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John Toole: I think we‟re just about ready to roll. Welcome everyone. There‟s an incredible number of old friends and new friends I‟m going to make this evening. I‟m John Toole, the Executive Director and CEO of the Computer Museum History Center. This is quite an evening, Vint. And Vint agreed to kind of give us an incredible one of Vint‟s lectures, which we know is going to be spectacular. But I want to get a little serious for a moment and tell you that, you know, the lecture series that we had is really- really more fundamental to our program, because we are really capturing the personal stories of people. And that‟s part of our program for really capturing and preserving the stories in the Information Age. I want to give you, oh, five minutes or so, just a little bit about the Computer Museum History Center before I introduce Vint. And then after Vint speaks, we‟ll have some Q&A‟s and after the Q&A‟s over in our visible storage display area, exhibit area, Building 126, which I hope everyone has picked up a map on the way in, we got a reception in his honor. And he‟ll join us over there and I think you‟ll have a wonderful evening as everyone does after our lecture series. You know, our roots really started over 20 years ago in the Boston Computer Museum, which

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no longer exists. In ‟96 we moved the artifact collection to the West Coast in Silicon Valley and in the following that, some of the exhibits went to the Museum of Science in- in Boston. So we represent the remnants, if you will and the resurgence of really what the Boston Computer Museum when Gordon Bell -- Gordon Bell is here, plus many of our trustees, Len Shustick, the Chairman of the Board of the Computer Museum. Many other ones, Sue Patill, Mike Nancy, Bernard Perto, and I forgot probably one or two, but they‟re all here and hopefully with name tags and I hope you have a chance to meet them this evening, because it really makes a difference and it‟s really an exciting time for me to be here. Our mission to preserve and present for posterity the ______ stories in the Information Age. Really a lot of things are getting lost daily. And what we‟re trying to do is really build the story. And as Len Shustick says so eloquently, you know, 100, 500 years from now if you look back in time and you see this 50 year period as a dot on a map, what really happened. And all of us together really have made part of the industry I believe, and we want to share that with our children, our grandchildren and have that story told in a very meaningful substantial way. And we become I believe a new culture institution that rises

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really for the whole world and that‟s what we want to build. And we‟re committed and certainly I‟m very committed to it. Artifact collection, you‟ll see some old iron if you will and lots of hardware. You‟ll also see lots of software that you can‟t see. We- we have about 20,000 square feet of storage some of which is very, very dense. We have a visible storage area as you will walk through today. But we‟re putting together the whole exhibit space of what it takes to present for posterity. And I would love to invite all of you to help us participate in this process as we put this together. I think Barnon, any place in the world we probably have the very best thanks to people before I arrived, really put together a world class collection of artifacts that stems the really time, and we‟re continuing in that process. And we need each and everyone of you to help us build that collection. I think you‟ll see things that are -- that bring home what you were and what you really could be to the future. We have a very, very active program. Our lecture series is part of it. We‟re operational in the sense of doing active collection. We‟ve got a wonderful board of directors. An incredible set of volunteers back in this corner is an IBM 1620 team, that was actually responsible. Every other weekend they would

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come in and do a restoration. But not just get it working, it was a matter of documenting the process upon which the history was really taken care of and put together in such a way that we can tell the story in a very museum like way for- for our children and our grandchildren. Volunteers make it happen, and this is sort of the vision of where we‟re going to be going in the future. NASA in ‟92, the base was actually closed. The land was given to NASA. NASA looked for some very unique opportunities that would really make something happened. And in that part of that dream came the idea of putting together a research power that consists of nonprofits, universities and commercial enterprises. This is actually the big hangar that you will see this evening. We‟re located right in front of that. Over here is an area that uh.. is land that we‟re going to put in 114,000 square foot building. Break ground in 2003, be operational in 2005. Right across the street is a university complex, UC Santa Cruise, Carnagy Melon University are putting a presence together along with some of the local universities. And in front Lockheed Martin is putting an astro biology building in to work with the research components of NASA plus some commercial space that has been used. So all in all we‟re building a dynamic here, that can be very

