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									     Standards of Excellence for
Public Administration Education and
             Training




 United Nations Department of Economic and Social
  Affairs /International Association of Schools and
     Institutes of Administration Task Force on
 Standards of Excellence for Public Administration
                Education and Training


                   Final Report



                      May 2008
Preface


The Task Force on Standards of Excellence for Public Education and Training was initiated by
the Division of Public Administration and Development Management (DPADM), Department of
Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) of the United Nations (UN) in partnership with the
International Association of Schools and Institutes of Administration (IASIA) in July of 2005. Its
members were jointly appointed by Guido Bertucci, the Director of the DPADM/UN and Turgay
Ergun, the then President of IASIA. Its first meeting occurred in Como, Italy and subsequent
meetings have occurred in Warsaw and Brussels. In addition, various members of the Task Force
have participated in or conducted open hearings at many conferences in many parts of the world.

On behalf of the Task Force, the UN has undertaken a major survey of public administration
education and training institutions which was carried out by Jide Balogun. It has also supported
the preparation of the volume, Excellence and Leadership in the Public Sector: The Role of
Education and Training edited by Allan Rosenbaum and John-Mary Kauzya. Also, both the UN
and the Task Force have commissioned various papers – they include:

           •   “National Organizational Arrangements for Delivering Public Administration
               Education and Training” by Natalya Kolisnichenko.

           •    “Quality Standards in Public Administration Education and Training” by Theo
               van der Krogt.
           •    “Public Affairs Education: Adding Value in the Public Interest” by Kathryn E.
               Newcomer.
           •    “ Standards of Public Administration Education and Training in Selected
               Countries in Asia” by R.K. Mishra
           •   “Quality Assurance in the Rising International Market for Public Affairs
               Education” by Laurel McFarland.


The document that follows represents the final proposed set of Standards of Excellence for Public
Administration Education and Training produced by the Task Force. It also includes proposed
criteria by which one might assess an institution’s progress towards achieving the Standards of
Excellence as well as a checklist that individual institutions can utilize in working with the
Standards.

The members of the Task Force are of course aware that the Standards of Excellence may not be
uniformly applicable or equally relevant in all situations. However, it is our belief that most of
them are relevant in most situations. Of course, we also realize that some of the Standards, as
well as the criteria by which to assess them, may be more or less applicable depending upon the
comprehensiveness of the program of education and/or training involved.



                                                                                                2
The full membership of the Task Force included:

   •   Allan Rosenbaum, Chairperson of the UNDESA/IASIA Task Force, Current President of
       IASIA and Director of the Institute for Public Management and Community Service at
       Florida International University (FIU), Miami, Florida, USA;

   •   Guido Bertucci, Co-Convenor of the Task Force and Director, Division for Public
       Administration and Development Management/United Nations Department of Economic
       and Social Affairs (DPADM/UNDESA);
   •   Turgay Ergun, Co- Convenor of the Task Force and Director General, Public
       Administration Institute for Turkey & the Middle East, (TODAIE), Ankara, Turkey, and
       immediate Past President of IASIA, Brussels, Belgium;
   •   Barbara Kudrycka, Minister of Higher Education and Science, Government of Poland,
       Warsaw, Poland;
   •   Natalya Kolisnichenko, Associate Professor, Department of European Integration Odessa
       Regional Institute of Public Administration, National Academy of Public Administration
       Office of the President, Odessa, Ukraine;
   •   Blue Wooldridge, Professor, L. Douglas Wilder School of Government and Public
       Affairs, Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Political Science and Public
       Administration, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

   •   Theo van der Krogt, Secretary General, European Association for Public Administration
       Accreditation, Twente, Netherlands;
   •   John Mary Kauzya, Chief, Governance Systems and Institutions Unit in the Division of
       Public Administration and Development Management/United Nations Department of
       Economic and Social Affairs (DPADM/UNDESA);
   •   Ludmila Gajdosova, Executive Director, Network of Schools and Institutes of Public
       Administration of Central and Eastern Europe, Bratislava, Slovakia;
   •   Jide Balogun; formerly Director General of the Administrative Staff College of Nigeria
       and InterRegional Advisor with the U.N.;
   •   R.K. Mishra, Senior Professor and Director, Institute of Public Enterprise, Osmania
       University, India;

   •   Bianor Cavalcanti, Director, Brazilian School of Public Administration, Gertulio Vargas
       Foundation, (EBAPE/FGV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil;
   •   Mark Orkin, Director General, Southern African Management Development Institute
       (SAMDI), Pretoria, South Africa;

   •   Margaret Saner, Director Institutes Initiative CAPAM – Commonwealth Association for
       Public Admnistration and Mangement, United Kingdom;



                                                                                            3
Introduction

Because the public seeks high quality services, organizations in the public sector must be high
performing. In order to perform highly, persons working in the public sector should be of the
highest level of skill and preparation. Consequently, the institutions that educate and train these
persons must be always striving for excellence because, most assuredly, better governance is
fundamentally related to the more effective preparation of public administrators.

In an earlier publication of this Task Force, Excellence and Leadership in the Public Sector; the
Role of Education and Training, the volume’s co-editor and the Task Force’s Chairperson, Allan
Rosenbaum, formulated the objective of the Task Force’s end product as follows:

          The intent of this joint effort is to develop objective standards regarding the
          nature of excellence in public administration and training. The hope is that
          such standards will enable individual institutions to assess themselves and
          in so doing, determine the resources that are necessary to achieve excellence.1

This last point must be stressed here: the standards proposed here are intended to be used for self-
evaluation in a learning process, not as a measuring rod for ‘judging’ programs or institutions. In
the same publication, Blue Wooldridge proposed a set of characteristics of high performing
schools and institutes of administration and used these characteristics as a basis for developing
criteria by which to assess excellence in public administration education and training2. Among
the numerous characteristics of high performing organizations that Wooldridge suggests are:

     ●    Commitment to a clearly described vision and mission
     ●    Focus on quality services for the client
     ●    Empowerment of employees
     ●    Valuing diversity
     ●    Communicating effectively

These characteristics are ones that are exhibited by all high performing organizations whether
they be public sector agencies or education and training institutions. Their implementation
however, represents critical challenges for all such organizations and they are ones that the Task
Force has sought to address as it has developed the Standards of Excellence that follow. As Guido
Bertucci, the Director of the Division for Public Administration and Development Management at
the UN, points out “The UN/IASIA initiative is premised on the belief that public administration
education and training programs must be conceived and implemented with the aim of making
current and future public sector leaders capable of effectively addressing the key issues facing the
world today…”.3 It is towards the achievement of this goal that the Task Force has worked and
for which it offers the Standards of Excellence that follow.



