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					Proudly It Waves – Grade Pre-Kindergarten
Ohio Standards Connection: Government Benchmark B Recognize and explain the importance of symbols and landmarks of the United States. Indicator 4 Recognize the flag of the United States as a symbol of the government.

Lesson Summary: The activities in this lesson introduce and support an understanding of the importance of the American flag as a symbol of our government. Children will explore and engage in multiple experiences and conversations to support their learning. Flags from various countries, including the United States of America, will be used to support the lesson. Estimated Duration: Two hours Commentary: This lesson will take approximately two hours over several short sessions, dependent upon the sustained interest, conversations and engagement of children. Little time is needed to prepare materials. When asked about the post-assessment, one teacher commented that she liked the lack of a formal postassessment, since observation is a more developmentallyappropriate means of assessment for this age group. Another field test participant commented that the lesson provides opportunities for students to use a variety of learning styles and that the variety of activities engages learners. Pre-Assessment:  Take small groups of children for a walk around the school or immediate neighborhood in search of flags and/or banners.  During the “search and find” walk, record children’s recognitions, responses and call attention to different types of flags/banners.  With the children, briefly discuss shapes, colors, pictures within the flags and locations of flags/banners found.  Take photographs of the flags/banners in their natural locations for future discussions and activities with the children. Ensure that photos of the American flag found in a variety of locations are included.

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Proudly It Waves – Grade Pre-Kindergarten
Scoring Guidelines: Observe and listen as children recognize and comment about flags/banners found in the environment. Note individual children experiencing ease or difficulty in identifying the flag. Instructional Tip: Pre-plan the route so that many flags/banners will be easily observed. Post-Assessment: A formal post-assessment is not recommended. Assessment should be embedded within the lesson activities and context of daily routines, activities and play, such as:  Joining children as they explore books, magazines, models of the American flag, etc., within interest areas of the classroom. Listen to and observe as they recognize, identify or talk about the flag. Appropriate questioning can be used to facilitate individual children’s comments and responses.  Listening to and observing children as they find and comment on the American flag found within the environment during the search-and-find walks. Scoring Guidelines: Use a checklist or anecdotal records to document individual children’s responses. Instructional Tip: These assessment strategies can be implemented any time during the children’s explorations during or following the lesson. Instructional Procedure: 1. Conduct the pre-assessment. 2. Gather small groups of children to revisit and recall the “search-and-find” walk around the school or neighborhood. With the children, create a written list or chart of flags and banners spotted. 3. Use the photographs of the flags/banners to support their recall and facilitate conversations about the flags/banners (shapes, colors, etc.) using probing questions such as:  Where did we find this flag/banner (e.g., inside and/or outside of a building, on top of a pole, fastened to a house or window, etc.)?  What colors are in the flag/banner?  What is the shape of the flag/banner?  Why do you think people place these flags on their homes?  Why do we place them outside of our schools?  What are the pictures inside the flag? 4. Accepting and extending the responses of the children, talk about:  The kinds of flags or banners found (school and sport banners, state flags, etc.).  Ideas for why the flag or banner is flown, displayed or placed on homes or outside school buildings (sport of interest to the family, showing pride).

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Proudly It Waves – Grade Pre-Kindergarten
Ideas about special times it might be important to display the flag or banner (before a football game, on special holiday, etc.). 5. Introduce and focus on the concept of the American flag as a symbol of our government and country, by sharing an age-appropriate informational text with colorful pictures about the American flag with small groups of children. 6. As the book is being shared, invite children to use the text illustrations and a concrete example or replica of the American flag to touch and talk about the attributes/parts that help in recognizing and identifying the American flag. Build upon and extend the vocabulary of the children during a conversation about the following:  shape of the flag;  colors of the flag;  shapes and patterns of shapes within the flag (e.g., rectangles, stars, stripes that alternate);  number of stars (with assistance). 7. To assist children to construct their knowledge and understanding about the American flag and its importance as a symbol of our country, the use of children’s prior knowledge/understanding such as the following examples might be helpful:  Each child has a name that can be spoken and written. Each written name belongs to that child and stands for, or is a symbol of, that child. (Use name cards and charts of the children to be identified and used to illustrate the connection.) Invite children to point out what features of the written name helped them to identify their own name, such as a specific letter, outline shape of the name, etc.  A flag is a symbol or picture that stands for a place (country/state) where people live. It also has special features/characteristics that help to identify it among other flags. Instructional Tip: To support the understanding of symbols, each child might select a symbol (e.g., animal or object of interest, shape, etc.) which represents or stands for them, beyond their printed name. 8. Facilitate a discussion about how each country’s flag is different and explain that the American flag is an important symbol of our country. Help children locate the United States on a world map or globe. 9. To support children’s understanding that the symbol of our country (American flag) is found and displayed in many ways within the environment, invite children on another “search-and-find” walk. This time, focus on finding the American flag. 10. In preparation for the walk, ask children to predict where they think they might find the flag. List or chart their predictions. As you walk, confirm and add to their list. As you walk, provide opportunities for children to recognize and identify the American flag, tally each time one is found and talk about its location or how it is displayed. In addition, ask children to find the American flag within magazines, books and photographs. 

