-11

4.2, 4.3

How and why do atoms bond? How are the substances produced from a chemical bond named? How can the periodic table be used to obtain information about an element? What are the characteristics of the main families of elements?

5.05 Analyze the formation of simple inorganic compounds from elements.

12-15

3.2, 3.3

HONORS: Construction of periodic table booklet

Day

Date

Content / Unit of Study

Essential Questions

Learning Objectives

General/Modified Tasks/Strategies From EC to Honors

6 24 days 1-3 5.2 How are electrons shared or transferred between atoms, molecules, or ions? What are some common biological reactions that occur in living things?

The learner will build an understanding of regularities in chemistry. 6.01 Identify and classify the common chemical reactions that occur in our physical environment and in our bodies: * Oxidation and reduction. * Polymerization and depolymerization.

Making silly putty to illustrate polymerization Allowing a saltine cracker to dissolve in the student’s mouth; have them observe the starchy taste become a sweet taste. This demonstrates the depolymerization of starch into sugar. Allow an iron nail to sit undisturbed in a beaker of water and observe the changes in the setup to demonstrate redox reactions. Give students opportunity to both write and balance chemical equations. Practice problems p. 166 #1-5

4-9

5.2, 5.3

What are the basic types of chemical reactions? How can the products of a chemical reaction be predicted? How and why are chemical equations balanced? How do gases behave in response to changes in temperature,

6.02 Identify the reactants and products and balance simple equations of various types: * * * * * Single replacement. Double replacement. Decomposition. Synthesis. Combustion.

Activity: Law of Conservation of Mass lab from supplementary DPI materials Calculate word problems using Boyle’s and Charles’ Laws.

10-12

6.03 Measure the temperature, pressure, and volume of gases and assess their

Day

Date

Content / Unit of Study

Essential Questions

Learning Objectives

General/Modified Tasks/Strategies From EC to Honors

pressure, and volume?

Interrelationship: * * Boyle's Law. Charles' Law.

HONORS: Design an experiment to test the effects of changes in temperature and pressure on the volume of air inside a syringe.

13-15

6.1, 6.2

How are molecular motion and solubility related? How are solubility curves interpreted? What are some differences between ionic and covalent solutions? What are some differences between physical and chemical changes?

6.04 Analyze aqueous solutions and solubility: * * Ionic substances. Covalent substances.

Design experiments to determine what factors affect solubility of solids in liquids. Give students opportunity to interpret solubility curves. HONORS: Design an experiment to determine the effects of ionic and covalent solutions on the conduction of electricity. Use a piece of paper and perform physical changes to it (tearing, coloring, etc) and then burn it to observe a chemical change occurring.

16-17

2.3

6.05 Assess the indicators of chemical change including: * Development of a gas. * Formation of a precipitate. * Change in color.

18-24

6.3

How can you determine when a chemical change has occurred? What are the properties 6.06 Compare and contrast the of acids and bases? composition of strong and weak solutions of acids or What is the pH scale bases: and how does it measure acids and * Degree of dissociation bases? or ionization.

Lab: The pH of common household substances Give students the opportunity to explore using different indicators (litmus paper, phenolphthalein, cabbage juice, pH paper, pH

Day

Date

Content / Unit of Study

Essential Questions

Learning Objectives

General/Modified Tasks/Strategies From EC to Honors

What is the difference in the way strong and weak acids and strong and weak bases conduct electricity? EOC Review and Unit Testing

* * * *

Electrical conductivity. pH. Strength. Concentration.

probe) to determine actual and relative pH

Individual unit tests will measure the mastery of the concepts presented in each unit.

Have students compile a vocabulary list of terms used throughout the semester.

15 days

Use various games such as Pictionary, Jeopardy, Family EOC review strategies will Feud, etc to actively engage refresh and reinforce objectives students in EOC review. taught throughout the semester. Use released tests and test items for practice EOC administration.

90 total days

Day

Date

Content / Unit of Study

Essential Questions

Learning Objectives

General/Modified Tasks/Strategies From EC to Honors

70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78

Day

Date

Content / Unit of Study

Essential Questions

Learning Objectives

General/Modified Tasks/Strategies From EC to Honors

79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90

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