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IWRM and the Interface Between Water and Environment Management

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					IWRM-IHP, March 2008, Cape Town-Session Environment:
K Leendertse


                  Environment
                 IWRM & the environment                                                                            Environment
                                                                                                                  IWRM & the environment


                 1. How does the environment use water?                                                           2. Why is the environment important?
                                                                                                1. How does it                                                                               1. How does it
                                                     Maintenance of functioning of                 use water?                                                                                   use water?
                                                     ecosystems                                                                                     Ecosystems provide goods and
                                                                                                2. Why is it                                                                                 2. Why is it
                                                                                                                                                    services
                                                     • plants evaporate and transpire water        important?                                                                                   important?
                                                     • animals drink water                                                                          The goods and services (functions)
                                                                                                3. Effects of                                                                                3. Effects of
                                                                                                                                                    that are provided by the ecosystems
                                                     • fish and amphibians live in water          other sectors                                                                                other sectors
                                                                                                                                                    benefit people and their livelihoods.
                                                                                                4. Impact on                                        These benefits are often not fully       4. Impact on
                                                     Water is also used by upper-watershed        other sectors                                                                                other sectors
                                                     ecosystems, like forests, shrublands and                                                       recognised in planning and managing
                                                                                                5. Benefits                                         water resources.                         5. Benefits
                                                     woodlands.                                    from IWRM                                                                                    from IWRM

                                                     Water resource inputs maintain a           6. Barriers to                                                                               6. Barriers to
                                                                                                   IWRM                                             Destruction of ecosystems                   IWRM
                                                     dynamic in ecosystems                                                                          penalises the poor most
                                                     • Downstream, wetlands, floodplains, and   7. Towards                                                                                   7. Towards
                                                                                                   change                                           They benefit from the “free” common         change
                                                     mangroves need freshwater inputs.                                                              resources     (fuel   wood,    water,
                                                     • Water is used to maintain a (semi)-      8. Think
                                                                                                                                                    fisheries, fruits). They can also
                                                                                                                                                                                             8. Think
                                                                                                   about it                                                                                     about it
                                                     natural dynamic, often of a seasonal                                                           contribute to ecosystem degradation
                                                     nature.                                                                                        through over-exploitation.
                                                     • Water is needed to prevent degradation
                                                     and destruction of ecosystems
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                  Environment
                 IWRM & the environment                                                                            Environment
                                                                                                                  IWRM & the environment


                 2. Why is the environment important?                              (2)                            3. How is the environment affected by other sectors?
                                                                                                1. How does it                                                                               1. How does it
                                                                                                   use water?     Environment’s needs for water are easily neglected                            use water?

                                                                                                2. Why is it      The needs of water for nature, or the environment, are too                 2. Why is it
                                                                                                   important?     easily neglected in considerations of water allocations. But if too           important?

                                                                                                3. Effects of     much water is allocated for other sectors, the impacts on                  3. Effects of
                                                                                                  other sectors   ecosystems can be devastating.                                               other sectors

                                                                                                4. Impact on          Agriculture
                                                                                                                                                                          Urban water uses   4. Impact on
                           1. REGULATION FUNCTIONS       2. HABITAT FUNCTIONS                     other sectors                                                                                other sectors

                                                                                                5. Benefits                                                                                  5. Benefits
                                                                                                   from IWRM                                                                                    from IWRM

                                                                                                6. Barriers to                                                                               6. Barriers to
                                                                                                   IWRM                                                                                         IWRM

                                                                                                7. Towards                                                                                   7. Towards
                               3. PRODUCTION           4. AESTHETIC/RECREATIONAL                   change                                                                                       change
                                  FUNCTIONS                    FUNCTIONS
                                                                                                8. Think             Hydropower                                              Industry        8. Think
                                                                                                   about it                                                                                     about it
                  Natural ecosystems provide many goods and services to
                  humankind that are often neglected in planning and decision
                  making.

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IWRM and the Interface between Water and Environmental
management                                                                                                                                                                                                     1
IWRM-IHP, March 2008, Cape Town-Session Environment:
K Leendertse


                  Environment
                 IWRM & the environment                                                                        Environment
                                                                                                              IWRM & the environment


                 3. How is the environment affected by other sectors?     (2 )                                3. How is the environment affected by other sectors?   (3)