1
  Rosenbaum, et al. 2007: p. viii
2
  Wooldridge 2007
3
  Bertucci 2007


                                                                                                   4
Standards of Excellence
The Task Force believes that criteria for evaluating excellence in public administration education
and training should facilitate public sector performance through providing the highest quality of
public servants. Furthermore, at this historical junction, the Task Force believes that the purpose
of public administration education and training is to provide public administrators with the
competencies and capacities to contribute to the improvement of the quality of life, especially for
the most economically, socially, and politically disadvantaged members of society.4

1. Public Service Commitment: The faculty and administration of the program are defined by
their fundamental commitment to public service. They are in all of their activities (teaching,
training, research, technical assistance and other service activities) at all times absolutely
committed to the advancement of the public interest and the building of democratic institutions.
This is true within all facets of the program including internal organizational arrangements as
well as programmatic activities at local, regional, national and international levels.

2. Advocacy of Public Interest Values: The program's faculty and administration reflect their
commitment to the advancement of public service by both their advocacy for, and their efforts to
create, a culture of participation, commitment, responsiveness and accountability in all of those
organizations and institutions with which they come into contact. In so doing, both by pedagogy
and example, they prepare students and trainees to provide the highest quality of public service.

3. Combining Scholarship, Practice and Community Service: Because public administration
is an applied science, the faculty and administration of the program are committed to the
integration of theory and practice and as such the program draws upon knowledge and
understanding generated both by the highest quality of research and the most outstanding
practical experience. Consequently, the faculty, administration and students of the program are
actively engaged through its teaching, training, research and service activities with all of their
stake holder communities from the smallest village or city neighborhood to the global community
at                                                                                          large.

4. The Faculty are Central: The commitment and quality of the faculty (and/or trainers) is
central to the achievement of program goals in all areas of activities. Consequently, there must
be, especially in degree granting programs, a full time core faculty committed to the highest
standards of teaching, training and research and possessing the authority and responsibility
appropriate to accepted standards of faculty program governance. This faculty must be paid at a
level that allows them to devote the totality of their professional activities to the achievements of
the goals and purposes of the program and must be available in adequate numbers consistent with
_______________
4
    Please Note
       ● In the following text the term ‘program’ is used as a generic term for all kinds of education and training. It can refer to a
            2 years degree curriculum as well as to a one day training activity.
       ● The more formal the result of the program (for example a master degree) the more specific some of the standards and
            criteria can or must be specified. Also in some occasions additional standards could apply (for example that a master
            degree program should have a specified length or amount of study points). Because the standards below are meant for
            the totality of education and training activities, at some points criteria for certain types of education or training are
            specified.
       ● Although at several occasions this point is repeated, it must be emphasized that the involvement of all relevant
            stakeholders in defining, interpreting and detailing these standards, is essential.



                                                                                                                                    5
the mission of the program. In that regard, a ratio of 1 faculty member per 20 graduate level
students and at least 4 full time faculty would represent typical minimum requirements. Faculty
teaching responsibilities should not be greater than two academic courses (or their equivalent in a
training institution) at any time in the calendar year in order to allow for necessary involvement
in research, training, service and technical assistance activities.

5. Inclusiveness is at the Heart of the Program: A critical element in the achievement of
excellence in public administration education and training is an unwavering commitment on the
part of faculty and administration to diversity of ideas and of participation. The people who
participate in programs, including students, trainees, trainors, administrators and faculty, should
come from all the different racial, ethnic, and demographic communities of the society. The
ideas, concepts, theories and practices addressed in the program should represent a broad variety
of intellectual interests and approaches. Inclusiveness in terms of individual involvement
(including sensitivity to issues of ethnicity, nationality, race, gender orientation and accessibility
to all) within a program serves also to encourage inclusiveness in terms of ideas. Both forms of
inclusiveness, intellectual and participatory, are the hallmarks of excellent programs.

6. A Curriculum that is Purposeful and Responsive: A principal goal of public administration
education and training is the development of public administrators who will make strong, positive
contributions to the public service generally and, in particular, to the organizations they join, or to
which they return. This requires public administration education and training programs to have
coherent missions which drive program organization and curriculum development. In addition, it
is critical that those who educate and train public administrators communicate and work with and,
as appropriate, be responsive to the organizations for which they are preparing students and
trainees. It also requires that the student and/or trainee be inculcated with a commitment to
making a difference and that their education and training prepare them to effectively
communicate (both verbally and in writing) with those with whom they work.

7. Adequate Resources are Critical: An important prerequisite to creating a program of
excellence in public administration education and training is the availability of adequate
resources. Many different kinds of resources are required including facilities, technology, library
resources and student services (in terms of assistance with meeting such basic needs as housing,
health care, etc.). The availability of these resources is obviously a function of the availability of
adequate financial resources. Those financial resources must be such as to sustain full time
faculty and/or trainers, provide needed assistance to students and faculty (such as funding to
participate in international conferences, etc) and insure the availability of adequate classroom,
research, training and meeting space as well as individual offices for each faculty member and as
needed                                           for                                        students.

8. Balancing Collaboration and Competition: Finally, and most importantly, their must be
among the program faculty, trainers, administrators and students or trainees a sense of common
purpose and mission deriving from the program's commitment to the advancing of the public
interest. There must also be a sense of determination, indeed even competitiveness, that drives the
program to be the best and creates a desire to meet and exceed world class standards of
excellence.




