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					Running head: EMOTION AND FALSE MEMORY

The Effects of Emotion on False Memory Production Vanessa S. Rutman Cornell University

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Abstract

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of emotion on false memory production. 118 undergraduate college students participated in this study. Each participant was first asked to listen to a list of study words taken from the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. After listening to the word lists, participants were then given an emotion induction task that induced moods by rating person descriptive words taken from the Dumas norms. The participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: positive, negative, or neutral. Each participant was then given an immediate recognition memory test. One week later, participants were given a delayed recognition memory test to measure the degree of false memory. Results indicate that on the immediate memory participants in the positive mood condition were more susceptible to false memory. On the immediate memory test it was also found that participants in the neutral condition had the highest acceptance rates for target words, suggesting they had the best true memory. On the delayed memory test, it was found that participants in the negative condition were less likely to accept all types of words than participants in the negative and positive emotion conditions. This finding is consistent with what was found on the immediate memory test. Interestingly, on the delayed memory test participants in the positive emotional condition actually increased their acceptance rate for targets while participants in the neutral condition decreased their acceptance rates and participants in the negative condition kept their target rates consistent.

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The Effects of Emotion on False Memory Production False memory is an enduring characteristic of normal rather than pathological remembering (Reyna & Brainerd, 1995). False memory refers to circumstances in which we feel that we have positive definite memories of an event that did not actually occur. False memory is an error of commission and should not be confused with memory fallibility (referring to the erosion of memory through normal forgetting; without aid of external memory stores) which is an error in omission. Because false memory is a normal occurrence, it is important to understand why it occurs and the process by which one generates false memories. Researchers have been interested in memory processes for decades, and although falsememory research in the history of psychology has been disconnected, it has still had important contributions. Applied psychologist, Alfred Binet had some important conclusions that paved the way for false-memory research by making the important distinction between suggestion and autosuggestion. Similarly, Fredric C. Bartlett also helped advance the study of false memory through his work on repeated recall narrative texts. Developed from Ebbingaus methods, using narrative texts he found that subject consistently omit and recall confabulations and tend to have high confidence in their false memory reports, results which are consistent with modern research and provided important information of the effects of suggestive questioning (Reyna & Bartlett, 1995). For this reason, Bartlett is considered the most influential historical figure in the study of false memory. One of the earliest known theories of false memory is constructivism which is associated with studies conducted by Bradford, Barclay, & Franks in 1972. The constructivism theory posits that rather than remembering their exact experience, people actually remember what they perceive to be the meaning of their experience. This theory erroneously assumes that after events are experienced, they are then interpreted and integrated into semantic structures, and the 3

surface form (actual content of memory) of the memory then disappears. Constructivism assumes that surface form can only remain in memory for a few minutes and this has been proven to be incorrect. Constructivism has been disconfirmed by studies that have proven that the surface form of experience can be retained in your memory for much longer than a few minutes, and that it may contribute to later memory performance (Hintzman, Block, & Inskeep, 1973; Kolers, 1976). After constructivism was proven incorrect another theory evolved from it that was called the schema theory. Although the schema theory is a lot more detailed than constructivism, it contains many of the same ideals. The theory can be explained by four key features: selection, abstraction, interpretation and integration. The theory is based on the notion that only some of the people, objects, and events that are part of an experience will be encoded into memory and later remembered. It assumes that the items that are most likely to be remembered are those that are most central to the schema, and depend on the availability of a relevant schema. Once items are selected to be encoded, abstraction reduces the level of detail. Details of an experience are preserved depending on the degree to which an item is prototypical of an activated schema. Interpretation does the opposite of abstraction and it expands information of the experience by the processes of elaboration and inference which produce schema consistent information that may not be consistent with the actual experience. According to the schema theory, integration then consolidates memory representations into a single long memory structure. This type of theory is known as a one process theory because it assumes that memory tests that test true and false memory are testing one source of memory. There are many limitations to this theory, most importantly is that it suggests that people are only capable of remembering schema consistent information, and this does not account for all instances of false memory. If false memory are byproducts of the activation of memory schemas than one could assume that adults would have

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more false memory than children. This developmental trend does not exist, and children have been proven to have more false memory than adults (Reyna, Kiernan, 1994). The source-monitoring framework is a one process theory that was another early explanation used to explain false memory. The source monitoring framework views false memories as incorrect attributions about sources of information or confusion about sources (Johnson, Hashtroudi, & Lindsay, 1993). One of the most recent theories that rival The Source Monitoring Framework is the Fuzzy-Trace Theory which is based on the idea that surface form and meaning content of an experience are processed in parallel. The surface form of memory is item-specific information and is referred to as verbatim traces while the meaning content of an experience which are representations that are semantic and relational are called gist traces. Once the verbatim and gist traces are processed in parallel they are stored separately. Fuzzy-Trace Theory predicts that because storage of verbatim and gist traces are dissociated, their retrieval is also dissociated which can cause them to work as opponent processes in false memory. In true memory verbatim and gist traces work as convergent processes both supporting recognition and recall in subjects. In false memory gist and verbatim traces work as divergent processes with verbatim retrieval suppressing false memory and gist retrieval supporting it. Gist retrieval supports false memory because items meanings seem familiar, but verbatim retrieval suppresses false memory by neutralizing meaning familiarity. Because access to verbatim memory deteriorates more quickly over time than gist memory, the Fuzzy-Trace Theory predicts that false memory will be positively correlated with the amount of time that has passed between the presentation of the material and the memory test. As more time passes, participants will have more access to gist memory which supports false memory and less access to verbatim memory which suppresses false memory. Some of the earlier theories discussed predict that false memory decreases between early childhood and young adulthood and then increases again later in life. Contrary to 5

this, the Fuzzy-Trace Theory predicts that false memory can have developmental variability because verbatim and gist traces vary with age and they both contribute to false memory. The present study examines false memory in adults. However it also explores the effect that emotion has on false memory. It has long been thought that events that contain emotional relevance are more likely to be remembered (Reyna & Brainerd, 1995). Flashbulb memories present an extreme example of this (Reyna & Brainerd, 1995). Flashbulb memories are when individuals retain a vivid, almost photographic memory of an emotional event, but these types of memories are very rare, so researchers strive to discover if emotion plays a role in our everyday memories (Kensinger & Corkin 2003). Kensinger and colleagues showed that there was a qualitative memory benefit for emotional compared with neutral words across all tasks, and that emotional content increases the likelihood that the details of an items presentation would be remembered (Kensinger & Corkin 2003). Laboratory studies done by Kensinger support her earlier conclusions suggesting that negative emotion not only enhances the vividness of the memory but that negative emotion also increases the likelihood of remembering the details of an event (Kensinger 2004). The studies presented suggest that emotion can have an affect on memory but researcher only recently began to look into how emotion can affect false memory. In this study we will be using a method similar o that proposed by the Deese-RoedigerMcDermott paradigm. In this paradigm, participants are presented with a list of words that are highly associated with a non-presented word. The non-presented word that is highly associated with the lists is referred to as a critical lure. A list may include note, piano, band and tone, which would activate the non-presented word music. After participants hear such a list they have a tendency to falsely recall the critical lure. It has been proven that the Deese-RoedigerMcDermott (DRM) task produces levels of false memory that are so high that subjects mis-recall a critical lure almost as often as they correctly recall mid-list target items. Although researchers still wondered whether emotionally charged words would show the same false memory effect 6