                                                                                            1. How does it                                                                        1. How does it
                 Agriculture                                                                   use water?     Urban water uses                                                       use water?
                                               Impact of agriculture on the                 2. Why is it                                   Urban water uses can cause             2. Why is it
                                               environment is of major importance              important?                                  pollution                                 important?
                                               The agriculture sector is most important     3. Effects of                                  Urban water uses, in particular        3. Effects of
                                               as a user of water and impacts most            other sectors                                wastewater        effluents, pollute     other sectors
                                               heavily on ecosystems’ ”water share”.        4. Impact on                                   downstream ecosystems if not           4. Impact on
                                               Abstraction of water for agriculture is        other sectors                                sufficiently treated.                    other sectors
                                               leading to dried up rivers, falling ground   5. Benefits                                    The treatment of effluents is often    5. Benefits
                                               water tables, salinated soil and polluted       from IWRM                                   costly and, especially in developing      from IWRM
                                               waterways.      Carefully       considered   6. Barriers to
                                                                                                                                           countries, not considered a high       6. Barriers to
                                               multipurpose projects can combine               IWRM                                        priority given other needs. When          IWRM
                                               irrigation with aquifer recharge, land       7. Towards
                                                                                                                                           due consideration is given to the      7. Towards
                                               drainage and ecosystem sustenance.              change                                      value of ecosystems, effluent             change
                                                                                                                                           recycling and reuse are often seen
                                                                                            8. Think                                                                              8. Think
                                                                                               about it                                    to be cost-effective conservation         about it
                                                                                                                                           measures.



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                  Environment
                 IWRM & the environment                                                                        Environment
                                                                                                              IWRM & the environment


                 3. How is the environment affected by other sectors?     (4)                                 3. How is the environment affected by other sectors?   (5)


                                                                                            1. How does it                                                                        1. How does it
                 Hydropower sector                                                             use water?     Industry                                                               use water?
                                              Hydropower sector affects                     2. Why is it                                   Industry affects water quantity        2. Why is it
                                              water regime                                     important?                                  and quality                               important?
                                              The hydropower sector affects                 3. Effects of                                  Industry often has substantial         3. Effects of
                                              downstream ecosystems by                        other sectors                                impacts       on       ecosystems        other sectors
                                              changing the water and sediment               4. Impact on                                   downstream through water use and       4. Impact on
                                              regime and blocking migratory                   other sectors                                pollution.                               other sectors
                                              movements       of     fish     and           5. Benefits                                    Mining, for example, has affected      5. Benefits
                                              amphibians.                                      from IWRM                                   many waterways in Latin America.          from IWRM
                                              In some cases reservoirs have                 6. Barriers to
                                                                                                                                           In Western Europe industrial           6. Barriers to
                                              provided new habitats for                        IWRM                                        pollution has taken its toll on           IWRM
                                              animals and investments have                  7. Towards
                                                                                                                                           aquatic ecosystems during the last     7. Towards
                                              been made in environmental                       change                                      century. Transfer of recycling            change
                                              protection upstream. Combining                                                               technologies     to     developing
                                                                                            8. Think                                                                              8. Think
                                              considerations      of        power              about it                                    countries could help to pre-empt          about it
                                              generation, flood control and                                                                ecosystem damage from industrial
                                              ecosystem protection can mean                                                                development.
                                              new     operational     rules    for
                                              reservoir releases.
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IWRM and the Interface between Water and Environmental
management                                                                                                                                                                                          2
IWRM-IHP, March 2008, Cape Town-Session Environment:
K Leendertse


                  Environment
                 IWRM & the environment                                                       Environment
                                                                                             IWRM & the environment


                 4. How does the environment affect other sectors?                           5. Benefits of IWRM to the environment
                                                                           1. How does it                                                                1. How does it
                   Environment as                                             use water?                                                                    use water?
                   competitor for water                                    2. Why is it                                   Provides a voice for           2. Why is it
                   Water assigned for                                         important?                                  the needs of the                  important?
                   ecosystem protection is not                             3. Effects of                                  environment                    3. Effects of
                   available for other uses.                                 other sectors                                                                 other sectors

                                                                           4. Impact on                                                                  4. Impact on
                                                                             other sectors                                                                 other sectors
                   Well functioning
                   ecosystems provide                                      5. Benefits                                                                   5. Benefits
                                                                              from IWRM                                                                     from IWRM
                   benefits downstream
                                                                           6. Barriers to                                                                6. Barriers to
                                                                              IWRM                                                                          IWRM
                   Ecosystems can provide
                   good quality water for                                  7. Towards                                                                    7. Towards
                   other uses                                                 change                                                                        change
                                                                                                   Raising awareness
                                                                           8. Think                among other users                                     8. Think
                                                                              about it                                                                      about it




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                  Environment
                 IWRM & the environment                                                       Environment
                                                                                             IWRM & the environment


