Unit 10: Microbiology Unit Chapters 26-28, and 31 Chapter 26: Origins of Life Vocabulary Stromatolites Protobionts Archaea Eukarya Spontaneous generation Dates: January 3 – January 9 Test: Friday January 9 8 kingdom system self-assembly Domains ribozymes cyanobacteria Precambrian Objectives Be able to compare and contrast the theory of biogenesis and idea of spontaneous generation. Be able to categorize organisms using the 8 kingdom/ 3 domain system Be able to describe the first “living things” and how they originated. Be able to list key events in the evolution of life on Earth, their order, and estimated time of existence. Chapter 27: Bacteria Vocabulary Peptidoglycan Plasmid Symbiosis Obligate Heterotroph Gram positive Endospore Koch’s postulates Anaerobe Conjugation Gram negative Pili Bloom aerobic Transduction Capsid Endotoxins Facultatitve autotroph Transformation Bioremediation Nucleoid region Objectives Be able to list Koch’s postulates and their use. Be able to list the three primary symbiotic relationships and give an example in bacteria for each. Be able to list differences between archaebacteria and eubacteria. List the three major types of archaebacteria and describe their lifestyle and adaptations. Be able to describe the specific bacteria at the end of the notes and their significance to the economy. Be able to discuss the positive roles that bacteria play in our environment and technologically. Chapter 28: Protista Vocabulary Eukaryotic Endosymbiosis Algae Protozoans Syngamy Objectives Be able to describe the evolution of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic cells (endomembrane and endosymbiosi Be able to describe the major “groups” of protists, their key characteristics, life cycles, and significance to us. (See second page) Chapter 31: Fungi Vocabulary Antibiotic Mycorhizzae Plasmogamy Zone of inhibition lichen Karyogamy spores chitin mycelium absorption hyphae dikaryon Objectives Be able to list the four divisions of fungi, key members, and reproductive characteristics. (see second page) Be able to describe the generalized life cycle of a fungi. Be able to describe the lifestyles of molds, yeasts, lichen, and mychorrhizae that have evolved independently in several different divisions of fungi. Protista Taxonomy and Characteristics KNOW THE BOLD FACED TERMS and the information listed. Alveolata: (have small cavities “alveoli” attached to the subsurface of the plasma membrane) Ciliophora: Paramecium (Cilia) Dinoflagellates: Zooxanthellae, Pfisteria, Red tides (armor of cellulose plates) Apicomplexa: Plasmodium (can’t move on their own, so must infect cells) Euglenozoa Euglenophyta: Euglena Kinetoplastida: Trypanasoma Diplomonadida-Parabasala (loss of mitochondria) Diplomonadida: Giardia Parabasala: Trichomonas Stramenopila (hairy flagella) Oomycota: water molds, rusts, downy mildews Bacillariophyta: diatoms (silicon shells give the glassy look) Chrysophyta: golden algae (xanthophylls pigment) Phaeophyta: brown algae/ kelp and other seaweeds) Rhodophyta: Red algae Viridiplantae: (plant type chloroplasts) Chlorophyta: Volvox, Mycetozoa: Slime molds Rhizopoda: Amoeba, Foraminiferans, Radiolarians, Heliozoans (pseudopods, some have shells with holes for pseudopods) Fungi Divisions, characteristics and key members Chyridiomycota (chytrids): Aquatic saprobes May be leading to decline in amphibians The only flagellated fungi Zygomycota (zygote fungi): Predominantly terrestrial Often decomposers Black bread mold The diploid structure gives the group its name and is very resistant to drying and freezing Ascomycota (sac fungi): Penicillium mold Morels and truffles “fruiting body” called an ascocarp has asci that produce the spores some of the most devasting pathogens for plants Dutch elm disease Pathogen for the American Chestnut Ringworm Athlete’s foot Basidiomycota (club fungi): Shelf fungi, puffballs, rusts Wheat rust major economic problem typical pedestal shape associated with mushrooms basidiocarp (mushroom) is the sources of sexual spores Deutermycetes (imperfect fungi); no know sexual stage, some molds belong here.