                                                                                                     6
In order to assess the achievement of these standards of excellence it is necessary to have
appropriate criteria against which to measure program progress. The criteria for assessing
standards presented below are inspired by the chapters by Wooldridge and others in Excellence
and Leadership in the Public Sector and the standards used by NASPAA4, EAPAA5 ENQA6, and
EFMD/EPAS7and various discussions within the Task Force and with other colleagues at the
several open meetings organized by the Task Force during international conferences.

Main Categories of Criteria for Measuring Standards of Excellence
The criteria for measuring standards are divided into various categories. This categorization can
be debated, and certainly other groupings are possible and defendable. However, after the
inspection of several sets of criteria and/or standards used in international evaluation and
accreditation, it was concluded that one could divide criteria for measuring standards into two
groups: the first being those concerned with the organizational nature and characteristics of the
institution providing programs and the second being those criteria that relate to the actual
program being delivered by the institution.
Therefore we distinguish:
         A. Institutional criterion
         B. Program-related criterion
Which can be subdivided into four subcategories:
         B1 Program development and review
         B2 Program content
         B3 Program management
         B4 Program performance

A. Institutional Criteria for Measuring Excellence in Program
Organization
The following set of criteria applies to the institutional level and can be seen as prerequisites to
the delivery of excellent programs.

   1. Strategic planning process: the program systematically should develop and update a
      program strategy within the framework of its chosen or mandated purpose. This process
      should address the programs activities in the areas of instruction, training, research and
      public services. This process should result in a distinct mission for the program.
   2. Financial and budgetary structure: there should be a transparent and efficient financial and
      budgetary structure where those responsible for the program have clear budget control.
   3. Quality assurance system: the program should have an adequate (continuous, circular and
      comprehensive) and formal quality assurance system (strategy, policy and procedures) in
      which the involvement of relevant stakeholders is assured. The output of this system
      should be publicly available.
   4. Human resource management (HRM) system: the program should have an adequate
      HRM-system with respect to remuneration, personal development (and especially the
____________________
4 National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration/ Commission on Peer Review and Accreditation, NASPAA/COPRA 2006
5 European Association for Public Administration Accreditation, EAPAA 2006
6 European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education, ENQA 2005
7 European Foundation for Management Education – Educational Planning and Assessment Systems, EFMD-EPAS 2006




                                                                                                                                         7
       development of educational skills and international experience) and involvement. Also,
       the faculty and staff should reflect the diversity in the population of the country.
   5. Contribution to the discipline: appropriate to the mission of the program or institution, the
       faculty receive adequate support and stimulus to generate and disseminate new knowledge
       in the discipline of public administration and related fields.
   6. Social and cultural diversity: the personnel policy and practice should reflect and promote
       social and cultural diversity.
   7. Facilities: there should be adequate facilities with respect to library, support staff,
       classrooms and instructional equipment, ICT-systems and faculty offices, and (if
       applicable) residential facilities. The facilities should be accessible for disabled persons.
   8. Student services: the institution should have adequate student services of good quality at
       least with respect to individual advice or tutoring and job placement assistance.
   9. Public relations: the programs should have a public relations system that provides
       adequate, accurate and objective information on its tasks, objectives and structure, on the
       specific programs offered and their costs, on the awards offered and on the general
       performance of the program and institution.
   10. Grievances: the institution should have an adequate (fair, accessible) system for the
       handling of grievances.
   11. Exemplary function: the program should be run as an exemplary public organization.
   12. Benchmarking: the program should regularly compare its functioning with (other) high
       performing organizations.

B. Criteria for Measuring Program Excellence
The second set of criteria for measuring standards applies to the substantive aspects of programs.
Here four subsets are distinguishable: criteria for measuring standards for the development of
programs, the management of programs, the content of programs and the performance of
programs.

B1 Program Development and Review
   1. Program development and review process: there should be an adequate process for both
      the development of and the reviewing of the program – one in which all relevant
      stakeholders are involved.
   2. Program goals and objectives: the program development or review should result in a set of
      clear and realistic program goals and objectives, including identifying the program target
      group(s) and program activity level; ideally the objectives should be formulated in the
      form of competencies or learning outcomes (knowledge, skills and attitudes) to be
      obtained. These goals and objectives can take the form of a program mission.
   3. Educational strategy: on the basis of the program goals, objectives, level and target
      group(s) an adequate educational strategy should be designed. Especially the balance
      between theory and practice should be addressed. The use of multiple teaching methods
      should be realized. The teaching methods used should be ‘evidence-based’ as far as
      possible. When e-learning elements are used in the program, special attention should be
      given to them.
   4. Program design: the goals, objectives and educational strategy should be translated into a
      program design that encompasses the program components, schedule, assignments and
      assessments.


                                                                                                  8
  5. Program coherence and consistency: the program should be coherent and consistent and
     the student should be able to fulfill its requirements within the time foreseen. The relation
     between the objectives, competencies and/or learning outcomes and the program
     elements, assignments and assessments should be clear.
  6. Program faculty: the core faculty should include individuals with both academic and non-
     academic experience. For the most part, faculty teaching in graduate degree granting
     programs should possess terminal degrees and be actively engaged in research, service
     and, as appropriate, consulting activities. Adequately prepared practitioners should be
     involved in all academic programs and/or training programs.
  7. Number of core faculty/staff: the number of full time faculty responsible for the core of
     the program should be at least four, or greater, depending upon the mission, size and
     comprehensiveness of the program.
  8. Research involvement: the faculty/staff responsible for the core of any degree granting
     program should devote a significant percentage of their time to research and community
     service.
  9. Program admission: there should be an adequate, transparent and fair admission procedure
     with the admission criteria publicly available.

