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REFERENCING: THE AUTHOR-DATE SYSTEM The referencing method used in our courses is the author-date system, which is widely used in the humanities (but not all). Citations: You cite the author in the body of your text, followed immediately by the date of publication in brackets, e.g. As Hall (1996) has argued, … This system of referencing makes it possible to keep the flow of your argument going without interrupting it to give details about titles, publishers etc, all of which appear in the bibliography at the end of the essay.1 If the author’s views that you are referring to are found in one particular chapter or just a few pages, insert the page numbers after the date e.g. Haviland (1996: 38-40). Direct Quotes: If you quote the precise words of the author whose work you are using, those words must be between quotation marks, and must be page referenced e.g. “Customs, institutions, beliefs and values are interrelated; if one changes others change as well.” (Kottak 1994: 43). In cases where you requote something that the author you are reading is him/herself also quoting, you should do it as follows: “Culture … is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, arts, morals law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society” (Tylor 1871/1958: 1; quoted in Kottak 1994: 39). Note that there are two dates for Tylor because Kottak is showing that Tylor first published the quote in 1871, but that he (Kottak) has used a 1958 edition of Tylor’s work. Important: There are other systems of referencing (e.g. footnoting), which you will come across elsewhere in your studies e.g. academic writing in historical studies. Always check with departments to see which system they require. The important thing is to be ACCURATE and CONSISTENT and to follow the requirements of the discipline concerned. REFERENCES LIST/BIBLIOGRAPHIES All essays and other submitted assignments must include a reference list at the end. A reference list includes all works quoted and/or cited to in the essay (but may exclude works consulted but neither quoted nor cited). A bibliography is a complete list of all the works you have consulted, cited and/or quoted to prepare your essay. The convention we require for references lists and bibliographies is one that lists all authors quoted or cited alphabetically by surname, first name, date of publication, title of article or book, and further publications details, as indicated below.
We have used bold typeface to highlight how to quote and cite references or sources. There is no need for you to do the same.

Books Surname, First name (or initials) Publication date Title of book Place published, Publisher’s name Examples Hall, Martin 1996 Archaeology Africa Cape Town, David Philip Haviland, William A. 1996 Cultural Anthropology (8th edition) Orlando FL, Harcourt Brace Kottak, Conrad Phillip 1994 Cultural Anthropology (6th edition) New York, MacGraw Hill Chapters in books Surname, First name (or initials) Publication date ‘Title of chapter’ in Title of Book Book editors’ names Place published, Publisher’s name pp. page numbers of chapter Example Nyamwaya, David O. 1997 ‘Three critical issues in community health development projects in Kenya’ in Discourses of Development: Anthropological perspectives (eds.) R.D Grillo and R.L. Stirrat Oxford, Berg pp. 183-201 Articles in journals Surname, First name (or initials) ‘Title of article’ Name of Journal Volume (number): page numbers of article Example Maggs T. 1984 ‘Ndondonwane: a preliminary report on an Early Iron Age site on the Lower Tugela River’ Annals of the Natal Museum 26(1): 71-93 Other sources You may need to reference other sources such as a newspaper article, or information from the Internet. Sometimes details of author, publications etc are not available. Give as much detail as you can. Examples: A newspaper article Cape Times. 1977. ‘A Tale of two Cultures at Pioneering High School’, Wednesday 13 August, p.4. The Internet When available, give the author’s name, title, and date. You also need to give the date that you accessed the site, and the web address (URL), Example Tilton, J. 1988. Composing Good HTML. (1 Dec 1988). NOTE: IF you access a site and follow the links to a new site which you then make use of, you MUST give the URL and reference details for the NEW site. Material from the course reader You should reference the original article/chapter/book (as above) and NOT the course reader.


PLAGIARISM Plagiarism is the unacknowledged use of words or ideas of other writers (including those of fellow students) in your essays in a way that makes those ideas or words appear to be your own. This is obviously unfair to the original author and unacceptable in academic work as it constitutes a form of dishonesty, fraud and theft. Hence, the University regards plagiarism as a serious offence. Plagiarised work will be given zero. In addition a student who has plagiarised or cheated will be referred to the Vice-Chancellor, who will refer the student to one of the disciplinary courts of the University. Recent cases have lead to sentences of suspension from the University, to fines and to community service. EXAMPLES OF PLAGIARISM There is a difference between outright cheating and more subtle forms of plagiarism which first year students may not yet be aware of, all of which are still unacceptable. Here are some examples in decreasing order of seriousness. 1. Copying: Copying another student’s essay, and copying words for word from books, articles or the internet. This is extremely serious. 2. Cut and paste: Putting together extracts from various authors to make up your essay. This sort of essay cannot be regarded as your own and will be penalised, so you need to avoid doing it. 3. Paraphrasing without acknowledgement: Deliberate rewording of an author’s sentences and presenting them as your own without any citation. Avoid doing this or you are likely to be penalised. 4. Lifting ideas: Using an author’s key ideas, even in your own words, and presenting them as your own (i.e. without citation) is also a form of plagiarism. HOW TO AVOID PLAGIARISM Knowing just when and how to reference others’ ideas may be difficult for new students to learn. Second and third year students are expected to know how to do so. The art of writing a good essay is to find the right balance between others’ ideas and your own and to develop your own argument. These guidelines may help you to give your own meaning to your writing, and at the same time, help you to avoid plagiarism. 1. Use your own words: You are encouraged to use the new ideas you will encounter, but try to explain them in your own words in order to develop your own argument. This will build your confidence with the new subject matter. 2. Acknowledge sources: If you use someone else’s ideas or facts, identify that person using the conventions explained above. This helps the reader to see how you have built your own argument on the ideas or facts of others. 3. Acceptable paraphrasing: In some cases it is not easy to avoid paraphrasing. For example, an important paragraph may have a number of key words which you cannot avoid using. In this case, use as many of your own words in combination with those of the author and acknowledge your source, e.g. Drawing on Nyamwaya’s (1997) argument, I agree that …


4. Quoting: In cases where the author has expressed something very well, and you want to use their words for their effect, you must use quotation marks followed by the appropriate reference. Quotations are normally used to back up your point. Avoid using very long quotations, and avoid over-using quotations (see above for how to quote). As indicated earlier, University policy is that any incidents of student found plagiarising, i.e. cheating by copying others' work (whether those others are fellow students or the authors of published or internet works) must be reported to the Principal for disciplinary procedures to be set in motion. The University Court has the authority to rusticate (suspend or expel) a student who is found guilty on such a charge. Consequently the University requires that all submitted written work must include the following signed declaration: Declaration 1. I know that plagiarism is wrong. Plagiarism is to use another’s work and pretend it is one’s own. 2. Each significant contribution to, and quotation in this essay/report/project/assignment that I have taken from the work(s) of other people has been attributed, and has been cited and referenced. 3. This essay/report/project/assignment is my own work. 4. I have not allowed, and will not allow, anyone to copy my work with the intention of passing it off as his or her own work.


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