since the DRM does not use emotionally charged words. It has since been proven that emotionally charged critical lures can be falsely remembered, and in fact non-emotional study items can produce false memory of emotional lures (Pesta, 2001). Using the theoretical framework of the Fuzzy-Trace Theory, Patel (2007) investigated how emotional states can alter false memory when participants are induced into emotional states prior to listening to a list of words they were later asked to recognize. His findings suggest that positive emotion tends to decrease false memory on the immediate test. Although he did find a decrease in false memory across all emotion conditions he did not find a difference in the rate of target acceptances across all emotion conditions. His findings suggest that mood seems to influence gist rather than verbatim memory. He also found that subjects in the negative condition exhibited two changes on the delayed memory test which were that subjects had a decline in acceptance rate for targets and also a decrease in the acceptance rates for critical distracters. Contrary to his results of the immediate test, he found that the positive emotion condition increased the acceptance rate for critical lures on the delayed memory test for previously untested words. This finding suggests that positive emotion tended to preserve the meaning of the list and led to and increase in false memories (Patel, 2007). The study that I will be conducting will also use the theoretical framework of the FuzzyTrace Theory. My study differs from Patel’s because the participants will be induced into an emotional state after listening to the list of words they will later be asked to recognize. METHOD Participants The participants used in this experiment were undergraduate students recruited from Cornell University who participated in the experiment in order to fulfill a course requirement. 118 of the subjects completed the immediate memory test and 89 also completed the delayed

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memory test. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three emotional conditions (positive n= 39 , negative n= 37 , and neutral n= 42). Materials At the beginning of the experiment each subject was given a manila folder which contained directions and an emotion induction task as well as a recognition memory test. First the participants listened to a list of study words that were administered through an audiotape that consisted of twenty-four lists with a total of 144 words. The words were presented at a rate of two seconds per word with an eight second pause in between each of the twenty four lists. All of the lists were taken from McDermott and Watson (2001) and each list contained six words that were highly related. After participants listened to the word lists, and emotion induction task was administered. The emotion induction task consisted of 60 descriptive words that had been previously judged from a valence word pool of 844 words to be the 60 most positive, 60 most negative, and 60 most neutral words (Dumas, 2002). Participants were given either all positive, all negative, or all neutral words depending on which condition they were randomly assigned to, and the order of the words presented were randomized across participants. The participants were asked to rate the words on a dimension scale from 1-7 depending on how the word made them feel with 1 being “very sad” and 7 being “very happy.” Examples of person descriptive words used in the study are displayed below including an example from each the positive, negative and neutral conditions. In the positive condition when most people read the word POLITE, it made them feel very happy. POLITE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

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X

In the negative condition when most people read the word SUICIDAL, it made them feel very sad. SUICIDAL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

X

In the neutral condition when most people read the word MATERIAL, it did not make them feel either sad or happy. MATERIAL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

X

The recognition memory test that was given to participants contained five different types of words and contained words from only twelve of the twenty-four lists. The five types of words in the test included: targets (word that was actually presented on the study list), related distracters (a word that is related to the target, but not an example of the list theme), critical distracters (a word contains the same theme as the list words and is an associate of all the targets), unrelated distracter (a word that is not an example of a list item and is not related to any target words, and critical unrelated distracter (a word that is not associated with any of the targets but is an example of the list theme). Each word on the recognition test was a verbatim probe, a gist probe or a verbatim and gist probe; and the participants were asked to judge if the following statement about the word was true or not. Three specific types of questions representing verbatim probes,

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gist probes and verbatim + gist probes were presented on the recognition test, and the participant was asked to answer either “yes” or “no”:

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

YES YES YES

NO NO NO

The operational definition of false memory was measured by how often participants reported “yes” to a word that was not previously studied. The operational definition for true memory was measured by how often participants reported “yes” to a word that was previously studied. After the immediate recognition test was administered, a delayed recognition test was administered one week later. The delayed recognition test contained words from all twenty four lists that were heard one week earlier. Procedure In this study, participants were first asked to listen to the entire list of study words. After listening to the list of words the participants were given the emotion induction task where they were induced into one of three emotional conditions, positive, negative or neutral. After the emotion induction task, participants were given the immediate memory test which included words from twelve of the presented twenty four lists. This test was then administered again one week later in the delayed memory test, and contained words from all twenty four lists.

Results Part 1: Emotion Induction Task (Manipulation Check)

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A one-way analysis of variance was conduced on the three emotion conditions (positive, negative, neutral) to determine if there was a significant difference between the rating of worlds on the emotional induction task. It was found that each emotional condition had significantly different ratings of person descriptive words.

Figure: The mean rating of person descriptive words for each emotional manipulation condition (negative, positive, and neutral) on a dimensional mood scale from 1-7 (1 = very sad, 7 = very happy)

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Negative Positive Emotion Condition Neutral

Part 2: Immediate Memory Recognition Test A repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data that had been collected. This was a 3 (emotion induction: positive, negative, neutral) X 3 (type of probe: verbatim, gist, verbatim + gist) X 5 (type of item: target, critical distracter, related distracter, unrelated critical distracter, unrelated distracter) ANOVA. In this particular experiment, there was no significant three way interaction between probe, target and emotion on the immediate memory test, F(16,2025)=0.5563 with p-value=0.9170. Similarly there was no significant 11

interaction between probes and emotion, F(4,2025), p-value=0.1010. Excluding those interactions the model was run again. That resulted in the output below. Note that the error degrees of freedom went up from 2025 to 2045 by excluding those variables. As seen below, it turned out that there was a significant interaction between probes and type, F(8,2045)= 25.5994, p-value < 0.0001.

Table: Effects of Tests (Immediate Memory Test) Source Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares F Ratio Prob > F Probes 2 12.478 130.945 <.0001 Type 4 49.091 257.587 <.0001 Probes* Type 8 9.758 25.5994 <.0001 Emotion 2 1.166 12.236 <.0001 Target*Emotion 8 0.945 2.479 0.011 It was also found that there was a significant main effect for the three probes asked on the recognition test: verbatim, gist and verbatim + gist, F(2,2045) = 130.34, p < .0001. Looking specifically at the mean acceptance rates for probes we can see that there was an interaction.

Figure: Mean proportion of acceptances on the immediate memory test for each of the three different probes: verbatim, gist, and verbatim + gist.

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0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0 Verbatim Gist Probes Verbatim + Gist

Table: Mean probe acceptance on immediate memory test (standard deviation)

Verbatim Gist Verbatim + Gist

3628 (.0083) .4512 (.0083) .5538 (.0083)

In addition, there was a significant interaction between emotion and the types presented (target, critical distracter, related distracter, unrelated critical distracter, unrelated distracter), F(8,2045)=2.4789, p-value=0.0113. Figure: Mean proportion of acceptances on the immediate memory test for the five different types of words presented (target, critical distracter, related distracter, unrelated critical distracter, unrelated distracter).