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attractive for ourselves, for posterity and the essence of what information technology in its preservation for the future will be. Our building site is rather awesome against the- the backdrop of the hangar. That‟s where we‟re doing it. Right now we‟re in an architectural selection process as well as looking at our exhibit design firms, very difficult job picking winners against the world class folks. And it‟s an exciting opportunity. Vint he‟s kind of a thumbnail of kind of where we‟re going. Sort of typical kind of things, but because we‟re giving the creativity to our architects and exhibit design team, uh.. and kind of creatively looking at how we can make the time lines of history live real and authentic. And we become a very collecting museum and a research institute if you will for a lot of different folks that can use this to help us and make it available to each and every one of you. Vint wanted us to put a computer up here. So while Seymore Cray was a great architect, I‟m not sure he‟s the kind of architect we‟re talking about. On the other hand it‟s been a fun process, we‟re down to three firms, and probably within about a week‟s time we‟ll be picking that firm to work with us in semantic design for the next six to nine months. Enjoy our lecture series. We‟ve got a wonderful, wonderful lecture

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series. Karen Matthews has put a lot of this together. Karen the executive vice president is here somewhere. There she is in the back, please give us some of your ideas and at some point I hope we could have each and every one of you on our lecture circuit and preserve some of the oral histories that each and every one of you I know brings to the table. And of course tonight is Vint Cerf talking to us. Upcoming lectures in the future, Xerox, Alto, Retrospective, Deck World 2001, is going be an all day focus on Deck, and we‟ll do this for other kind of groups in the future as well. We‟ve got an all star cast of people. Please mark your calendars. I‟m sure you‟ve picked it up by now, and then the fall series will start in September. Talking about Linux and on from there. And there will be others that we will be adding to this list as time goes on. And as you know we‟re really excited about the things we‟ve got. So my mantra is kind of, you know, please help us and get involved and there are a number of different ways. Spread the world, first of all. Bring your friends to the lectures. This is a wonderful time to just meet network of people, world class folks, get some new insight into what‟s really happening. Not only just in the valley but what‟s happening overall and how we can preserve and- and really make something happen

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over the near term. And help us preserve the artifacts. All these kind of things for posterity. Contact us, don‟t throw those things away. Thank heaven for many of you that have really done that in many different ways and helped support financially and otherwise. And mainly a challenge tonight particularly this networking group is just help us get the right kind of artifacts in the networking world. We have some world class artifacts that span the whole space and we really want to focus on a lot on what networking is, and what networking will be in the future. And I think we kicked it quite at Mars, planetary thing but I think Vint can probably help us through that sometime in the future. Volunteers are really important. We have volunteer days and by the way this Saturday coming up is a volunteer day if anyone would like to be added to the list talk to our staff or myself, I‟ll be glad to invite you. We got a docent program in its infancy putting that together so that people can give really proactive interesting topical tours through- through our visible storage area which will be temporary for probably the next three to five years. And just have a good time networking with the community where things are going to go. And of course I can‟t go without saying you‟re all welcome to please become a supporter in any way, shape

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or form. Financially support or otherwise. Our annual campaign which ends June 30th is really critical to us. Become a core supporter, is anything with a power of two, you know, $1,000 above for example. So 10, 24, 40, 96 and so on. It can go up higher too if you‟d like. But please join us. And the core supporters that we have -- in fact we‟re doing inside events this Sunday evening at Nancy‟s home who graciously volunteered to host an event for the museum. So a fundraising campaign and there‟s many other ways from the capital campaign and so on that will be announced publicly but we‟re in a quiet phase. But we want anyone interested in getting involved with us now to please talk to me or talk to some of the staff Len, or myself at any time. And that‟s really made a difference. And enjoy yourselves by all means. Not only I know you‟re going to enjoy yourself with Vint‟s lecture, but immediately afterwards I hope you picked up a map, we‟ll have in building 126. For those of you who haven‟t seen it a unique experience. It will be a little crowded over there but it will be something up close and personal. With that let me take a moment to introduce one of my heroes in a lot of different ways, an incredible person whose personality I think comes through more than anything, you know. He‟s a known architect, he and Bob

