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									SIOP® = Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol
Information from Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP Model; by Jana Echevarria, Mary Ellen Vogt, and Deborah J. Short; Pearson Education, Inc.; 2004; Boston. Language objective Content objective Supplementary Materials – to bridge prior experiences with new learning * not relying on lectures and pencil-paper activities, which are text-based * supports different learning styles & multiple intelligences * examples: (pp. 24 – 26 in book) 1) Hands-on manipulatives 2) Realia (real-life objects) 3) Pictures 4) Visuals (overhead transparencies, models, graphs, charts, timelines, maps, props, & bulletin board displays) 5) Multimedia (tape recordings, videos, DVDs, interactive CD-ROMs, & the Internet) 6) Demonstrations/modeling followed by practicing steps 7) Related literature – fiction & nonfiction 8) Adapted text (not “dumbing down”) – lengthy sentences broken down and abridged to give key vocabulary with definitions Adaptation of Content 1) Graphic organizers (Venn diagrams, timelines, story or text maps, word webs) 2) Outlines (teacher-prepared, structured note-taking) 3) Leveled study guides – * All students answer/complete these listed items. ** Group B students must also answer/complete these items. *** Group C students must also answer/complete these items. (Note: option to do more/all is open to everyone.) 4) Highlighted text – prepared beforehand, indicating key vocabulary and concepts. ELL students are encouraged to first read only the highlighted sections. 5) Taped text 6) Adapted text 7) Jigsaw text reading (a cooperative learning activity) – text is broken up to a team of student “experts,” who each read and summarize their sections for the whole group once they have found and understand the essential information and key vocabulary. 8) Marginal notes 9) Native language texts/web sites Meaningful Activities Building Background 1) Pre-teaching key vocabulary – with variety of way for students to learn, remember, & use those words. 2) Provide experiences – connecting students’ own background experiences to the text 3) Provide ways for students to build background knowledge for themselves – by using graphic organizers, which help to give a framework for their own learning and understanding. Contextualizing Key Vocabulary – teacher defining & demonstrating connections Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy – student self-select key vocabulary
Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP Model – Notes by P. Scalise – Page 1 of 3

Personal Dictionaries Word Walls – beyond teaching and reinforcing sight words for emergent readers; used for displaying content words related to a particular unit or theme (ex: Word Wall for Insect Vocabulary). Concept Definition Map – Key Vocabulary/Concept How are these homes the “What is it?” = definition, kid-friendly same/different? “What is it like?” “What are some examples?” Cloze Sentences – “meaningful sentences” Word Sorts – categorizing activity, for example making a list of people, places, and tools used Word Generation – ex: Brainstorm all the words you can think of that contain “-port” in it, then ask students to figure out what “-port” might mean. Word Study Books – like the Word Sort categorizing but in a personal book format Vocabulary Games – Pictionary, Scrabble, crossword puzzles Scaffolding – bridging what a child can accomplish alone and what he or she can accomplish with the assistance of a more experienced individual. Two types – Verbal scaffolding – using prompting, questions, “think-aloud,” and elaboration/paraphrasing, Procedural scaffolding – one-on-one coaching, modeling, or peer model Increasing Independence Scaffolding Model = Teach, Model, Practice, Apply Scaffolding Model for grouping = Whole Class, Small Group, Partners, Independent work. Sheltered Instruction ≈ supported/modified/modeled, overlap with special education strategies (multi-sensory, different ways to show knowledge/mastery) Reciprocal Teaching = instructional activity that’s a dialogue between teachers and students about a text. The four strategies are summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting. The teacher and students take turns leading the discussion. Strategies Teacher-Centered – direct instruction, demonstration, recitation Teacher-Assisted – drill and practice, discovery learning, brainstorming, discussion Peer-Assisted – role playing, peer tutoring, reciprocal teaching, cooperative learning Student-Centered – rehearsal strategies (repeated readings, selective underlining, two-column notes), elaboration strategies (mental imagery, guided imagery, creating analogies), organizational strategies (clustering, graphic organizers, outlining) Mnemonics – memory system “My Very Embarrassed Mother Just Slinked Under Nana’s Porch” (to remember the names of the planets) SQP2RS = (p. 84 in book) 1) Surveying (scanning the text to be read for 1-2 minutes) 2) Questioning (generate questions likely to be answered by reading the text) 3) Predicting (giving 1-3 things students think they will learn from the questions) 4) Reading (search for answers to questions and check predictions) 5) Responding (answering questions and forming new ones for the next section to be read) 6) Summarizing (oral or written) the key concepts
Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP Model – Notes by P. Scalise – Page 2 of 3

PENS = 1) Preview ideas 2) Explore words 3) Note words, in complete sentences 4) See if the sentence is okay Interaction Wait Time Student Engagement Review/Assessment Stay focused on key points. Summarizing Journal writing Sentence starters I wonder … I discovered … I still want to know … I learned … I still don’t understand … Thumbs up/thumbs down (for “agree/disagree” questions) Number wheels (for multiple choice answers) Response boards (small chalkboards or dry erase boards) Approximations are supported, and Errors are viewed as steps to effective learning. Site-Based Intervention Teams Small group or individualized instruction Match methods, materials, and task to learner needs Contextualize instruction Provide more modeling and practice Parent conference and involvement Assessment of medical needs (hearing, vision, nutrition) Primary language support Explicit teaching of learning strategies for students who need assistance in “learning how to learn” More intensive English language development Counseling services Modification of assignments Instruction Service Pyramid Few Specialized Services

Some Specific Interventions All Effective instruction Based on SIOP Features
Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP Model – Notes by P. Scalise – Page 3 of 3

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