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0.7

0.6 0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2 0.1

0 Target Critical Distractor Related Distractor Type of Word Unrelated Critical Distractor Unrelated Distractor

Table: Mean type acceptance on immediate memory test (standard deviation) Target Critical Distracter Related Distracter Unrelated Critical Distracter Unrelated Distracter .5713 (.0107) .6601 (.0107) .4889 (.0107) .2564 (.0107) .3044 (.0107)

Because there was a significant interaction between emotion and the types presented this suggests that we should look at the emotional condition for each different type of item. Contrasting positive emotion mean to negative emotion mean at all five different types of words, it turns out that positive mean is greater than negative mean when there is critical distracter present, p-value=0.0037. Interestingly it was found that there was no difference between the acceptance means for positive vs. negative for the other four types of words (see table below).

Table: Looking at positive and negative emotion for each different type (target, critical distracter, related distracter, unrelated critical distracter, unrelated distracter) Estimate .0410 14 t- value 1.5862 p- value .1128

Positive-negative at target

Positive-negative at critical distracter Positive-negative at related distracter Positive-negative at unrelated critical distracter Positive-negative at unrelated distracter

.0751 .0461 .0004 -.0230

2.9038 1.7842 .0152 -.9070

.0037 .0745 .9879 .3646

Table: Mean proportion of acceptances for various types of words on immediate memory test across 3 different emotion conditions (SD). Target Critical Distracter Unrelated Critical Distracter .6228(.0184) .4513(.0184) .2216(.0184) .6597(.0182) .4974(.0182) .2220(.0182) .6979(.0132) .5182(.0192) .3256(.0192) Related Distracter Unrelated Distracter .3051(.0184) .2817(.0182) .3265(.0192)

Negative Positive Neutral

.5359(.0184) .5769(.0182) .6009(.0192)

In the immediate recognition test it can be been that the mean acceptance rate for critical distracters was higher than the mean acceptance rate for targets across all three emotional conditions. In addition, the neutral emotional condition had the highest acceptance rates for targets as well as critical distracters.

Table: Mean proportion of acceptances for various types of words on immediate memory test across 3 different probes, verbatim, gist and verbatim + gist (SD). Target Critical Distracter Unrelated Unrelated Critical Distracter Distracter .5978(.0186) .3042(.0186) .1862(.0186) .1795(.0186) .6020(.0186) .5607(.0186) .3127(.0186) .3649(.0186) .7805(.0186) .6019(.0186) .2704(.0186) .3688(.0186) Related Distracter

Verbatim Gist Verbatim + Gist

.5512(.0186) .4154(.0186) .7473(.0186)

Table: Mean proportion of acceptances for various types of words and emotional conditions on immediate memory test across 3 different probes, verbatim, gist and verbatim + gist (SD).

Target

Critical

Related

Unrelated Critical

Unrelated Distracter

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Gist: Negative Gist: Positive Gist: Neutral Verbatim: Negative Verbatim: Positive Verbatim: Neutral Verbatim + Gist: Negative Verbatim + Gist: Positive Verbatim + Gist: Neutral

.4025(.0319) .3785(.0315) .4684(.0333) .5113(.0319) .5781(.0315) .5620(.0333) .6941(.0319) .7743(.0315) .7726(.0333)

Distracter .5983(.0319) .6094(.0315) .5988(.0333) .5733(.0319) .6510(.0315) .5662(.0333) .6968(.0319) .8333(.0315) .8140(.0333)

Distracter .5356(.0319) .5755(.0315) .5692(.0333) .2766(.0319) .2995(.0315) .3372(.0333) .5415(.0319) .6172(.0315) .6483(.0333)

Distracter .3032(.0319) .2865(.0315) .3451(.0333) .1489(.0319) .1400(.0315) .2713(.0333) .2128(.0319) .3605(.0315) .2396(.0333)

.3706(.0319) .3887(.0315) .3359(.0333) .1884(.0319) .1472(.0315) .2033(.0333) .3564(.0319) .3620(.0315) .3875(.0333)

Part 3: Delayed Memory Recognition Test Two repeated measure analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted, one for the previously tested words and one for the previously untested words. Each was a 3 (emotion induction: positive, negative, neutral) X 3 (type of probe: verbatim, gist, verbatim + gist) X 5 (type of item: target, critical distracter, related distracter, unrelated critical distracter, unrelated distracter) ANOVA. Previously Tested Words It was found that there was significant three way interaction between emotion, probe, and type of word, F(16,1800)=1.8571, p-value=0.0203. Similarly it was found that there was a significant interaction between the variables probes and type of word, F(8,1800)=11.9701, pvalue < 0.0001. Also there was significant interaction between variables emotion and target, F(8,1800)=3.1541, p-value=0.0015. There was however no significant interaction between the emotion variables and probes, F(4,1800)=1.5445, p-value=0.1868. Across all words types and probes it was found that the mean proportion of acceptances was highest for the positive emotion and the next highest was the neutral emotional condition followed by the negative emotion condition (see table and figure). Similar to the immediate memory test, it was found that the mean proportion of acceptances for all emotional conditions was highest for critical distracters followed by targets, followed by related distracters then 16

unrelated distracter then unrelated critical distracter. Looking specifically at the mean acceptances for probes, the results are the same as the immediate memory test, the verbatim + gist mean was greater than the gist mean which was greater than the verbatim mean across all types of words. Interestingly, the mean proportion of acceptances for verbatim + gist was significantly higher in the positive emotion condition (M = .6119, S.D. = .0159) than it was for the neutral (M = .5451, S.D. = .0149) and negative emotion condition (M = .5372, S.D. = .0159).

Table: Effects of Tests (Delayed Memory Test- Previously Tested Items)

Source Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares F Ratio Prob > F Emotion 2 .9968 10.4382 <.0001 Probes 2 4.2729 44.7445 <.0001 Emotion *Probes 4 .2949 1.5445 .1868 Types 4 22.8950 119.8752 <.0001 Types*Emotion 8 1.4028 3.1541 .0015 Probes*Types 8 4.5723 11.9701 <.0001 Emotion*Probe*Types 16 1.4188 1.8571 .0203

Table: Mean proportion of acceptances across all word types and probes for the 3 emotion conditions (SD).

Negative Positive Neutral

.4693 (.0087) .5271 (.0092) .4954 (.0086)

Figure: Mean proportion of acceptances across all word types and probes for the 3 emotional conditions in the delayed memory test (previously tested words).

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0.54 0.53 0.52 0.51 0.5 0.49 0.48 0.47 0.46 0.45 0.44 Negative Positive Emotion Condition Neutral

Table: Mean proportion of acceptances for the different types of words on the delayed memory test (previously tested words) (SD).

Target Critical Distracter Related Distracter Unrelated Critical Distracter Unrelated Distracter

.5681 (.0014) .6501 (.0014) .5270 (.0014) .3500 (.0014) .3912 (.0014)

Figure: Mean proportion of acceptances on the delayed memory test (previously tested words) for the five different types of words presented (target, critical distracter, related distracter, unrelated critical distracter, unrelated distracter).