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of course were one of the early folks that really developed the TCPIP, what it was, what it meant and more fundamentally from there he just didn‟t stop. You know, he just kept on going and going and going. And I think those days have meant so much for many of us. And I think you know the father of the Internet is used for a lot of people‟s collaborate work. But certainly Vint falls into the small pool of people that have really made a lot of that happen for a lot of different reasons. He‟s senior vice president of Internet and Architecture at MCA Wilcom, and he‟s a company‟s chief Internet strategy person and works to advance Internet frameworks. And of course he‟s launched many different things within the company. He‟s recently joined the series of NASA GPL engineers and a wireless communication network that will move the Internet into the outer space, which I think he will touch on just a little bit today. And of course all of you in the Internet fame, he founded the Internet society and served as president for three years and chairman of the board until ‟99. He serves technical advisor to the television show Jean Rodenbury‟s Earth Final Conflict. And I was reviewing your bio, Vint, and I didn‟t see how this nice guy could ever really make it so well and do so much for the Internet until I realized that he

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collects painting of alligators and crocodiles. And I can I visit this room filled with alligators and crocodiles all around and then you flip on the channel and you look Animal Channel, right, with these guys wrestling crocodiles. And now I understand how Vint has been so successful in the world. He had his BA from math in Stanford, his MS and Ph.D. degrees from UCLA, recipient of the U.S. National Medal of Technology and is a member of the president‟s information technology advisory committee and a tremendous contributor to that. I can say personally from my experience if I hadn‟t worked with him in that kind of a role when it was created. So it‟s with great honor and pleasure Vint, we welcome you open arms from the Computer

Museum History Center and tell us about planetary space. Thank you.

<applause>

Vint Cerf: Now there will be a brief pause while we try to figure out how to get these machines connected. And if I push the wrong button I‟m in deep -- do you want your power supply back. It‟s taped up anyway. I have to tell you about the alligators by the way. There‟s an old story about the fellow that sent off to drain the

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swamp and then called him about six months later and they said, “how are you doing with the swamp?” And he says, “Well, let me tell you. When you‟re up your ass in alligators sometimes you forget that your job is to drain the swamps.” So I have about 65 alligators in my office to remind me that my job is to drain the swamp which I sometimes forget. First of all thank you for that really wonderful introduction. I almost feel like after that I should just sit down because anything I can say will make it worse. And second those of you have looked around the room a little bit, know that there are some people who have made history with respect to networking in the room. I‟m not going to try and name them all because I‟ll miss somebody and then I‟ll get embarrassed but the Q&A period may turn out to be more important than anything I can say because there are people here who are carrying 25, 30 or more years of experience in this business. On whose shoulders uh.. I stood personally to try to make my little contribution. I couldn‟t resist showing you a cartoon that I showed at the White House a year ago. Do you remember when the distributed denial of service attacks were happening and President Clinton invited a bunch of us to the White House to explain what was going on. And you know we went into the cabinet room and I‟m crawling

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around under the table trying to find a place to plug my machine in and there were no power sockets there and I finally found one on the wall and I got an extension cord. And some guy comes running up and he says you can‟t do that. You can‟t put that equipment here. And he said why not? He says, well, you know it might radiate something. He said, look, I‟ll tell you, if anybody detects anything come and tell me and I‟ll turn it off. And nobody bothered me at all but I noticed after the meeting was over that I had my 802211B card going full blast. Anyway I put this thing up and explained that, you know, that hackers had been destroying civilization for years and the geeks are only the most recent version of all that. I‟m sure we can appreciate that. I‟m going to make some predictions tonight and the usual story is you‟re a little worried about doing that. Here‟s one I think Gordon Bell, you‟ll remember this one. There‟s no reason anyone would want a computer in their home, Ken Olsen, said that. <laughs> And you have to be fair, at the time that he said that they were big things and nobody would want one of those in their home. The other one which I enjoy a lot is 64k, 640k ought to be enough for anybody. That‟s Bill Gates. <laugh> And you know just to show I‟m not immune from this problem, I have

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regretted that for a long time, that‟s over 24 years ago now and we haven‟t quite fixed it yet in fact, we‟ll get to that. So where did this thing come from? Larry Roberts is here in the room. There he is right in the front. Larry, of course, is the guy that launched the ARPANET project at ARPA back in the late „60s and ran the thing. And if his project had not been successful, none of us would be here because there wouldn‟t be anything interesting to say about the Internet because there wouldn‟t be one. So ARPA net was phenomenally successful in showing how packet switching worked. And in fact it was so successful that Bob Kon who had done a lot of the architectural work at Bolt, Barreneck and Newman went to ARPA in late 1972 as I came up to Stanford that same time to meet, do research and teach and Bob, to in fact work at ARPA, managing -well he thought he was going to manage some other programs. But he ended up inheriting things that -some of the things that Larry had started the Satinet program and initiating things like the ground packet radio. The whole idea was to try to use -- you‟re saying, why are we waving this way? Are you waving because you‟re trying to get my attention? It shows I‟m at least paying attention to what‟s going on out there even if I don‟t understand it. Anyway, the whole idea