B2 Program Content
  1. Program coherence and consistency: the content of a program should logically follow
     from the program goals, objectives and chosen educational strategy.
  2. Program level: the content should be adapted to the level appropriate for the target
     group(s).
  3. Formal program requirements: the content should encompass the elements prescribed in
     requisites for a certificate or degree.
  4. Program basis: the content of the program should, appropriate to the level of the program,
     reflect international ‘state-of-the-art’ concepts and insights, theories and methods. As far
     as possible, the methods/procedures/policies taught should be ‘evidence-based’.
  5. Multidisciplinary: the content of the program should reflect the multidisciplinary basis of
     the public administration field.
  6. Practical experience: Degree granting programs should be structured in such a manner as
     to insure that all graduates have had some sort of structured experience in the public or
     not for profit sector.
  7. Community consultation: In the development of both training and degree granting
     programs, the needs of the organizations for which the individual is being prepared is of
     critical importance. Toward that end there must be appropriate consultation and dialogue.
  8. Curriculum components: The program or training curriculum shall enhance the student's
     competencies, values, knowledge, and skills to act ethically, equitably, effectively and
     with efficiency: Subject to the mission of the program, they should include:

     The Management of Public Service Organizations:
           - Human resource management
           - Budgeting and financial processes
           - Information management, new technology applications, and policy
           - Administrative and constitutional law
           - Effective communication skills


                                                                                                9
          - Organization and management concepts and behavior
          - Not for profit and private sector relationships and grant management

   Improvement of Public Sector Processes:
         - Development of high performing organizations
         - Management of networks and partnerships
         - The delivery of public goods and services
         - Management of projects and contracts
         - Supporting workforce diversity
         - Motivation and design of public sector organizations

   Leadership in the Public Sector:
         - Creative and innovative problem solving
          - Leading institutional and organizational transformation
          - Conflict prevention and resolution strategies
          - Promoting equity in service delivery
          - Developing approaches to poverty alleviation
          - Promoting democratic institutional development
          - Public Sector Ethics

   The Application of Quantitative and Qualitative Techniques of Analysis:
         - Institutional and developmental economics
         - Policy and program formulation, analysis, implementation and evaluation
         - Decision-making and problem-solving
         - Strategic planning

    Understanding Public Policy and the Organizational Environment:
          - Political and legal institutions and processes
          - Economic and social institutions and processes
          - Historical and cultural context
          - The management of economic development
          - The implications of the “third party government”
          - Acknowledging and reconciling cultural diversity

   These area requirements do not prescribe specific courses. Neither do they imply that
   equal time should be spent on each area or that these courses must all be offered by public
   affairs, public policy or public administration programs. Nor should they be interpreted in
   a manner that might impede the development of special strengths or areas of
   specialization in each program.


9. There are other criteria that are relevant for assessing the excellence of programs. Such
   criteria refer to more general aspects of the program and contribute to the more
   overarching goals that are critical to the well being of any society. Consequently,
   programs preparing individuals for the public sector, or to enhance their skills, should
   have content addressing the following:



                                                                                           10
       Public sector ethos: all education or training programs produced for the public sector
       should contribute towards the development of individuals with a true public sector ethos
       who can be characterized as being knowledgeable about and understanding the
       importance for an effective public sector of:

              ●   Democratic values
              ●   Respect for individual and basic human rights
              ●   Social equity and the equitable distribution of goods and services
              ●   Social and cultural diversity
              ●   Transparency and accountability
              ●   Sustainable development
              ●   Organizational justice and fairness
              ●   Recognition of global interdependence
              ●   Civic engagement


           Public sector skills: education and training programs preparing individuals for the
           public sector should enable (with respect to the goals and the level of the program)
           those participating to build personal capacities for:

              ●   Analytical and critical thinking
              ●   Dealing with complexity
              ●   Flexibility
              ●   Dealing with uncertainty and ambiguity
              ●   Operating in a political environment
              ●   Building high performing organizations
              ●   Involving other groups and institutions in society to realize policy goals
              ●   Life time learning
              ●   Applying life experiences to academic and training activities

           Public sector nature: educational or training programs produced for the public sector
           (with respect to the goals and the level of the program) should address:

              ● Internationalization and globalization
              ● The balance between centralization and decentralization
              ● Impact of multinational organizations and agreements
              ● Weakening of the state (the influence of cutbacks and new public
                management).
              ● New modes of communication and their impact
              ● Collaborative governance

B3 Program Management and Administration
Another set of criteria for measuring standards has to do with program management:
   1. Program responsibility: there should be a clear structure of responsibility for the program.
   2. Program budget: the budget (in terms of finance, personnel and facilities) should be
      adequate to attain the programs goals and objectives.


                                                                                               11
  3. Program administration: there should be adequate program administration.
  4. Participant progress: there should be an adequate accounting for student’s progress that is
      available to the individual student.
  5. Assessment: the performance of the students should be measured adequately, preferably
      in terms of competencies attained. Students should be assessed using published criteria,
      regulations and procedures which are applied consistently and students should have access
      to due process with regard to issues involving their performance.
  6. Program information: students should have available timely, up-to-date information on
      the program.
  7. Faculty review: faculty/staff involved in the program should be reviewed regularly and
      assessed on their performance.
  8. Communication: there should be an adequate system of communication between all
      persons involved (students, teachers and staff).
  9. Delivery consistency: in the case of multiple delivery of courses, consistency in delivery
      should be guaranteed.
  10. Program monitoring and review: there should be an adequate (continuous, circular and
      comprehensive) system of monitoring (course and program evaluation) and reviewing of
      the program with the involvement of all relevant stakeholders. This system should be
      consistent with the overall quality assurance system of the institution.


B4 Program Performance

  1. Performance measurement system: there should be an adequate system of program
     performance measurement. The program performance measurement system should be
     related to the program objectives and to the degree feasible include a bench marking
     system.
  2. Satisfaction: the satisfaction with the program as seen by relevant stakeholders (students,
     graduates and employers) should be measured regularly.
  3. Basic operating information: information on relevant (depending on type of training or
     education) data such as number of participants, target group coverage, drop-outs, and
     (average) study time, should be readily available.
  4. Specific targets: if specific targets are to be attained, the measured performance should be
     evaluated against these targets. Targets could be set by the institution itself, but also by
     relevant outside institutions.
  5. Benchmarking: the performance of the program should be compared with the performance
     of other relevant programs when possible.
  6. Impact on the community: appropriate to the mission of the program, its impact on the
     community should be measured and assessed.
  7. Financial performance: Depending on the institutional arrangements, information on
     financial performance such as cost per student and return on investment (in terms of time,
     effort, funding) should be available.
  8. Program Impact: Regular efforts to obtain assessments by the organizations for whom
     individuals are being educated and/or trained must be undertaken. The results of these
     assessment efforts should be used to adjust program education and training activity in
     such a manner as to improve effectiveness and assure responsiveness.