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0.7

0.6 0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2 0.1

0 Target Critical Distractor Related Distractor Type of Word Unrelated Critical Distractor Unrelated Distractor

Table: Mean proportion of acceptances for various types of words on delayed memory test (previously tested words) across 3 different emotion conditions (SD).

Target

Critical Distracter

Negative Positive Neutral

.5347(.0195) .5999(.0205) .5698(.0192)

Unrelated Critical Distracter .5855(.0195) .4771(.0195) .3367(.0195) .6928(.0205) .5735(.0205) .3468(.0205) .6721 (.0192) .5304(.0192) .3666(.0192)

Related Distracter

Unrelated Distracter .4128(.0195) .4222(.0205) .3382(.0192)

Table: Mean proportion of acceptances of verbatim, gist, and verbatim + gist on delayed memory test (previously tested words) (SD).

Verbatim Gist Verbatim + Gist

.4551 (.0088) .4720 (.0088) .5647 (.0088)

Figure: Mean proportion of acceptances on the delayed memory test (previously tested words) for each of the three different probes: verbatim, gist, and verbatim + gist. 19

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0 Verbatim Gist Probes Verbatim + Gist

Table: Mean proportion of acceptances of verbatim, gist and verbatim + gist on delayed memory test (previously tested words) across 3 different emotion conditions (SD). Verbatim Gist Verbatim + Gist .4331 (.0151) .4377 (.0151) .5372 (.0159) .4832 (.0159) .4861 (.0159) .6119 (.0159) .4491 (.0149) .4921 (.0149) .5451 (.0149)

Negative Positive Neutral

Table: Mean proportion of acceptances for various types of words on delayed memory test (previously tested words) across 3 different probes, verbatim, gist and verbatim + gist (SD).

Target

Critical Distracter

Verbatim Gist Verbatim + Gist

.5190(.0197) .5099(.0197) .6754(.0197)

Unrelated Critical Distracter .5829(.0197) .5097(.0197) .3734(.0197) .5707(.0197) .4898(.0197) .3643(.0197) .7968(.0197) .5816(.0197) .3125(.0197)

Related Distracter

Unrelated Distracter .2906(.0197) .4252(.0197) .4574(.0197)

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Table: Mean proportion of acceptances for various types of words and emotional conditions on delayed memory test (previously tested words) across 3 different probes, verbatim, gist and verbatim + gist (SD).

Target
Gist: Negative Gist: Positive Gist: Neutral Verbatim: Negative Verbatim: Positive Verbatim: Neutral Verbatim + Gist: Negative Verbatim + Gist: Positive Verbatim + Gist: Neutral

.4701(.0337) .4940(.0355) .5655(.0333) .5047(.0337) .5986(.0355) .4540(.0333) .6292(.0337) .7072(.0355) .6900(.0333)

Critical Distracter .4762(.0337) .6055(.0355) .6305(.0333) .5208(.0337) .6081(.0355) .6199(.0333) .7595(.0337) .8649(.0355) .7659(.0333)

Related Distracter .4726(.0337) .5000(.0355) .4967(.0333) .4332(.0337) .5516(.0355) .5443(.0333) .5256(.0337) .6689(.0355) .5503(.0333)

Unrelated Critical Distracter .3077(.0337) .3919(.0355) .3933(.0333) .3810(.0337) .3784(.0355) .3608(.0333) .3214(.0337) .2703(.0355) .3457(.0333)

Unrelated Distracter .4620(.0337) .4392(.0355) .3743(.0333) .3260(.0337) .2793(.0355) .2666(.0333) .4505(.0337) .5483(.0355) .3738(.0333)

Previously Untested Words There was no three way interaction between word type, emotion and probes, F(16,1800)=1.5382990, p-value=0.0882. Similar to the Tested Words, there was no significant interaction between probes and emotion, F(4,1800)=1.1930, p-value=0.3119. However there was significant probes by word type interaction, F(8,1800)=3.0825, p-value=0.0019 and significant emotion by word type interaction, F(8,1800)=2.2555, p-value=0.0213. Similar to the immediate memory test and the Tested Words, the mean proportion of acceptances across all word types and probes was highest for Verbatim + Gist followed by Gist which was higher than Verbatim. Although the mean proportion of acceptances for Verbatim + Gist was significantly lower for the Untested Words (M = .4308 S.D. = .0102), than for the Tested Words (M = .5647, S.D. = .0088). Consistent with the Tested Words, the mean proportion of acceptances across all word types and probes was highest for the positive emotional condition, although it was higher for the Tested Words (M = .5271, S.D. = .0092) than 21

for the Untested Words (M = .4101, S.D. = .0106). In addition, the mean proportion of acceptances for different word types was still highest for Critical Distracters followed by Targets; and this was consistent across all emotion conditions. Table: Effects of tests (delayed memory test- previously untested words)

Source Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares F Ratio Prob > F Emotion 2 1.3157 10.3174 <.0001 Probes 2 2.7891 21.8725 <.0001 Emotion *Probes 4 .3043 1.1930 .3119 Types 4 5.5066 21.5917 <.0001 Types*Emotion 8 1.1505 2.2555 .0213 Probes*Types 8 1.5723 3.0825 .0019 Emotion*Probe*Types 16 1.5383 1.5079 .0882

Table: Mean proportion of acceptances on delayed memory test (previously untested words) across all word types and probes for the 3 emotion conditions (SD).

Negative Positive Neutral

.3892 (.0101) .4101 (.0106) .3459 (.0099)

Figure: Mean proportion of acceptances across all word types and probes for the 3 emotional conditions in the delayed memory test (previously untested words).

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0.42

0.4

0.38

0.36

0.34

0.32

0.3 Negative Positive Emotion Condition Neutral

Table: Mean proportion of acceptances for the different types of words on the delayed memory test (previously untested words) (SD).

Target Critical Distracter Related Distracter Unrelated Critical Distracter Unrelated Distracter

.4059 (.0132) .4752 (.0132) .3681 (.0132) .3357 (.0132) .3240 (.0132)

Figure: Mean proportion of acceptances on the delayed memory test (previously untested words) for the five different types of words presented (target, critical distracter, related distracter, unrelated critical distracter, unrelated distracter).

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0.5 0.45 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 Target Critical Distractor Related Distractor Type of Word Unrelated Critical Distractor Unrelated Distractor

Table: Mean proportion of acceptances for various types of words on delayed memory test (previously untested words) across 3 different emotion conditions (SD).

Target

Critical Distracter

Negative Positive Neutral

.4106(.0225) .4495(.0236) .3576(.0222)

Unrelated Critical Distracter .4258(.0225) .3872(.0225) .3824(.0225) .5384(.0236) .3674(.0236) .3543(.0236) .4614(.0222) .3498(.0222) .2703(.0222)

Related Distracter

Unrelated Distracter .3399(.0225) .3410(.0236) .2909(.0222)

Table: Mean proportion of acceptances of verbatim, gist, and verbatim + gist on delayed memory test (previously untested words) (SD).