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was that the success of package switching in the ARPANET led to the idea that we should try it out in other media. And so think about the military motivation. You know if you‟ve got ships at sea dragging cables behind the ships probably doesn‟t work too well, and so you need satellites for that. And if you‟re out in the field, you know, with mechanize infantry and stuff like that, if you try to tie cables behind the tanks they run over them and it doesn‟t work very well either. So packet radio was an important experiment. Now bear in mind that this is all happening in the early 1970s. So we got ARPA net and the packet radio and satinet programs were under way and Bob Kon came out in- in 1973 to Stanford and described for me the problem. And the problem that he saw was that we had these networks that all used package switching but they had different characteristics with different size package and speeds and error rates and everything else. And the question was how do you hook them all together so that the end to end devices wouldn‟t know anything about the fact that there was such a diversity in the middle and that the packets might take alternate paths and some of them might get lost because the packet radio system couldn‟t guarantee to hold all the packets. Unlike the ARPANET which is really, you know,

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anal retentive. It hung onto the package, carefully delivered them to the target, kept them in order, did a lot of work so the host on either end had a fairly lightweight time of it. In fact we had a protocol where Steve Brockard led the design called NCP which was used for end-to-end communication in the ARPA net. But in the packet radio system when you park underneath a bridge or something like that or you‟re in radio shadow you can‟t hear the packets and they can‟t stack up in the net because there wasn‟t enough capacity to store them. So a lot of glossiness had to be dealt with endto-end and that led to the design of TCP. So Bob came and described the problem and we began to experiment with thinking how we would do this. And in some respects the problem almost solved itself because we had limitations on what we were -- felt we could -were free to do. We did not feel free to change any of the networks to know that they were part of a larger system. And so that led almost instantly to an encapsulation strategy which said whatever it was they told you were running an internet had to be encapsulated in the packets of the intervening networks. And then of course since we couldn‟t change the net if we were going to hook them together we had to fool one. So they didn‟t know they were hooked

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together but we had computers in between that were host on either net. We called those gateways, because at the time we didn‟t know they were supposed to be called routers. But you know, Len Bosack came along and started Cisco and explained to us what we should have called it. So the point though is that problem in some sense naturally solved itself, encapsulation was a key element, gateway and routers were another element to glue the nets together. And then you had to have something in the host that would talk end to end and that knew that they were in fact part of an Internet, and that led to PCP. So there‟s this period of development until 1983 when we finally rolled the system out across the US on the ARPA net and on the Nasan packet radio networks and Satinet. And not very long thereafter, in fact this is a consequence of Gordon Bell service at the National Science Foundation, the NSF net project gets ignited and it starts out in a modest 56 kilobits per second and instantly congests and so there is another cycle to go through that until they started working what was called the National Research in Education Network Program. Which I apologize, Gordon, I went into that last night and I don‟t feel like I can cram all the history in tonight. But Gordon led the effort to start that National

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Research in Education Network Program and it led to a very rapid evolution of the NSF net backbone. Which ultimately by 1990, became the backbone of the internet when the ARPA net was retired. So all of this stuff just continued to evolve until 1995 when it became very much more visible because a lot of it was now public. The World Wide Web had come along and became very visible too. Well, I couldn‟t resist going back now into history and getting a few little anecdotes about what it was like back then 30 years ago almost. I can remember after Bob Kon came out and explained to me what the problem was and we talked about it a long time back and forth, you know, sometimes face to face on the phone back in Washington and out at Stanford. And I remember sitting -- I don‟t remember in what conference it was, but I‟m pretty sure I was in San Francisco sitting in the lobby of a hotel and I literally had an envelope in my pocket. So I took it out and started sketching what we had said. And what we had said was the networks were independent and didn‟t know anything and there had to be boxes that connected them together and there had to be something in the host. And you know by the time you get done drawing that picture you basically drawn the fundamentally architecture of the internet. So I sort of took that away as my -- as the