                 5. Benefits of IWRM to the environment              (2)                     5. Benefits of IWRM to the environment                (3)



                                                                           1. How does it                                                                1. How does it
                                                                              use water?                                                                    use water?
                                                 More emphasis on          2. Why is it                                Positive side effects for other   2. Why is it
                                                 maintaining the              important?                               natural resources                    important?
                                                 underlying                3. Effects of                               Focus on several field level      3. Effects of
                                                 ecosystem                   other sectors                             interventions:                      other sectors

                                                                           4. Impact on                                • protecting upper catchments,    4. Impact on
                                                                             other sectors                             • pollution control                 other sectors

                                                                           5. Benefits                                 • environmental flows             5. Benefits
                                                                              from IWRM                                                                     from IWRM

                                                                           6. Barriers to                                                                6. Barriers to
                                                                              IWRM                                                                          IWRM

                                                                           7. Towards                                                                    7. Towards
                        Uniting different                                     change                                                                        change
                        stakeholders                                       8. Think                                                                      8. Think
                                                                              about it                                                                      about it




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IWRM and the Interface between Water and Environmental
management                                                                                                                                                                 3
IWRM-IHP, March 2008, Cape Town-Session Environment:
K Leendertse


                  Environment
                 IWRM & the environment                                                                     Environment
                                                                                                           IWRM & the environment


                 6. Barriers to implementing IWRM in the environment                                       7. Implications for change: legal, institutional, human resources
                                                                                         1. How does it                                                                          1. How does it
                 Urge for action                                                            use water?     Recognition of needs of environment                                      use water?
                 Of all the sectors, the environment is probably the one with            2. Why is it      A major requirement of water sector reform is to provide              2. Why is it
                 most to gain from implementation of IWRM. Usually at the end               important?     recognition of ecosystem needs alongside the demands of                  important?
                 of the queue (if not missing altogether) when water allocations         3. Effects of     domestic, industrial and agricultural water users.                    3. Effects of
                 are made, it is suffering the consequences of water scarcity and          other sectors                                                                           other sectors
                 poor awareness.                                                         4. Impact on
                                                                                                                                          Legislative adaptations                4. Impact on
                                                                                           other sectors                                  Harmonisation and strengthening of       other sectors
                                                Stumbling blocks to be overcome:
                                                                                         5. Benefits
                                                                                                                                          national legislation to include an     5. Benefits
                                                                                            from IWRM                                     environmental perspective into water      from IWRM
                                                Lack of awareness
                                                                                                                                          management and other sectoral
                                                                                         6. Barriers to                                                                          6. Barriers to
                                                                                            IWRM                                          policies and legal arrangements.          IWRM
                                                Lack of political will
                                                                                         7. Towards                                                                              7. Towards
                                                                                            change                                        Institutional adaptations                 change
                                                Lack of human and financial
                                                                                                                                          Water departments need to function
                                                resources                                8. Think                                                                                8. Think
                                                                                            about it
                                                                                                                                          more as brokers between various           about it
                                                                                                                                          other departments and stakeholders,
                                                                                                                                          rather than stand-alone units.
                                                                                                              Which way to go?
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                  Environment
                 IWRM & the environment                                                                     Environment
                                                                                                           IWRM & the environment


                 7. Implications for change: legal, institutional, human resources (2)                     8. Think about it
                                                                                         1. How does it                                                                          1. How does it
                 Capacity building                                                          use water?     In IWRM:                                                                 use water?
                 The above requires a substantive capacity building in                   2. Why is it                                                                            2. Why is it
                 facilitation, mediation, negotiation and surveillance. At present,         important?
                                                                                                             Are environmental issues considered in policy                          important?
                 water managers are often not well equipped to take on these             3. Effects of       development?                                                        3. Effects of
                 responsibilities as they require knowledge and skills beyond              other sectors                                                                           other sectors
                 those traditionally taught to an engineer or hydrologist.               4. Impact on                                                                            4. Impact on
                                                                                           other sectors
                                                                                                             Are institutional arrangements made to integrate                      other sectors
                                                                                                             environmental concerns in water management?
                                                                                         5. Benefits                                                                             5. Benefits
                                                                                            from IWRM                                                                               from IWRM

                                                                                         6. Barriers to
                                                                                                             Are management instruments to address                               6. Barriers to
                                                                                            IWRM             environmental requirements available and used?                         IWRM

                                                                                         7. Towards                                                                              7. Towards
                                                                                            change           How can environmental management be integrated                         change

                                                                                         8. Think            into IWRM policies and practices                                    8. Think
                                                                                            about it                                                                                about it




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IWRM and the Interface between Water and Environmental
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