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					Participatory Adult Learning Professional Development Strategy: Evidence and Examples

Carol M. Trivette, Ph.D.
Orelena Hawks Puckett Institute Morganton, North Carolina

Presentation made at the Ninth National Early Childhood Inclusion Institute Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute Chapel Hill, NC July 15, 2009

Purpose of the Presentation
• Describe the difference between intervention and implementation practices • Describe the key characteristics of an evidence-based approach to implementing professional development • Describe the evidence base for the professional development model • Describe the findings from two evaluation studies using the professional development model

Two Types of Evidence-Based Practices
• Evidence-Based Intervention Practices
 Early childhood intervention practices

• Evidence-Based Implementation Practices
 Adult learning methods

Implementation Practices
• Participatory adult learning

Intervention Practices
• Early child contingency learning • Interest-based child learning • Natural environment practices • Classroom practices

• Coaching/mentoring
• Just-in-time training • Guided design • Accelerated learning

• Communication and language learning
• Early literacy learning • Family systems intervention practices

Tell me, I forget. Show me, I remember. Involve me, I understand.
Chinese Proverb

PALS (Participatory Adult Learning Strategy)
PLAN Introduce and Illustrate

RECYCLE

APPLICATION Practice and Evaluate

Identify Next Steps in the Learning Process

Active Learner Involvement

INFORMED UNDERSTANDING Reflection and Mastery

Research Foundations of PALSa
• • • • • Research synthesis of 79 studies of accelerated learning, coaching, guided design, and just-in-time-training 58 randomized control design studies and 21 comparison group studies 3,152 experimental group participants and 2,988 control or comparison group studies Combination of studies in college and noncollege settings Outcomes included learner knowledge, skills, attitudes, and selfefficacy beliefs

Trivette, C.M. et al. (2009). Characteristics and consequences of adult learning methods and strategies. Winterberry Research Syntheses, Vol. 2, Number 1.

a

Six Characteristics Identified in How People Learna Were Used to Evaluate the Adult Learning Methods
Planning Introduce Illustrate Application Practice Evaluate Deep Understanding Reflection Mastery Engage the learner in self-assessment of his or her acquisition of knowledge and skills as a basis for identifying “next steps” in the learning process Engage the learner in a process of assessing his or her experience in the context of some conceptual or practical model or framework, or some external set of standards or criteria Engage the learner in the use of the material, knowledge or practice Engage the learner in a process of evaluating the consequence or outcome of the application of the material, knowledge or practice Engage the learner in a preview of the material, knowledge or practice that is the focus of instruction or training Demonstrate or illustrate the use or applicability of the material, knowledge or practice for the learner

a

Donovan, M. et al. (Eds.) (1999). How people learn. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Major Findings from the Research Synthesis
1.2 Planning Application Understanding

MEAN COHEN'S d EFFECT SIZE

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0 Introduce Illustrate Practice Evaluate Reflection Mastery ADULT LEARNING METHOD CHARACTERISTICS

Effect Sizes for Introducing Information Practices
Number Practices Pre-class exercises Out of class activities/self-instruction Classroom/workshop lectures Dramatic readings Imagery Dramatic readings/imagery Studies 9 12 26 18 7 4 Effect Sizes 9 20 108 40 18 11 Mean Effect (d ) Size 1.02 .76 .68 .35 .34 .15

95% Confidence Interval .63-1.41 .44-1.09 .47-.89 .13-.57 .08-.59 -.33-.62

Effect Sizes for Illustrate/Demonstrate Practices
Number
Practices Learner input Role playing/simulation Real life example/real life + roleplaying Instructional video Studies 6 20 6 5 Effect Sizes 6 64 10 49 Mean Effect (d ) Size .89 .87 .67 .33 95% Confidence Interval .28-1.51 .58-1.17 .27-1.07 .09-.59

Effect Sizes for Practicing Characteristics
Number 95% Confidence Interval .48-1.72 .39-.95 .35-.81 .11-.99 .21-.62

Characteristics
Real life application + role playing Problem solving tasks Real life application Learning games/writing exercises Role playing (skits, plays)

Studies 5 16 17 9 11

Effect Sizes 20 29 83 11 35

Mean Effect (d ) Size 1.10 .67 .58 .55 .41

Effect Sizes for Evaluation Practices
Number Mean Effect (d ) Size .96 95% Confidence Interval .67-1.26

Practices
Assess strengths/weaknesses Review experience/make changes

Studies 14

Effect Sizes 48

19

35

.60

.36-.83

Effect Sizes for Reflection Practices
Number Mean Effect (d ) Size 1.07 .75 .67 95% Confidence Interval .69-1.45 .49-1.00 .39-.95

Practices
Performance improvement Journaling/behavior suggestion Group discussion about feedback

Studies 9 8 16

Effect Sizes 34 17 29

Effect Sizes for Mastery Practices
Number Practices Standards-based assessment Self-assessment Mean Effect (d ) Size .76 .67 95% Confidence Interval .42-1.10 .39-.95

Studies
13 16

Effect Sizes
44 29

Effect Sizes for the Study Outcomes
1 0.9 0.8
MEAN EFFECT SIZE (d)

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Knowledge Skills Attitudes Self Efficacy
STUDY OUTCOMES

Cumulative Effects of the Adult Learning Characteristics
2 1.8 1.6
MEAN EFFECT SIZE (d )

1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5
NUMBER OF ADULT LEARNING METHOD CHARACTERISTICS

State-of-the-Art Knowledge Base

Active involvement of learners in learning new knowledge or practice is a necessary condition for understanding and mastery of the topic or focus of learning or training.