                                                                                              12
References
EAPAA (2006): Accreditation Criteria. European Association for Public Administration
       Accreditation (EAPAA) Electronic source retrieved March 24, 2007, from
       http://www.eapaa.org/criteria.htm.
EFMD-EPAS (2006): EFMD Programme Accreditation System: Standards and Criteria (version
       7, 31 May 2006). European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD).
       Electronic        source         retrieved        June       26,         2006,        from
       http://www.efmd.org/attachments//tmpl_1_art_060516ecwh_att_060622xupz.pdf.
ENQA (2005): Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher
       Education Area. Helsinki, European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher
       Education. 41 pp.
Bertucci, Guido (2007). "Strengthening Public Sector Capacity for Achieving Millennium
       Development Goals" in A. Rosenbaum & J.-M. Kauzya, Eds.: Excellence and Leadership
       in the Public Sector: The Role of Education and Training. New York, United Nations
       Department of Economic and Social Affairs / International Association of Schools and
       Institutes of Administration: pp.1-8.
Charih, Mohamed, Jacques Bourgault, Daniel Maltais, & Lucie Rouillard, (2007). "The
       Management Competencies of Senior Managers: A Look at Some OECD Countries" in
       A. Rosenbaum & J.-M. Kauzya, Eds.: Excellence and Leadership in the Public Sector:
       The Role of Education and Training. New York, United Nations Department of Economic
       and Social Affairs / International Association of Schools and Institutes of Administration:
       pp.25-43.
NASPAA/COPRA (2006): General Information and Standards for Professional Masters Degree
       Programs (January 2006 edition). National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and
       Administration (NASPAA). Electronic source retrieved March 23, 2007, from
       http://www.naspaa.org/accreditation/seeking/reference/standards.asp.
Rosenbaum, Allan & John-Mary Kauzya, Eds. (2007): Excellence and leadership in the public
       sector: the role of education and training. New York, United Nations Department of
       Economic and Social Affairs / International Association of Schools and Institutes of
       Administration.
Rosenbaum, Allan (2007): "Excellence in Public Administration Education: Preparing the Next
       Generation of Public Administrators" in: A. Rosenbaum & J.-M. Kauzya, Eds.:
       Excellence and Leadership in the Public Sector: The Role of Education and Training.
       New York, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs / International
       Association of Schools and Institutes of Administration: pp.11-24.
Wooldridge, Blue (2007): "High performing schools and institutes of administration: the role of
       standards of excellence." in: A. Rosenbaum & J.-M. Kauzya, Eds.: Excellence and
       Leadership in the Public Sector: The Role of Education and Training. New York, United
       Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs / International Association of
       Schools and Institutes of Administration: pp.44-61.




                                                                                               13
The Use of the Standards of Excellence
Below you will find all criteria again, but now with indications of possible level of attainment in
the form of likert-scales.

IMPORTANT: the indicators should be used as indications; they are not rules or objective
and precise measurements of a criterion. There could be other indicators of the level of
attainment.

The list of likert-scales can be used for a self-evaluation of your institute and program, and as a
start for a quality enhancement program. You may wish to consider the following items:

With the help of your stakeholders, answer the following questions:
1. From your mission, what criteria are not applicable, and why?
2. If you do not have the resources to do a full quality review, select the criteria that are most
   important for you and your stakeholders.
3. From your mission, what level should you attain at least on each criterion?
4. From your mission, what other criteria for evaluation should be taken into account?

Answer the following questions:
5. Score your institution/program on each of the (selected) criteria. What evidence do you have
   for this score? Make sure you can substantiate it with objective evidence.
6. On what criteria do you perform below the level you set as goal? What are the (possible)
   causes for underperforming?
7. What measures should be taken to improve your performance on each of the criteria?

In consultation with your stakeholders:
8. Decide on the actions to be taken and undertake a planning effort.
9. Implement the actions as planned.
10. Evaluate the results of your actions regularly and, when necessary, take further action.