Verbatim Gist Verbatim + Gist

.3356 (.0102) .3789 (.0102) .4308 (.0102)

Figure: Mean proportion of acceptances on the delayed memory test (previously untested words) for each of the three different probes: verbatim, gist, and verbatim + gist.

24

0.5 0.45 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 Verbatim Gist Probes Verbatim + Gist

Table: Mean proportion of acceptances for various types of words on delayed memory test (previously untested words) across 3 different probes, verbatim, gist and verbatim + gist (SD).

Target

Critical Distracter

Verbatim .3496(.0228) .2464(.0228) Gist .3908(.0228) .3657(.0228) Verbatim .4772(.0228) .3598(.0228) + Gist Table: Mean proportion of acceptances for various types of words and emotional conditions on immediate memory test across 3 different probes, verbatim, gist and verbatim + gist (SD).

Unrelated Critical Distracter .4263(.0228) .3754(.0228) .2802(.0228) .4514(.0228) .3147(.0228) .3719(.0228) .5479(.0228) .4142(.0228) .3549(.0228)

Related Distracter

Unrelated Distracter

Target
Gist: Negative Gist: Positive Gist: Neutral Verbatim: Negative Verbatim: Positive Verbatim: Neutral Verbatim + Gist: Negative

.3977(.0390) .4125(.0410) .3621(.0385) .3780(.0390) .3589(.0410) .3119(.0385) .4562(.0390)

Critical Distracter .3492(.0390) .5308(.0410) .4744(.0385) .3956(.0390) .5169(.0410) .3663(.0385) .5327(.0390)

Related Distracter .3561(.0390) .2912(.0410) .2970(.0385) .3640(.0390) .3589(.0410) .4032(.0385) .4415(.0390)

Unrelated Critical Distracter .4736(.0390) .3863(.0410) .2558(.0385) .3142(.0390) .2577(.0410) .2668(.0385) .3595(.0390)

Unrelated Distracter .3949(.0390) .3456(.0410) .3566(.0385) .2364(.0390) .2841(.0410) .2187(.0385) .3886(.0390)

25

Verbatim + Gist: Positive Verbatim + Gist: Neutral

.5770(.0410) .3987(.0385)

.5676(.0410) .5435(.0385)

.4520(.0410) .3493(.0385)

.4189(.0410) .2863(.0385)

.3933(.0410) .2974(.0385)

Discussion The proportion of acceptances was highest for verbatim + gist probes across all types of words. This is consistent with the research finding on memory because people tend to more easily remember the gist of a word presented than the verbatim details. Word type main effects were also found in the immediate and the delayed test. An interesting finding is that the mean proportion of acceptances for critical distracters across all emotional conditions and probes was higher than the mean proportion of acceptances for target words. The target words had been studied before and the critical distracters had never been seen, this means that words that have not been studied are recognized just as much if not more than words that have actually been studied. On the immediate memory test verbatim traces are still available and accessible. According to the Fuzzy-Trace Theory, “true recognition is due to retrieval of verbatim traces which induce a vivid form of remembering in which subjects consciously experience targets occurrence in a specific context” (Reyna & Brainerd, 1995). Because of this target acceptances on the immediate test are based on verbatim traces that are still accessible. According to the Fuzzy-Trace theory, in false memory verbatim and gist traces work as opponent processes with verbatim memory suppressing false memory and gist memory increasing false memory (Reyna & Brainerd, 1995). When participants falsely accept a distracter, it is because they are using their gist memory to accept words that were consistent with the word list themes. During the immediate memory test acceptance rates of targets and distracters are dissociated because verbatim memory dominates for targets but gist memory dominates for distracters. It is well know that verbatim memories become inaccessible more rapidly than gist memories. Therefore 26

the tendency for true recognition based on verbatim retrieval will mostly depend on how much time has passed since the participant has been exposed to the target. Also as time passes there becomes a shift toward more reliance on gist based memories. Due to this, one would expect to observe less target acceptance on the delayed memory test because the verbatim traces are no longer available. In my analysis I did not observe this trend for all the previously tested words. On the immediate recognition test target words were correctly accepted just as much as they were on the delayed memory test using tested words. But I did observe this trend for the delayed memory test using untested words; targets were less likely to be correctly accepted than during the immediate memory test. In the immediate recognition test, it was found that there was a statistically significant difference between target acceptances in the three emotional conditions. Because target acceptances during the immediate recognition test are based on verbatim memory, this suggests that the participant’s mood did influence verbatim traces of the target words. It was also found that there was a statistically significant difference between distracter acceptances. Because distracter acceptances during the immediate test are based on verbatim traces, this suggests that the participants’ mood influenced gist traces as well as verbatim traces. Further analysis showed that negative mood impaired gist processing during the immediate memory test, while positive mood increase gist processing. As a result, individuals in the positive condition were more susceptible to produce false memory. Individuals in the positive condition more often accepted critical distracters than individuals in the negative condition. This may suggest that individuals in the positive condition were relying more heavily on their gist memories than on their verbatim memories. The affect-as-information approach suggest that negative moods should lead to a reduction in relational processing, and greater use of item-specific processing (Storbeck and Clore, 2005). The results from this study seem to be consistent with the affect-as-information approach. 27

Similar to results observed in the immediate memory test, a main effect of emotion was also observed on the delayed memory test. It was found that participants in the negative condition were less likely to accept all types of words than participants in the negative and positive emotion conditions. This finding is consistent with what was found on the immediate memory test. Interestingly, on the delayed memory test participants in the positive emotional condition actually increased their acceptance rate for targets while participants in the neutral condition decreased their acceptance rates and participants in the negative condition kept their target rates consistent. It is interesting that participants in the positive emotional condition increase their target acceptance rate because according to the Fuzzy-Trace theory, verbatim memory should degrade more quickly than gist memory which would leave gist memory dominating the delayed memory test for targets and critical distracters. If gist memory was dominating the delayed memory test it would be predicted that acceptance rates for targets would decrease instead of increase. Participants in the positive emotional condition also had the highest acceptance rates for critical distracters, which suggest that positive mood may help preserve the meaning of lists on the delayed memory test and increase false memory. Thus positive emotion seemed to increase false memory on both the immediate and delayed memory tests. The results found in this study differ slightly from the results found in the preceding study done by Patel (2007) which induced emotion before the word list had been read. Their study found that positive emotion tended to decrease false memory on the immediate memory test but the opposite was found in this study. But the results are the same for the delayed memory test in which both studies found that positive emotion tended to increase false memory. They also found a decrease in acceptance rates for targets in the negative condition which was not found in this study. Rather, this study found that the acceptance rates for targets in the negative condition seemed to remain the same on the immediate and delayed memory tests.

28

One limitation is that the participants in the study were participating in order to earn extra-credit for their classes, so it is possible that participants haphazardly circled acceptances because they just wanted to finish as quickly as possible. Another limitation of the study is that there was no emotion manipulation check in order to ensure that participants had been successfully induced into their prospective emotional conditions. If this emotional manipulation check had been given then we could remove participants from the study whose moods were not effectively manipulated. Also the emotional induction task was only administered before the immediate memory test and not before the delayed memory test. This could mean that their moods could have differed during each of the memory tests and this would ruin the results.