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basis plan. And then the question was what goes in the boxes. So by the end of ‟73, around September or so, Bob and I had written a paper which we delivered, it was sort of a draft that we delivered to something called INWAVE, International Network Working Group. Now Larry, you‟ll remember this because when the ARPA net was first demonstrated in public in October ‟72 at the Washington Hilton Hotel, down in the basement and lots of people came to see this thing in action. Some of them from AT&T hoping it would break. And then we did actually and they were very happy and they went away saying this is an impossible technology we should ignore it, which they did for a long time. In any case at that meeting in October ‟72, a bunch of people from all around the world got very interested in packet switching, from England and France and Italy and so on. And they met and formed an international network working group, so Bob and I came at one of the earliest meetings of that group to present our idea for what was eventually to become TCP. And as a consequence of that interaction we worked later on that year on a paper which was published the following May about what in effect was the architecture of the internet and the TCP protocol that went with it. At that point, TCP had not been separated into IP. It was just one protocol that

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was and end-to-end thing. And the gatetways actually knew a little bit about TCP in order to store and forward the packets because they had to know about the address space and enough to be able to route things. So it wasn‟t until later that we figured out that we needed to split them out. So after that thing was published a bunch of graduate students, many of whom are actually still here in the valley, people like ______ who is at Mayfield Fund, or Dick Hart who runs - what is it called? Catepall Communications, thank you. And Judy Estron who now runs packet design, were all part of the team. There are others too, people like Jim Mathus and Ron Crane and I can‟t remember everybody‟s name off the top of my head this fast. But they all formed the kind of a group that started trying to flush out the details to what a TCP would do. And as luck would have it, Bob Metcaff and Dave Boggs and John Shock and others who were at Xerox Park were working on ethernet at the time and the Park universal packets. And we were actually moving in parallel and some of the Park guys would come to the seminar I had at Stanford and we would trade horror stories and it was very helpful. It was a very stimulating environment in which to try to hammer the way this thing should actually work. So by the end of ‟74, December I remember, we had

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a full TCP spec. Now I can tell you that it was buggy. And I knew it was buggy but at first it‟s like what is that wonderful expression you know programs are like pancakes, throw away the first one. I think Bob Taylor had that in his office at Xerox. So the first spec anyway got written and it was the thing that we based some early implementations on starting in 1975. That spec by the way, the ‟74 spec came back to haunt me. I‟ll never forget Bob Kon for this. He actually took that spec and he gave it to the Oden Two guys. These were people who were going to build a replacement for Oden One, which is the automatic digital information service. And they took this -- he meant it as an example of the kind of protocol you might use in Oden Two. They decided to simply use it and they went off and implemented it and of course it had bugs in it, so they fixed it however they wanted to fix it. And two or three years later I found myself fighting myself right, because they handed me this old thing and said we‟re using this. And I‟m saying, but wait a minute, we‟ve been through three iterations and we have a better one. And you know that took 10 years to fight that. So be careful what you give people because you never know when it might come back. Anyway the first implementation of TCP took place in Stanford

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University, at University College London under Peter Kerstein and Bolt, Barreneck and Newman. Ray Thomanson and Bill Plumber were the principle implementers of that. And the first thing they did they tried to build a printer driver with the original TCP spec. And there was a resynchronization in it so if you lost a packet and you could tell you were out of synch, the thing sent some synchronization stuff back and forth and it would go back to the last known fully sequentially received packet and start over from there. But then it printed it again. And so you got the multiple copies of things and partial copies of stuff you know and Plumber, you know, sent an email saying by the way Bill is the guy is that -- I‟m sorry, Ray Thomanson, rather sent an email. He‟s the guy that invented email in case you don‟t remember his name. But he sent an email saying you know this protocol sucks. At least there‟s a printer driver and you need it to work. So he -- and he figured a three way handshake in order to make sure that we knew how to be in sync and how to say in sync and we didn‟t have to resynchronize and cause all kinds of all unnecessary duplicate copies to be transmitted in this case printed. So that‟s where that came from. Now, Judy Estron shows up in this thing as a graduate student at Stanford. Now she was a Masters degree