                                                                                                14
                 Criteria by which to assess progress on Standards in the form of Likert-scale items


                                                             0                            1                             4                                      7
      Criterion                                         Non Existent                 Basic Level                Intermediate Level                      High Performing
A. Institutional Standards of Excellence
                                                                                                                                              There is a complete and coherent
                                                                              The process is implicit;     The process is there, but
                                                  No strategic planning of                                                                    planning process resulting in a clear
1     Strategic Planning Process                                              there is no involvement of   incomplete; some relevant
                                                  any kind                                                                                    mission; all relevant stakeholders are
                                                                              relevant stakeholders        stakeholders are involved
                                                                                                                                              involved
                                                                                                                                              There is a transparent and efficient
                                                                              Structure is non-
                                                                                                           Structure is either non-           financial and budgetary structure
                                                  No financial or budgetary   transparent and
2     Financial and budgetary structure                                                                    transparent or inefficient;        where the ones responsible for
                                                  structure                   inefficient; incomplete or
                                                                                                           incomplete control                 individual programs have clear
                                                                              marginal control
                                                                                                                                              budget control.
                                                                                                                                              There is an adequate (continuous,
                                                                                                                                              circular and comprehensive) and
                                                                              There is some quality        There is quite some quality
                                                                                                                                              formal quality assurance system
                                                  There no quality            assurance, but not           assurance, but not systematic.
3     Quality assurance system                                                                                                                (strategy, policy and procedures) in
                                                  assurance at all            systematic. No               Not all stakeholders are
                                                                                                                                              which the involvement of relevant
                                                                              stakeholders are involved    involved
                                                                                                                                              stakeholders is assured. This system
                                                                                                                                              is publicly available
                                                                              The HRM-system is basic      The HRM-system is under
                                                                                                                                              The HRM-system is encompassing
4     HRM-system                                  No HRM-system at all        (mostly concerning           development; only elements
                                                                                                                                              all relevant elements
                                                                              remuneration)                are available
                                                                                                           Faculty/staff contributes to the
                                                                                                                                              The faculty/staff gets adequate
                                                  Faculty/staff cannot        Hardly any faculty/staff     discipline, but does not get
                                                                                                                                              support and stimulus to generate and
5     Contribution to the discipline              contribute to the           contributes to the           adequate support and stimulus
                                                                                                                                              disseminate new knowledge in the
                                                  discipline                  discipline                   to generate and disseminate
                                                                                                                                              discipline of public administration.
                                                                                                           new knowledge
                                                                                                           There is some attention for
                                                  There is no attention for   There is hardly any
                                                                                                           social and cultural diversity      The personnel policy and practice
6     Social and cultural diversity               social and cultural         attention for social and
                                                                                                           but not anchored in the            reflect social and cultural diversity.
                                                  diversity at all            cultural diversity
                                                                                                           personnel policy
      Facilities with respect to library
      facilities, support staff, classrooms and                                                            Many facilities are adequate,
                                                                              Some facilities are
      instructional equipment, ICT-systems        Almost all facilities are                                but not all. Most are not          All facilities are adequate and
7                                                                             sufficient, but the
      and faculty offices, and (if applicable)    absolutely insufficient                                  accessible for handicapped         accessible for disabled persons
                                                                              majority is not
      hotel facilities. The facilities are                                                                 persons
      accessible for disabled persons.

                                                                                                                                                                  15
                                                                   Only some services are       Some student services are
                                      No student services are                                                                      A complete system of quality student
8    Student services                                              available, but of low        adequate, others are not
                                      available                                                                                    services is available
                                                                   quality                      available or of low quality
                                                                                                                                   There is an adequate public relation
                                                                                                Quite some information is
                                                                                                                                   system with adequate, accurate and
                                                                                                easily available, but the
                                                                                                                                   objective information on the
                                                                                                information is not always
                                      There are no public          Only little information is                                      institution's tasks, objectives and
9    Public relations                                                                           adequate or accurate. There is
                                      relations                    easily available                                                structure, on the programs offered
                                                                                                no information on the
                                                                                                                                   and their costs, on the awards
                                                                                                performance of the institute
                                                                                                                                   offered, and on the performance of
                                                                                                easily available
                                                                                                                                   the institution.
                                                                   Grievances only can be
                                      There is no possibility to                                The system for the handling of     There is an adequate (fair, accessible)
10   Grievances                                                    deposited; there is no
                                      deposit grievances                                        grievances is incomplete           system for the handling of grievances
                                                                   system
                                                                                                The performance of the
                                                                   The performance of the
                                                                                                institution is not an example in   The institution is an exemplary
11   Exemplary function                                            institution is not an
                                                                                                all respects and/or not easily     public organization
                                                                   example at all
                                                                                                visible
                                                                   The institution does not     The institution compares its
                                                                                                                                   The institution compares its
                                                                   compare its functioning      functioning with (other) high
12   Benchmarking                                                                                                                  functioning with (other) high
                                                                   with high performing         performing organizations in
                                                                                                                                   performing organizations
                                                                   organizations                some respects only

B1 Program Development and Review
                                                                   There are some elements      The process for development
                                                                                                                                   There is an adequate process for
                                                                   of a process for             and reviewing the program is
                                      There is no process for                                                                      development and reviewing the
     Program development and review                                development and              not adequate and/or
1                                     development and                                                                              program in which all relevant
     process                                                       reviewing the program.       incomplete.
                                      reviewing the program                                                                        stakeholders are involved
                                                                   Some relevant                Not all relevant stakeholders
                                                                   stakeholders are involved    are involved
                                                                   Only implicit goals or       Goals and objectives are           Goals and objectives are explicit and
                                      No implicit or explicit
                                                                   objectives for the           explicit, but not much             operationalised in competencies or
2    Program goals and objectives     goals and objectives for
                                                                   program; no involvement      operationalised; some relevant     learning outcomes; all relevant
                                      the program
                                                                   of relevant stakeholders     stakeholders are involved          stakeholders are involved
                                                                                                                                   On the basis of the program goals,
                                                                                                There is some educational
                                                                                                                                   objectives, level and target group(s)
                                                                                                strategy. Different teaching
                                                                                                                                   an adequate educational strategy is
                                                                   Faculty/staff uses few       methods are used by all
                                                                                                                                   designed. Especially the balance
3    Educational strategy             No educational strategy      different teaching           faculty/staff.
                                                                                                                                   between theory and practice is
                                                                   methods; no strategy         No ‘evidence-based‘ teaching
                                                                                                                                   addressed. The use of multiple
                                                                                                methods. E-learning is
                                                                                                                                   teaching methods is realized. The
                                                                                                scarcely used, but integrated.
                                                                                                                                   teaching methods used are ‘evidence-