29

References Brained, C. J., & Reyna, V. F. (2002). Fuzzy-trace theory and false memory. Current directions in Psychological Science, 11, 164-169. Brainerd, C J., & Reyna, V F. (2005). The Science of False Memory (pp. 59-96). New York: Oxford UP Dumas, E., Jean. (2002). Likableness, familiarity, and frequency of 844 person-descriptive words. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 523-531. Hintzman, D. L., Block, R. A., & Inskeep, N. R. (1973). Memory for mode of input. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 741-749 Johnson, M. K., Hashtroudi, S., & Lindsay, D. S. (1993). Source monitoring. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 3-28 Kensinger, E. A. (2004). Remembering emotional experiences: The contribution of valence and arousal. Reviews in the Neurosciences. 241-253. Kensinger, E. A., Corkin, S. (2003). Memory enhancement for emotional words: Are emotion words more vividly remembered than neutral words?. Memory and Cognition, 31, 11691180. Patel, Jay (2007). The Effects of Emotion on False Memory Production Pesta, B. J., Murphy, M. D., & Sanders, R. E. (2001). Are Emotional Charged Lures Immune to False Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27, 328-338. Reyna, V. F. (2000). Fuzzy-trace theory and source monitoring: An evaluation of theory and false-memory data. Learning and Individual Differences, 12, 163-17 Reyna,V.F., & Brainerd, C.J. (1995). Fuzzy-trace theory: An interim synthesis. Learning and Individual Differences, 7, 1–75.

30

Appendix A INSTRUCTIONS FOR RATING THE EMOTIONAL CONTENT OF WORDS Certain words are able to stimulate our emotions. Writers of novels and short stories are experts at using such words to make us feel a range of emotions when we read them. Some words are extremely negative and make us feel very sad, depressed, and sorrowful. Other negative words also make us feel sad but not quite so sad. In contrast, some words are extremely positive and make us feel very happy, joyous, and elated. Other positive words also make us feel happy but not quite so happy. Finally, there are some other words that are emotionally neutral. Those words do not make use feel clearly happy or clearly sad. The purpose of this task is for you to tell us how some of the words that writers use to stimulate our emotions make you feel when you read them. On the next 10 pages, you will find a series of words. Underneath each word is a grid that you should use to tell us how the word made you feel when you read it. The grid looks like this:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

To tell us how each word made you feel when you read it, all you have to do is check the appropriate box under the label that most closely describes what you felt. For example, when most people read the word WRETCHED, they respond as follows: WRETCHED:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

X Thus, the word WRETCHED makes most people feel very sad when they read it. On this task, it is very important for you to tell us how each word actually makes you feel. We don’t want you to tell us how you think you should feel when you read each word or how you think most people would feel. We want to know how you feel when you read each word. There are some easy methods that you can use to decide how a word makes you feel. When you read a word, think of what the word says as though it applied to you personally. How does that make you feel? Just let the emotion come to you, experience it, and don=t try to resist it. Then, check the box that most nearly describes what it was like Another method you can use to decide how a word makes you feel is to remember some past event that has happened to you that the word brings to mind. How did that event make you feel? Again, just let the emotion come to you, experience it, and don=t try to resist it. Then, check the box that most nearly describes what it was like.
Please do not turn the page over yet. Please wait quietly while other people finish reading the instructions. Then, I will tell you to begin.

31

Person descriptive words used on the negative emotion induction task: DISHONEST:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

ANGRY:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

IRRITABLE
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

PHONY:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

UNGRACIOUS:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

32

NEGLECTFUL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

ABUSIVE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

SUICIDAL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

INSINCERE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

TERRIBLE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

VENGEFUL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

33

DECEITFUL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

HATEFUL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

UNFORGIVING:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

DULL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

DISHONORABLE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

GREEDY:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

34

UNTRUSTWORTHY:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

DISTRUSTFUL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

SELFISH:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

DISOBEDIENT:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

ATTACKING:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

UNINTERESTING:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

35

VICIOUS: VERY
SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

HEARTLESS:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

UNRELIABLE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

DECEPTIVE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

UNPLEASANT:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

UNKINDLY:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

36

INSULTING:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

UNTRUTHFUL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

UNFAIR:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

NAGGING:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

GROUCHY:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

DISMAL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

37

DISLIKABLE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

ANNOYING:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

MEAN:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

CRANKY:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

RUDE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

MANIPULATIVE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

38

CRUEL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

AWFUL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

IRRITATING:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

CRABBY:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

UNKIND:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

DISGUSTING:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

39

UNGRATEFUL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

NASTY:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

DISCRIMINATING:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

COLD:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

BITTER:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

40

IMPOLITE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

UNFRIENDLY:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

DISRESPECTFUL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

DISCOURTEOUS:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

VIOLENT:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

UNAPPRECIATIVE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

41

PATHETIC:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

LIAR:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

42

Person descriptive words used on the neutral emotion induction task:

METICULOUS:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

BASHFUL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

MATERIAL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

AMOROUS:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

INFORMAL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

PERFECTIONIST:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

43

METHODICAL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

NONCONFORMING:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

CHEEKY:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

RADICAL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

SARCASTIC:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

IMPULSIVE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

44

OPINIONATED:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

SELF-RIGHTEOUS:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

SELF-CRITICAL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

BLUNT:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

NONCHALANT:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

DISCREET:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

45

ROBUST:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

UPRIGHT:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

PERSUASIVE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

SEDUCTIVE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

THEATRICAL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

IMPRESSIONABLE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

46

AFFABLE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

VIGOROUS:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

FRISKY:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

FRANK:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

SUBTLE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

GENIAL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

47

HEADSTRONG:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

BOISTEROUS:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

SKEPTICAL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

DRAMATIC:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

ABANDONED:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

TOUGH:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

48

SELF-CONSCIOUS:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

SUPERSTITIOUS:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

INEXPERIENCED:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

CLUMSY:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

SATIRICAL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

QUIET:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

49

RACING:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

OLD-FASHIONED:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

JOVIAL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

MODERATE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

RENEWED:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

FLAMBOYANT:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

50

UNPREDICTABLE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

INTENSE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

INVINCIBLE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

SHY:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

BRISK:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

RESERVED:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

51

BRIMMING:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

COERCIVE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

SELF-CONCERNED:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

MEDITATIVE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

REMORSEFUL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

VIGILANT:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

52

Person descriptive words used on the positive emotion induction task: CARING:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