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student and she was the low person on the totem pole we had her do some of the testing. Now the testing involved University College London, which is something like nine hours away in time zones. So she would come in at 3:00 in the morning in order to be working at noon you see all time in order to have about four hours worth of testing capability. And bless her heart, she came in and did the work and they did get some serious testing done. There‟s a supreme irony in all of this because Judy Estron‟s father, Gerald Estron was my thesis advisor at UCLA and everything is all connected. Then in 1976 or thereabouts, now Don Neilson is here from SRI and his team was the one responsible for doing the testing of the packet radio network in the San Francisco bay area. If you were here, you didn‟t know, you were being irradiated from the mountain tops. We had repeaters up on the various mountains looking down into the valley, relaying packets as we would go up and down the Bay Shore freeway with the packet radio system. But -- so I don‟t remember for sure if it was in ‟76 or later, but uh.. -- we had or SRI had this nondescript packet radio van built. It was kind of an aluminum panel truck with no windows or anything and a kind of a stat dipole array that looked like an exhaust pipe going up the top and that was it. And so they

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would drive up and down the

Bay Shore, and of course

the thing is filled with computers and radios and measurement gear and everything else and every one in a while they‟d stop on the side to measure things and the guy who was driving is another engineer, he‟d get out and go around and get in the back with everybody else. So they were running all these tests. The story that I heard and this may be ______ but it‟s a great story. They‟re- they‟re sitting there and they‟re working and some cop has pulled up behind them because he sees that the van is empty, here the cabin is empty. So he beats on the door, you know. They open the door and he sees all these radios and these geeky looking guys and everything. And he says, “Who are you?” And they say, “Well, we work for the government.” <laughs> And he looks at them, “Which government?” <laughs> But officer we were only going 50 kilobits. Oh, I screwed this up. Don‟t you just love it where you can hack the slides right on the spot? There we go. Let me save it. I learned my lesson several times here. Okay. So it‟s a— the radio—Packard Radio System‟s actually working pretty damn well by—by 1976. We are a couple of We

iterations into a TCP/IP design, or TCP design. don‟t quite get the IP until a little bit later. Probably ‟77 or there abouts.

But, anyway, finally, it

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comes time to actually try to make all three of the core networks of the Internet, the Packard Radio Net, the SATNET and the ARPANET, all work together. So, the

scenario we set up is that the Packard Radio vans in the—go up and down the Bay Shore and Jeannie StraussAssar(ph), who was at BB&N and is the first gateway programmer - first person to ever put a gateway together, hacks the gateway so that when the packets go out of the packet radio net, they go to a gateway that goes into the ARPANET. The ARPANET takes the packets

all the way across the country, and there‟s an internal satellite link; one that‟s kind of hidden inside the ARPANET, which takes the traffic over ah... the satellite, down to Norway and then to University Col. of London. University Col. of London has a node of

the—of the packet satellite network, with a ground station at Goonhilly Downs, and the gateway there is hacked to push the packet back over the packet satellite net, down to Etam, West Virginia, and then back into the ARPANET, all the way across the ARPANET and down to USC ISIC, where the packet lands. Now, if

you do the math, as the crow flies, it‟s a four hundred mile trip, right? But, if you go through all the

satellite hops and everything else, it‟s like 88,000 miles. And, you know, there‟s the attendant delay and

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everything else.

So, ah... we actually got packets

flowing successfully, ah... from the van going up and down the Bay Shore, all the way through all of that nonsense, all the way to USC ISI, and, what we were simulating was, you know, somebody who was out there in the field, ah... in, you know, in the middle of <inaudible> environment. Ah... from, you know,

mechanized, whatever, eh—transmitting data <cough> over a satellite link, ah... into a—a—a, ah... CONUS network and then all the way back to some, ah... significant computing resource. Ah... in the <inaudible>. So,

it—the fact that it worked was, for me, was one of those amazing, “holy cow, I can‟t believe it” experiences. And, ah... and after that, ah... <cough> Though, we‟re in about the We‟re at TCP3 and

we got pretty ambitious.

third cycle of, ah... iteration.

<cough> we, ah... we suddenly get attacked by Danny Cohen. Now, Danny is—is sort of one of these legendary He was at USC, ah...

unbelievably brilliant engineers.

Information Sciences Institute for many years, ah... and then at a company called Miracon, ah... recently. But, Danny was very interested in packetized speech on the Net. And experiments had been done on the ARPANET So, we wanted Ah... but,

successfully to carry packetized speech. to make it work on the Internet, as well.