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Proudly It Waves – Grade Pre-Kindergarten
Instructional Tip: In the event that the children are unable to locate and observe the flag during their walks, provide magazines, old books, etc., that contain the flag in different contexts (on shirts, in stores, etc.). Assist children as they cut out pictures or make drawings of the American flag to talk about and display. 11. Upon returning from the walk, create a pictograph illustrating the times and different locations where flags were found (on walk and independent explorations). Use a flag clip art/cutout or stamp and have children place on the graph each time the flag was found in a particular location (see example chart). Talk about the information provided through the graph (numbers of flags found, locations, etc.).
Outside Homes and Buildings We Found Our Flag Inside our In Books School and and Stores Magazines On Clothes and Cars/Trucks

12. Using the American flag as a topic of study, provide opportunities for children to explore and experience the colors, shapes and movement of the flag by allowing access and time throughout the day.  Art – colors of paint, markers, fabric, paper strips, stamps and star sponges to create flags through drawing, painting, pasting and weaving. Encourage children to use stars and stripes to redesign the American flag.  Book – appropriate informational texts, picture books, story books, magazines, photographs about the American flag for independent reading.  Manipulatives – duplicate photos or pictures of the American flag found in different locations to talk about and match. Duplicate pictures of flags of other countries can also be available for matching and discussion of similarities and differences. Provide connectable building blocks for children to create replicas of flags.  Dramatic Play – scarves of red, white and blue for play; encourage the children to drape/clothe themselves with the scarves and take a picture as a flag.  Motor – scarves of red, white and blue for movement and dance.  Blocks – replicas of flags/banners to add to children’s constructions. 13. For a culminating activity, conduct a shared writing experience to chart or create a class book. Ask children to draw, cut out and/or paint pictures/illustrations to support the text. The following story-starter should help children generate responses for the text based on their recall of experiences and understanding around the American flag: “We went walking, what did we see? We saw our American flag everywhere our eyes could see. We saw it__________.” Responses from the children might be: in our school, on a pole outside the library, in a store window, on the back of a shirt, etc. Use this opportunity to

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Proudly It Waves – Grade Pre-Kindergarten
extend children’s descriptions and oral language. Display the book/chart for children to revisit and “read” frequently, independently or with peers. Instructional Tip: Discussion of symbols can be very abstract for young learners. The use of meaningful and more concrete examples, such as their written names, can be used to help children connect prior knowledge with new knowledge. In addition, there are children’s books that contain the Pledge of Allegiance that you can use to teach the pledge to the children. Have students listen while you read aloud once. During the second reading, have students repeat after you and use the illustrations to help them as well. Differentiated Instructional Support: Instruction is differentiated according to learner needs, to help all learners either meet the intent of the specified indicator(s) or, if the indicator is already met, to advance beyond the specified indicator(s).  Children working beyond the indicator can learn about the parts of the American flag (i.e., stars, stripes, red, white, blue) and the meaning of each part.  For children with cognitive challenges and hearing impairments, support conversations with concrete objects and visuals.  For children with communication delays, use techniques to stimulate language such as self-talk, parallel talk and expansion. For nonverbal children, encourage use of symbol boards and appropriate communication devices to support and provide language.  Modify fine motor and art materials with elongated, enlarged, modified grips, knobs and handles, modified scissors. Provide hand-over-hand assistance, when appropriate. Extensions:  Have students make a map of the school building and label it with flag stickers where flags are found.  Conduct a parade with children playing instruments and marching to patriotic songs.  Create a class flag. Have the children create or choose a symbol they would like to have on their class flag. Explore how a flag that has all of the children’s individual symbols might look.  Create a class collage of flags (pictures found, drawn, of American and/or flags representing the cultures of the children).  Experience and talk about traditions, customs, dress and foods of the children and families.  Read aloud stories, poems/finger plays and sing songs about the American flag.  Celebrate the different interests, cultures and traditions represented in the room by encouraging children to bring in replicas or pictures of flags or banners that are important or meaningful to them and their families. Provide opportunities for children to talk about or illustrate their flags/banners. As children share flags of different cultures/countries, locate them on a map or globe. Add their treasures to a display/center for further exploration.