GRACIOUS:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

GLAD:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

COMFORTING:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

ROMANTIC:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

53

POSITIVE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

LOYAL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

PASSIONATE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

RELIABLE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

HUMOROUS:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

COMPANIONABLE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

54

GOOD-HUMORED:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

HONEST:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

CLEVER:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

PATIENT:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

TRUSTFUL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

GOOD-NATURED:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

55

INTERESTING:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

FRIENDLY:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

EXTRAORDINARY:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

POLITE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

COURTEOUS:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

OUTSTANDING:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

56

NICE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

AMUSING:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

ACTIVE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

HIGH-SPIRITED:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

KIND-HEARTED:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

TRUSTING:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

57

CONSIDERATE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

AFFECTIONATE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

EDUCATED:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

EASY-GOING:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

GENEROUS:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

HILARIOUS:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

58

GOOD-TEMPERED:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

TRUSTWORTHY:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

OPEN-MINDED:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

ENTHUSIASTIC:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

WARM-HEARTED:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

GRATEFUL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

59

GREAT:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

LOVABLE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

UNDERSTANDING:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

RESPECTFUL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

RESPONSIBLE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

WONDERFUL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

60

HONORABLE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

LOVING:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

ADVENTUROUS:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

FORGIVING:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

GOOD:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

DEPENDABLE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

61

ENTERTAINING:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

KIND:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

INTELLIGENT:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

ADMIRABLE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

CLEAN:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

CHEERFUL:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

62

GENUINE:
VERY SAD PRETTY SAD SLIGHTLY SAD NEITHER SAD NOR HAPPY SLIGHTLY HAPPY PRETTY HAPPY

VERY HAPPY

63

Appendix B STUDY WORDS: List 1: hot, snow, warm, winter, ice, wet “NEXT LIST” List 2: nose, breathe, sniff, aroma, hear, see “NEXT LIST” List 3: door, glass, pane, shade, ledge, sill “NEXT LIST” List 4: smooth, bumpy, road, tough, sandpaper, jagged “NEXT LIST” List 5: mug, saucer, tea, measuring, coaster, lid “NEXT LIST” List 6: hard, light, pillow, plush, loud, cotton “NEXT LIST” List 7: bed, rest, awake, tired, dream, wake “NEXT LIST” List 8: want, desire, hope, well, think, star “NEXT LIST” List 9: mad, fear, hate, rage, temper, fury “NEXT LIST” List 10: garbage, waste, can, refuse, sewage, bag

64

“NEXT LIST” List 11: peace, law, courts, judge, right, liberty “NEXT LIST” List 12: table, sit, legs, seat, couch, desk “NEXT LIST” List 13: cigarette, puff, blaze, billows, pollution, ashes “NEXT LIST” List 14: low, clouds, up, tall, tower, jump “NEXT LIST” List 15: nurse, sick, medicine, health, hospital, dentist “NEXT LIST” List 16: hot, heat, pipe, cook, warm, fire “NEXT LIST” List 17: steal, robber, crook, burglar, money, cop “NEXT LIST” List 18: hill, valley, climb, summit, top, molehill “NEXT LIST” List 19: note, sound, piano, sing, radio, band “NEXT LIST” List 20: fast, lethargic, stop, listless, snail, caution “NEXT LIST” List 21: thread, pin, eye, sewing, sharp, point

65

“NEXT LIST” List 22: water, stream, lake, Mississippi, boat, tide “NEXT LIST” List 23: elastic, bounce, gloves, tire, ball, eraser “NEXT LIST” List 24: town, crowded, state, capital, streets, subway

66

Appendix C

IMMEDIATE MEMORY TEST INSTRUCTIONS
You have just listened to a recording of several short lists of vocabulary words. Now, you are going to take a memory test to see what you can remember about the words that you listened to. The test will proceed as follows. On the next 6 pages, you will find a series of tables with words on the left side of each line, followed by a statement that you have to answer about each word. Please do not turn the page over yet. Wait until I tell you to do so. Some of the words in these tables will be old words that you just heard on the tape recording. Other words in these tables will be new words that you did not hear on any of the lists but that are related to the words on one of the lists in the sense that they have similar meanings. For instance, imagine that one of the short lists that you heard was QUEEN, ENGLAND, CROWN, PRINCE, GEORGE, DICTATOR. If you saw the words KING, THRONE, and PALACE in the upcoming tables, you would say that all of the words are new but that they are all related in meaning to this short list. Finally, still other words in the tables will be unlike anything you heard on any of the short lists. For example, suppose that the only list that you heard was the Aroyal@ words in the preceding paragraph. If you saw the words COMPUTER, PINE, and SODIUM in the upcoming tables, you would say that all of the words are new and they are not related in meaning to the short list. They are brand new in every respect. In the upcoming tables, you will have to respond to each word by deciding whether the statement that follows it is true. Each word is followed by one of three statements: It=s a word I heard on one of the lists. YES NO Not a word I heard, but it=s related to one of the lists. YES NO It=s either a word I heard or a word that=s related to one of the lists. YES NO For example, suppose that the only list that you heard was the short list of Aroyal@ words, above. The table of test words might look like the one you see below. Read through the table and be sure you understand why each answer that has been underlined on the far right is the correct one: KING PALACE CROWN SODIUM ENGLAND It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. YES YES YES YES NO NO NO NO

YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO

COMPUTER It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. THRONE DICTATOR PINE It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

The answer is no to the first question because KING was not on the Aroyal@ list, the answer is yes to the second question because PALACE is related to the Aroyal@ list, the answer is yes to the third question because CROWN was on the list, the answer is no to the fourth question because SODIUM is not related to the Aroyal@ list, the answer is yes to the fifth question because ENGLAND was on the list, the answer is no to the sixth question because COMPUTER was not on the list and is not related to the Aroyal@ list, the answer is yes to the seventh question because THRONE is related to the Aroyal@ list, the answer is no to the eighth question because DICTATOR was on the list, and the answer is no to the ninth question because PINE was not on the list. In just a moment, I will ask you to turn the page over and read all the words on the memory test and answer all the questions about them. Answer each question by circling either YES or NO. Please do not turn the page over yet. Please wait quietly while other people finish reading the instructions. Then, I will tell you to begin.

67

SNOW

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

TRAFFIC Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. STARS PIN It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

CIGAR It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. COLD It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

LETHARGIC It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. YES BREAD It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. OBEY Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. YES YES

HIGH EYE BONE TOE

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

SNIFF It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. CITIZEN ARMY Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

LISTLESS

PHYSICIAN It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. YES

68

BUILDING It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. YES FIGHT PIANO It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

COUNTRY It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. EAT Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

MEDICINE SMELL

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. YES YES

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

COMMAND It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. YES SHADE It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. YES

SMOKE

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

SING It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. HAYSTACK Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. PERSON Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

SANDWICH REST

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. YES YES YES YES

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

FLAG It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. SICK Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. CONCERT

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. YES

69

CHILLY WINDOW HOPE

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. YES YES YES YES

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

HAND It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. TALL Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

AMERICAN It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. YES ILL It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. YES

BILLOWS FOOT

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. YES YES

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

MUSIC

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

SYMBOL CLOUDS HUSBAND GIRL SCENT BLAZE

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

DELAY It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. RAGE It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

70

HATE GOOD

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

PUFF It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. HOUSE HEALTH THIMBLE WELL Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. YES YES YES YES

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

FEMALE

SLEEP It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

LAMP Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. FEAR It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. MELODY FOUNTAIN It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. YES YES YES YES YES YES