                                                                                                                                                      16
                                                                                                                                      based’ as far as possible. When e-
                                                                                                                                      learning elements are used in the
                                                                                                                                      program, special attention is given to
                                                                                                                                      them.
                                                                                                    The goals, objectives and
                                                                      The relation between the      educational strategy are          The goals, objectives and educational
                                         No relation between the
                                                                      goals, objectives and         translated into a program, but    strategy are translated into a program
                                         goals, objectives and
4    Program design                                                   educational strategy and      cannot be linked to the           design that encompasses the program
                                         educational strategy and
                                                                      the program are rather        program components, program       components, program schedule,
                                         the program
                                                                      global.                       schedule, assignments and         assignments and assessments
                                                                                                    assessments.
                                                                                                    The program is coherent,
                                                                                                    consistent and do-able . The      The program is coherent, consistent
                                                                                                    relation between the              and do-able . The relation between
                                                                      The program is not
                                         The program is a loose set                                 competencies or learning          the competencies or learning
5    Program coherence and consistency                                coherent, not consistent or
                                         of unrelated components                                    outcomes at the one hand, and     outcomes at the one hand, and at the
                                                                      not do-able.
                                                                                                    at the other hand the program     other hand the program elements,
                                                                                                    elements, assignments and         assignments and assessments is clear
                                                                                                    assessments is not clear
                                                                                                                                      The faculty/staff is adequate in all
                                                                      The faculty/staff is
                                         There is no clear                                          The faculty/staff is inadequate   quantitative and qualitative respects.
6    Program faculty                                                  inadequate in number and
                                         faculty/staff                                              in either number or in quality    Practitioners teaching in the program
                                                                      quality
                                                                                                                                      are adequately prepared.
                                                                      The number of core            The number of core
                                                                                                                                      The number of core faculty/staff
                                         There is no clear            faculty/staff responsible     faculty/staff responsible for
7    Number of core faculty/staff                                                                                                     responsible for the core of the degree
                                         faculty/staff                for the core of the degree    the core of the degree program
                                                                                                                                      program is at least 5
                                                                      program is less than 5        is almost 5
                                                                      The faculty/staff
                                                                                                    The faculty/staff responsible     The faculty/staff responsible for the
                                                                      responsible for the core of
                                         There is no clear                                          for the core of the degree        core of the degree program devotes a
8    Research involvement                                             the degree program
                                         faculty/staff                                              program devotes some of its       significant percentage of its time to
                                                                      devotes (almost) none of
                                                                                                    time to research                  research.
                                                                      its time to research
                                                                      The admission criteria                                          The admission criteria and procedure
                                                                                                    The admission criteria or the
9    Program admission                   No admission criteria        and procedure are unclear                                       are clear and transparent, and
                                                                                                    procedure is not totally clear
                                                                      and opaque                                                      publicly available

B2 Program Content
                                                                      The program set of
                                                                                                    The program is partially          The program content logically and
                                                                      components without an
                                         The program is a loose set                                 coherent and consistent; the      explicitly follows from the goals,
1    Program coherence and consistency                                explicit relation to the
                                         of components                                              relation with the goals and       objectives and educational strategy; it
                                                                      goals and objectives of
                                                                                                    objectives is still implicit      is coherent and consistent
                                                                      the program

                                                                                                                                                         17
                                       The content is neither         The content is
                                                                                                    The content is adapted to the
                                       adapted to the level of the    insufficiently adapted to                                         The content is adapted to the level of
2   Program level                                                                                   level of the degree but not to
                                       degree nor to the target       the level of the degree and                                       the degree and to the target group(s).
                                                                                                    the target group(s).
                                       group(s).                      the target group(s).
                                       The content encompasses        The content encompasses
                                                                                                    The content encompasses not
                                       none of the elements           almost none of the                                                The content encompasses the
                                                                                                    all the elements prescribed in
3   Formal program requirements        prescribed in requisites       elements prescribed in                                            elements prescribed in requisites for
                                                                                                    requisites for the certificate or
                                       for the certificate or         requisites for the                                                the certificate or degree
                                                                                                    degree
                                       degree                         certificate or degree
                                                                                                                                        All program elements are
                                                                                                    Some program components             convincingly state-of-the-art,
                                       All program components         Most program                  are state-of-the-art, others are    reflecting international accepted
4   Program basis
                                       are out-dated                  components are out-dated      not; methods are not evidence-      concepts and insights, theories and
                                                                                                    based                               methods; the methods taught are
                                                                                                                                        evidence-based
                                                                      The content of the
                                                                                                    The content of the program
                                                                      program does not reflect
                                                                                                    reflects the multidisciplinary      The content of the program reflects
                                       The program in not             the multidisciplinary basis
5   Multidisciplinarity                                                                             basis of the public                 the multidisciplinary basis of the
                                       multidisciplinary              of the public
                                                                                                    administration field to some        public administration field
                                                                      administration field
                                                                                                    degree
                                                                      sufficiently
                                                                                                                                        The program contains essential
                                                                                                                                        elements of the public administration
                                                                                                                                        discipline, like political and legal
                                       The program does not           The program contains          The program contains several
                                                                                                                                        theory, HRM, public budgeting,
                                       contain essential elements     only some essential           but not all essential elements
6   Public administration essentials                                                                                                    information management, policy
                                       of the public                  elements of the public        of the public administration
                                                                                                                                        design, implementation and
                                       administration discipline      administration discipline     discipline
                                                                                                                                        evaluation, public economy,
                                                                                                                                        organizational behavior and
                                                                                                                                        management
                                                                      Only incidentally in the
                                       Nowhere in the program                                       In a few components public          Public sector ethos is an explicit and
                                                                      program reference is
7   Public sector ethos                reference is made to                                         sector ethos is referred to         integral element of all program
                                                                      made to public sector
                                       public sector ethos                                          explicitly                          components
                                                                      ethos
                                       The program does not           The program facilitates       The program facilitates
                                                                                                                                        The program facilitates students to
                                       facilitate students to learn   students to learn and train   students to learn and train
8   Public sectors skills                                                                                                               learn and train all necessary public
                                       and train any necessary        only few necessary public     some but not all necessary
                                                                                                                                        sector skills
                                       public sector skills           sector skills                 public sector skills
                                       The program adequately
                                                                      The program hardly pays       The program pays some               The program adequately pays
                                       does not pay any attention
9   Public sector nature                                              attention to the nature of    attention to the nature of the      attention to the nature of the public
                                       to the nature of the public
                                                                      the public sector             public sector                       sector.
                                       sector