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Danny realized before we did that the TCP protocol was not the best way to do this because it was working its— its rear end off to try to make sure all the packets got there. And the trouble with that, of course, is

that if it takes a long time for them to get there, then the speech tends to break up. Because, you play

out the packets that have been received and then there‟s nothing left until there‟s some retransmissions and, you know, what do you play, you know, ahhhhhhhh? Something. <Several laughing> So, he said, you know,

really, the right thing to do here is what we had to do in the—in the, ah... ARPANET. We used a specialized The only

form of packet that did not get sequenced.

important thing about that packet was that it had to get there as fast as possible. anything else. And, you know, don‟t do If they

If you lose one, forget it.

come in out of order, well, okay, maybe you buffer them a little bit and put them back in order. But—not--you

don‟t wait too long, otherwise the guy feels like he‟s on the moon some where. So, Danny convinced us that we the IP

needed to split the TCP into the two parts: part and the TCP part.

And the IP part would handle

the real time stuff, where the important thing was getting there fast, but not necessarily getting everything there. And that was really the origin of

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separating those sing—two things out.

Well, we had a—a

successful packet speech program, which had been, ah... started when the ARPANET program, ah... was running. And we continued it in the, ah... Internet case. And,

I can remember some important experiments where we were compressing speech. Because the backbone of the

ARPANET, at the time, was only, what, 50 kilobits per second; maybe even as much as 56, at one point. and, ah... you know, normal speech channel was 64 kilobits per second, so right away, you have a little problem. Ah... the algo—a bunch of different Uhm...

algorithms that were tried out, and the one that I particularly remember, was called LPC 10, it‟s a linear predictive code 10. It was a—it modeled you voice

track as a stack of ten cylinders that were changing in diameter, excited by a formant frequency. You would

send just the 10 diameter information, ah... off to the other side, plus the formant frequency and it would invert the transformation and produce sound. interesting characteristic of this was that it compressed speech to 1800 bits per second. amazing that it was understandable. But, my And it‟s Now, the

recollection of it is that it made anyone who spoke through the system sound like a drunken Norwegian. <Laughter> They were understandable, however, and that

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was the important part.

So, I‟m—I remember having to

demonstrate this system, ah... to, ah... what I recall to be a collection of, ah... of, ah... military, ah... senior people, you know, generals. And, I was And then I

wondering how I was going to do this.

remembered that this was a—our speech program in particular, was international in character and the Norwegian defense research establishment was one of the parties who participated, so we got Yngvar Lund to be the speaker. <Laughter> And, it sounded just like him! But, we didn‟t tell any of the generals <Laughter>.

that—that everybody would sound that way.

So—so, we, you know, we successfully managed to get packet speech on the Net. <Laughter.> Okay. Well,

all right, so a couple more anecdotes and then I‟ll— uhm... go off to something else. Ah... by 1978, we‟re

in the fourth iteration of Internet and that‟s what you‟re using today. version four. Essentially, ah... IP and TCP

Uhm... when we were doing what Jon

Postel used to call bake-offs, we would have everybody come into one room down at USC Information Sciences Institute, and they‟d all connect to their machines through the ARPANET back and drive the machines to try to interconnect to each other using the TCP protocols. And we had the big matrix and, you know, we‟d see who

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could connect to whom successfully and we started out without the checksums(ph) turned on. And we got, you

know, like 75 or 80 per cent successful com— communications. Then we got--and said well maybe we

better turn the checksums (ph) on and see how that works out and only two people could talk. said, what did you do? And so, we

And they, you know, documented

what they did on the board and we told everybody to go do that, that was the standard. <Laughter.> And so

that‟s how the checksum got defined, <inaudible> which was real easy. You just pick something that works and By 1979, Bob Kahn, who

then, make every body do that.

by this time is, ah... is director of the Information Processing Techniques Office, uhm... is worried that, uhm... that there aren‟t enough people who know what‟s going on on the project and, you know, what happens if he and I are, you know, get hit by a truck or something. So, we start something that we call the

ICCB, and it was really made up of mostly the people who were principle investigators on the project, so they‟d all be able to share what they were doing. They‟d all know what was going on. So, everybody would

have a larger cache of understanding and awareness. Dave Clark from MIT, Lab for Computer Sciences was the Chairman of that. ICCB stood for the Internet

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Configuration Control Board.