UP It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. DESIRE DOLLS SLOW HEAT Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

71

WHIFF It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. AWAKE Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

MAN It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. WISH PANE SHADE HATRED HEALTH WRITE Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

BLANKET TIRED PEN GLASS

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

SOUND It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. NEEDLE TABLE It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

HAPPINESS FRIGID

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

72

ANGER

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

STOP It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. RING Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. SHUTTER SPIDER WINTER It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

AROMA Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. UNCLE INSECT It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

SNOOZE TROUBLE

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. YES YES YES

WARM Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. SHOOTER DOCTOR Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. YES YES YES YES

WORRY It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. SEWING It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. WRATH Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

BREATHE

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. YES

73

Appendix D

DELAYED MEMORY TEST INSTRUCTIONS
In the first session of this experiment, you listened to a recording of several short lists of vocabulary words. Now, you are going to take another memory test to see what you can remember about the words that you listened to. The test will proceed as follows. On the next 12 pages, you will find a series of tables with words on the left side of each line, followed by a statement that you have to answer about each word. Please do not turn the page over yet. Wait until I tell you to do so. Some of the words in these tables will be old words that you heard on the tape recording. Other words in these tables will be new words that you did not hear on any of the lists but that are related to the words on one of the lists in the sense that they have similar meanings. For instance, imagine that one of the short lists that you heard was QUEEN, ENGLAND, CROWN, PRINCE, GEORGE, DICTATOR. If you saw the words KING, THRONE, and PALACE in the upcoming tables, you would say that all of the words are new but that they are all related in meaning to this short list. Finally, still other words in the tables will be unlike anything you heard on any of the short lists. For example, suppose that the only list that you heard was the Aroyal@ words in the preceding paragraph. If you saw the words COMPUTER, PINE, and SODIUM in the upcoming tables, you would say that all of the words are new and they are not related in meaning to the short list. They are brand new in every respect. In the upcoming tables, you will have to respond to each word by deciding whether the statement that follows it is true. Each word is followed by one of three statements: It=s a word I heard on one of the lists. YES NO Not a word I heard, but it=s related to one of the lists. YES NO It=s either a word I heard or a word that=s related to one of the lists. YES NO For example, suppose that the only list that you heard was the short list of Aroyal@ words, above. The table of test words might look like the one you see below. Read through the table and be sure you understand why each answer that has been underlined on the far right is the correct one: KING PALACE CROWN SODIUM ENGLAND It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. YES YES YES YES NO NO NO NO

YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO

COMPUTER It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. THRONE DICTATOR PINE It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

The answer is no to the first question because KING was not on the Aroyal@ list, the answer is yes to the second question because PALACE is related to the Aroyal@ list, the answer is yes to the third question because CROWN was on the list, the answer is no to the fourth question because SODIUM is not related to the Aroyal@ list, the answer is yes to the fifth question because ENGLAND was on the list, the answer is no to the sixth question because COMPUTER was not on the list and is not related to the Aroyal@ list, the answer is yes to the seventh question because THRONE is related to the Aroyal@ list, the answer is no to the eighth question because DICTATOR was on the list, and the answer is no to the ninth question because PINE was not on the list. In just a moment, I will ask you to turn the page over and read all the words on the memory test and answer all the questions about them. Answer each question by circling either YES or NO. Please do not turn the page over yet. Please wait quietly while other people finish reading the instructions. Then, I will tell you to begin.

74

SNOW

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

TRAFFIC Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. STARS PIN It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

CIGAR It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. COLD It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

LETHARGIC It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. BREAD It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. OBEY Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

HIGH EYE BONE TOE

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

SNIFF It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. CITIZEN ARMY Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

LISTLESS

PHYSICIAN It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

75

BUILDING It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. FIGHT PIANO It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

COUNTRY It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. EAT Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

MEDICINE SMELL

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

COMMAND SHADE

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

SMOKE

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

SING It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. HAYSTACK Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. PERSON Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

SANDWICH REST

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

FLAG It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. SICK Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. CONCERT It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

76

CHILLY WINDOW HOPE

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

HAND It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. TALL Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

AMERICAN It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. ILL It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

BILLOWS FOOT

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

MUSIC

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

SYMBOL CLOUDS HUSBAND GIRL SCENT BLAZE

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

DELAY It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. RAGE It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

77

HATE GOOD

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

PUFF It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. HOUSE HEALTH THIMBLE WELL Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

FEMALE

SLEEP It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

LAMP Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. FEAR It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. MELODY FOUNTAIN It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

UP It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. DESIRE DOLLS SLOW HEAT Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

78

WHIFF It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. AWAKE Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

MAN It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. WISH PANE SHADE HATRED HEALTH WRITE Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

BLANKET TIRED PEN GLASS

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

SOUND It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. NEEDLE TABLE It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

HAPPINESS FRIGID

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

79

ANGER

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

STOP It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. RING Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. SHUTTER SPIDER WINTER It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

AROMA Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. UNCLE INSECT It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

SNOOZE TROUBLE

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

WARM Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. SHOOTER DOCTOR Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

WORRY It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. SEWING It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. WRATH Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

BREATHE

80

PART 2

81

BUMPY It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. JAIL Not word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. DARK It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. MEASURING Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

JUNK It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. SOFT STATE It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

BEAUTIFUL LETTICE

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

TRASH BOUNCE TOUCH

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

JONATHAN TEA

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. YES YES YES YES YES

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

BLACK Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. BEER It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

ROAD Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

GOVERNMENT It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. YES

82

KITCHEN COURSE CAN

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

PRETTY BUS

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

MISSISSIPPI ROUGH

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. YES YES YES YES

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

CABBAGE PLUSH

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

CUP It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. CLIMB It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

BROOK Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. FLOOR CHEESE WASTE CAR Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

LIGHT

CUSHION

83

SPRINGY

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

CHAIR It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. COURTS It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

VEGETABLE CROWDED CIRCUS COFFEE

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

COOK It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. CARPET Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

STOVE FELLOW LEGS TIE

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

COTTAGE VILLAGE JUDGE BIKE SEAT

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

84

SIT

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

SLOW HEAT

UNEVEN FRUIT

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

SWIM It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. ROBBER It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

DRUNK Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. MOUNTAIN It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

LION LAW

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

RUBBISH GIRLS

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

CROOK It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. PIPE Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

CHARRED RIVER LATEX

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

85

SOFA

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

BURGLAR Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. LONG It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. THIEF Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. SEWAGE FOOD It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

METROPOLIS SUMMIT TRAIN

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. YES YES YES

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

STRAW PILLOW SHIRT

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

VALLEY

STREAM It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. JUSTICE RED It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

CABIN OVEN

86

Effects of Emotion on False Memory 87

CITY

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

GLOVES FUR JURY SWIFT SAUCER LAKE

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists.

ORANGE JUNGLE

GLACIER WHISKEY TIRE

It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists. It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. It’s a word I heard on one of the lists. Not a word I heard, but it’s related to one of the lists.

NARROW RUBBER SLEEVES CAPITAL RECLINER TOUGH

It’s either a word I heard or a word that’s related to one of the lists.

87

Effects of Emotion on False Memory 88

88


				
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