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B3 Program Management and Administration
                                                                        The responsibility for the    The responsibility for the        The responsibility for the program is
                                           No one is responsible for
1    Program responsibility                                             program is unclear and        program is clear, but program     clear and program faculty has
                                           the program
                                                                        dispersed                     faculty has minor influence       important influence
                                                                        The budget for the
                                                                                                      The budget for the program (in
                                                                        program (in terms of                                            The budget for the program (in terms
                                                                                                      terms of finance, personnel
                                           There is no specific         finance, personnel and                                          of finance, personnel and facilities) is
2    Program budget                                                                                   and facilities) is not entirely
                                           program budget               facilities) is not adequate                                     adequate to attain the goals and
                                                                                                      adequate to attain the goals
                                                                        to attain the goals and                                         objectives
                                                                                                      and objectives
                                                                        objectives
                                                                                                      There is a program
                                           There is no program          There is an inadequate                                          There is an adequate program
3    Program administration                                                                           administration, but not totally
                                           administration               program administration                                          administration
                                                                                                      adequate
                                                                        There is an inadequate
                                                                                                      There is an adequate
                                           There is no adequate         administration of the                                           There is an adequate administration
                                                                                                      administration of the student’s
4    Student progress                      administration of the        student’s progress, and                                         of the student’s progress that is also
                                                                                                      progress but that is not
                                           student’s progress           that is not available for                                       available for the students
                                                                                                      available for the students
                                                                        the students
                                                                        The performance of the        The performance of the
                                                                                                                                        The performance of the students is
                                                                        students is not adequately    students is measured but not in
                                                                                                                                        measured adequately in terms of
                                                                        measured. Students are        terms of competencies
                                           The performance of the                                                                       competencies attained. Students are
5    Assessment                                                         assessed using                attained. Students are assessed
                                           students is not measured                                                                     assessed using published criteria,
                                                                        unpublished criteria,         using published criteria,
                                                                                                                                        regulations and procedures which are
                                                                        regulations and               regulations and procedures
                                                                                                                                        applied consistently
                                                                        procedures                    which are applied consistently
                                           It is impossible for
                                                                        It is hard for students to    Some information is adequate
                                           students to get adequate                                                                     All relevant information on the
                                                                        get adequate and timely       and timely, other is not. Not
6    Program information                   and timely information on                                                                    program is easily and timely
                                                                        information on program        all information is easily
                                           program changes or their                                                                     available and up to date
                                                                        changes or their progress     accessible or timely available
                                           progress
                                                                        The faculty/staff involved    The faculty/staff involved in
                                                                                                                                        The faculty/staff involved in the
                                           There is no clear            in the program is not         the program is sometimes
7    Faculty review                                                                                                                     program is reviewed regularly on
                                           faculty/staff review         reviewed on their             reviewed on their teaching
                                                                                                                                        their teaching performance
                                                                        teaching performance          performance
                                                                        There is an inadequate
                                                                                                      There is an incomplete system     There is an adequate system of
                                           There is no                  system of communication
                                                                                                      of communication between          communication between all persons
8    Communication                         communication between        between all persons
                                                                                                      persons involved (students,       involved (students, teachers and
                                           persons involved             involved (students,
                                                                                                      teachers and staff)               staff)
                                                                        teachers and staff)
                                           In the case multiple         In the case multiple          In the case multiple delivery     In the case multiple delivery of
9    Delivery consistency                  delivery of courses, the     delivery of courses, the      of courses, the consistency in    courses, the consistency in delivery is
                                           consistency in delivery is   consistency in delivery is    delivery is only partially        guaranteed

                                                                                                                                                            19
                                      not guaranteed at all         only marginally               guaranteed
                                                                    guaranteed
                                                                                                  Monitoring is restricted to
                                                                                                  course evaluation; the review
                                                                    There is almost no                                              There is a continuous, circular and
                                      There is no monitoring of                                   process however is unclear or
10   Program monitoring and review                                  monitoring of the                                               comprehensive monitoring of the
                                      the program                                                 informal; there is no
                                                                    program                                                         program and its components
                                                                                                  monitoring of the program as a
                                                                                                  whole




B4 Program Performance
                                                                                                                                    An adequate and complete system of
                                                                                                  Some performance
                                                                                                                                    performance information gathering is
                                      No performance                Almost no performance         information is collected, but
1    Performance measurement system                                                                                                 functioning on a continuous basis.
                                      information is collected      information is collected      not systematically and/or
                                                                                                                                    The information is used in the review
                                                                                                  continuous.
                                                                                                                                    of the program
                                                                    The satisfaction with the
                                                                                                  The satisfaction with the
                                                                    program as seen by
                                                                                                  program as seen by relevant       The satisfaction with the program as
                                      The satisfaction with the     relevant stakeholders
                                                                                                  stakeholders (students,           seen by relevant stakeholders
2    Satisfaction                     program is not measured       (students, graduates and
                                                                                                  graduates and employers) is       (students, graduates and employers)
                                      at all                        employers) is measured
                                                                                                  measured irregularly or not       is measured regularly
                                                                    irregularly and not with
                                                                                                  with all stakeholders
                                                                    all stakeholders
                                                                    Only information on           Information on drop-outs and
                                      There is no information                                                                       All relevant information is easily
3    Basic operating information                                    number of students is         average study time is available
                                      available at all                                                                              available and up to date
                                                                    available                     too
                                      The attainment of specific    The attainment of specific    The attainment of some            The attainment of specific targets is
4    Specific targets
                                      targets is not evaluated      targets is hardly evaluated   specific targets is evaluated     evaluated
                                                                    Benchmarking is planned                                         Benchmarking is done on all relevant
5    Benchmarking                     No benchmarking is done                                     Some benchmarking is done
                                                                    in the future                                                   performance criteria
                                      The impact on the             The impact on the
                                                                                                  The impact on the community       The impact on the community is
6    Impact on the community          community is not              community is hardly
                                                                                                  is measured but incompletely      measured
                                      measured                      measured
                                      Information on relevant       Information on relevant
                                                                                                  Information on some financial
                                      financial performance         financial performance                                           Information on all relevant financial
7    Financial performance                                                                        performance indicators is
                                      indicators is not available   indicators is hardly                                            performance indicators is available
                                                                                                  available
                                      at all                        available




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