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Proudly It Waves – Grade Pre-Kindergarten
Homework Options and Home Connections:  Have children locate American flags at home or in their neighborhood. Provide a chart to be used for graphing areas where flags were found in the neighborhood, (i.e., home, library, store, etc. In lieu of charts, drawings can be made of the locations).  Ask children and families to send or bring replicas or pictures of flags that represent their culture/country of origin (immediate or ancestors). Interdisciplinary Connections: English Language Arts  Acquisition of Vocabulary Benchmark B: Read accurately high-frequency sight words. Indicator 3: Name items in common categories (e.g., animals, food, clothing, transportation, etc.).  Reading Applications: Informational Benchmark A: Use text features and structures to organize content, draw conclusions and build text knowledge. Indicator 1: Use pictures and illustrations to aid comprehension (e.g., talks about picture when sharing a story in a book).  Reading Applications: Literary Text Benchmark C: Recognize the defining characteristics and features of different types of literary forms and genres. Indicator 4: Participate in shared reading of repetitious or predictable text.  Writing Process Benchmark C: Use organizers to clarify ideas for writing assignments. Indicator 4: Generate related ideas with assistance.  Research Benchmark A: Generate questions for investigation and gather information from a variety of sources. Indicator 2: Use a variety of resources to gather information with assistance (e.g., pictionary, informational picture books).  Communication Benchmark A: Use active listening strategies to identify the main idea and to gain information from oral presentation. Indicator 1: Attend to speakers, stories, poems and songs. Benchmark E: Deliver a variety of presentations that include relevant information and a clear sense of purpose. Indicator 7: Participate in the recitation of books, poems, chants, songs and nursery rhymes (e.g., Little Miss Muffet). Mathematics  Geometry and Spatial Sense Benchmark B: Sort and compare two-dimensional figures and three-dimensional objects according to their characteristics and properties.

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Proudly It Waves – Grade Pre-Kindergarten
Indicator 2: Sort and classify similar two- and three-dimensional objects in the environment and play situations (e.g., paper shapes, 2 balls of different size). Patterns, Functions and Algebra Benchmark A: Sort, classify, and order objects by size, number, and other properties, and describe the attributes used. Indicator 1: Sort, order and classify objects by one attribute (e.g., size, color, shape, use). Data Analysis and Probability Benchmark B: Sort and classify objects by attributes, and organize data into categories in a simple table of chart. Indicator 2: Place information or objects in a floor or table graph according to one attribute (e.g., size, color, shape or quantity).

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Materials and Resources: The inclusion of a specific resource in any lesson formulated by the Ohio Department of Education should not be interpreted as an endorsement of that particular resource, or any of its contents, by the Ohio Department of Education. The Ohio Department of Education does not endorse any particular resource. The Web addresses listed are for a given site’s main page, therefore, it may be necessary to search within that site to find the specific information required for a given lesson. Please note that information published on the Internet changes over time, therefore the links provided may no longer contain the specific information related to a given lesson. Teachers are advised to preview all sites before using them with students. For the teacher: Flags from various countries, American flag(s), U.S. map, world map or globe, children’s books, poster/chart paper and markers, camera (instant, disposable or digital). For the students: Paper, pencil, art supplies. Vocabulary: Vocabulary will be dependent upon storybooks and nonfiction texts shared, children’s responses and items collected. Key words to explore and use might include:  symbol  government  flag  banner  United States  America  map  world  country  stripes  stars  colors 7

Proudly It Waves – Grade Pre-Kindergarten
Technology Connections:  Flags from different countries could be generated using a computer software program or using the Internet.  Take pictures using a digital camera during the walk to observe flags. Build a slide presentation with these pictures for future use.  Locate a government site (http://www.whitehousekids.gov) and find flags in the pictures. Research Connections: Marzano, R. et al. Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2001. Nonlinguistic representations help students think about and recall knowledge. This includes the following:  Creating graphic representations (organizers);  Making physical models;  Generating mental pictures;  Drawing pictures and pictographs;  Engaging in kinesthetic activity. Daniels, H. and M. Bizar, M. Methods that Matter: Six Structures for Best Practice Classrooms, Me: Stenhouse Publishers, 1998. Authentic experiences help students develop real-world knowledge and skills and apply their learning in ways that prepare them for their careers and lives beyond school. General Tips: This lesson could be used in conjunction with Geography, Benchmark A, Indicator 1 which asks students to demonstrate and use terms related to location, direction and distance (e.g., up, down, over, under, front, back, here, there).

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