How Active?

Active learner involvement needs to occur before, during, and after participation in any kind of training opportunity or learning experience is to have optimal positive effects and benefits.

PALS (Participatory Adult Learning Strategy)
PLAN Introduce and Illustrate

RECYCLE

APPLICATION Practice and Evaluate

Identify Next Steps in the Learning Process

Active Learner Involvement

INFORMED UNDERSTANDING Reflection and Mastery

Trainer and Trainee Roles in the Different Phases of PALS
PALS Phases Introduction Trainer Roles Preview learning topic Trainee Roles Complete pretraining preview

Describe key elements
Provide examples Include trainee input

Pre-class/workshop exercises
Provide input on the learning topic In-class/workshop warm-up exercises

Illustrate application
Demonstrate application

Application

Facilitate application Observe trainee application Provide in vivo feedback/guidance Facilitate learner assessment of options

Provide examples of application Trainee role playing, games, etc. Implement/practice use of the subject matter Evaluate use of the knowledge or practice Standards-based evaluation Conduct self-assessment Trainer-guided learner reflection Journaling Group discussions of understanding

Informed Understanding

Establish learning standards Engage learners in self-assessment Provide guidance to learners Provide behavioral suggestions

Repeat Learning Process

Joint planning

Joint planning

Trainer guidance
Trainer/trainee mentoring

Identify needed information/experiences
Trainer/trainee mentoring

Promoting Adoption of Evidence-Based Practices Using PALS
• SUNRISE early childhood intervention classroom practices • Family-systems early intervention practices • Center for Early Literacy Learning early childhood intervention practices • Everyday early childhood language learning practices • Head Start teacher effectiveness project • Early Head Start Windows of Opportunities project

Promoting Adoption of Family-Systems Intervention Practices
• 473 Part C early intervention practitioners • 5 types of training (presentations, day and multiday workshops, field-based and enhanced fieldbased) • Participants randomly assigned to complete the study outcome measure • Outcome measure included items on the usefulness of the training and the extent to which the training improved their abilities to work with families

Four Major Components of the Family-Systems Intervention Model that Constituted the Focus of In-service Training

CAPACITY-BUILDING HELPGIVING PRACTICES

FAMILY CONCERNS AND PRIORITIES

FAMILY MEMBER STRENGTHS

SUPPORTS AND RESOURCES

Characteristics of the Different Types of In-service Training
Type of In-Service Training Half Day/ Full Day Workshops Enhanced Field-Based Training

Practice Characteristics Trainer introduction of the practice Trainer illustration of use of the practice Trainee application/use of the practice Trainee evaluation of his/her use of the practice Trainee reflection on his/her learning

Conference Presentations

Multi-Day Workshops

Field-Based Training

+ ± -

+ + ± -

++ + + ± ± +

++ ++ + + + ++ ++

++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++

Trainee assessment of learner mastery

Multiple learning sessions

NOTE. - = No activity or opportunity, ± = limited opportunity, + = multiple opportunities, and ++ = multiple and varied opportunities.

Participants’ Judgments of the Benefits of the Five Different Types of Training
32 Usefulness Abilities

MEAN PARTICIPANT RATING

30 28 26 24 22 20 Conference Presentations Day Workshops Multi-Day Workshops Field-Based Enhanced Field-Based

TYPE OF TRAINING

Improved Family Systems Intervention Abilities 32
Multiday Workshops

30

Field-Based Enhanced Field-Based

PARTICIPANT RATINGS

28 26 24 22 20 HOURS OF TRAINING

Influences on hours of training on three types of training provided the participants.

CELL Resource Teams
One
State Leadership Team

Number of Teams

Trainers

End-Users

Many

8

Framework for Implementing PALS
Strategies for Using PALS Process in a TA Context PALS Components Instructor Learner

Plan

Illustrate

Informed Understanding

Recycle Learning Process

• Free download www.wbpress.com: Trivette, C. M., Dunst, C. J., Hamby, D. W., & O'Herin, C. E. (2009). Characteristics and consequences of adult learning methods and strategies [Winterberry Research Syntheses, Vol. 2, Number 2]. Asheville, NC: Winterberry Press. • Dunst, C. J., & Trivette, C. M. (2009). Let’s be PALS: An evidence-based approach to professional development. Infants and Young Children, 22, 163-175. • www.puckett.org

• Email address: trivette@puckett.org


				
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