And we tried to pick the

most boring thing we could think of so nobody else would want to be on it. And, it eventually was turned

by Barry Liner into the Internet Activities board, which is later morphed into the Internet Architecture Board. Well, by 1981, ah... we‟re beginning to think

maybe it‟s time for us to be serious about this and actually release this on the rest of the world. And so

we started to plan a transition from the original NCP Protocols to TCP/IP and Dan Lynch, who, at that point, was at USC ISI, was pretty much in chan—in charge of kind of pushing this whole project along and tracking it. And we had one guy who would test how many people

could actually speak TCP. Every week, he‟d run a little report and we‟d see the numbers going up slowly. people really didn‟t believe us, you know. But,

They said,

“Aw, you know, these Internet guys are flaky and you know, this—if I get my email fine. I can do ftp, I can

do Telnet, you know, and I don‟t need anything else. Buzz off.” So, uhm... ah... we decided we needed to And, ah... we went to the, ah...

get their attention.

Defense Communications Agency, who was responsible for running the ARPANET, and, ah... we worked a deal with them that—where they would block all the packets that NCP would nor—packet types that NCP would normally use,

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so we could essentially kill NCP.

So, in the middle of

„81—‟82, middle of ‟82, we killed the Net for a day. the only thing that would work were people running TCP. And, of course, you know, people were really pissed. And, you know, I couldn‟t get Miami, or bells are ringing, you know, and nasty grams are flying, and everything else, you know, and I send a note out saying, “Well, we‟re just trying to get your attention, you know, we‟re serious at the end of the year, we‟re going to turn off NCP, and we can do it, see? <Laughter> And, uh... and, you know we‟re going to, And, you know, well, you

everybody‟s going to run TCP.

know they groused around for awhile and then nothing seemed to be moving again. The curve of--of who—how And so, we You know. It-

many people could read went flat again. turned it off for two days. Oh-oh boy!

we-we might as well have nuked half of the United States. But we did get their attention. So, this

time, I think, they believed us.

Uhm... And the ones

that didn‟t quite believe it, you know, we just e— reminded them that, ah... that, you know, they were getting research support from ARPA and, ah... you know, if they didn‟t want to do PCP, well, we wouldn‟t want to support them anymore. And that definitely rang a

little bell and, ah... lots of people went—really

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worked hard.

So, January 1 was the, ah... the cut over

of TCP/IP and in some sense, that‟s the birth of today‟s Internet. Because, that‟s really when we Although, the conceptions and so Ah... there were a few

rolled the thing out.

on, came ten years before.

people that didn‟t make it in January of ‟83, and they— some of them pleaded their cases successfully and we let them run the old NCP for awhile. never did it at all. And some of them

I think they just decided the

machines weren‟t worth programming, ah... to put the new protocols on, and they just sort of died an ugly death. But, ah... I remember, and Dan, I‟m sure could I

say, ah... how—how difficult that transition was.

don‟t think they were more than 400 machines involved. I don‟t—I mean—and the smaller number of operating systems, although, more operating systems then than there are now. Uhm... and so, imagine, you know, it—

today‟s statistics, where there‟s over 150 million machines of server type on the Net and 300 million PC‟s trying to cut over to anything is really going to be hairy. that. And though I‟d like to talk a little bit about Uhm... later on tonight. Well, oh dear, well, I‟m sorry? I

these are big, long list of milestones. forgot UNIX. Where should I put UNIX?

In the back of

the pre—oh, you mean to say, oh, I‟m sorry, ‟81.

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That‟s right.

Excuse me.

I skipped over it, I

apologize for that.

Probably one of the most important

shrewd moves that ARPA made was to ask Bill Joy to put TCP/IP into the free distribution of UNIX. And, this

was in a time when, ah... actually we asked him to put a BB&N version of—of TCP into UNIX and he looked at it and said no way. he did put it in. And then wrote his own. Ah... but,

VSD 4.2 had a kind of buggy version But it was

of TCP/IP in it and 4.3 had a better one.

free and this was in the days when workstations were a big deal. Sun was starting to happen. And, it-it

really accelerated in the academic community, the adoption of, ah... of ah... of TCP. The other thing,

which I didn‟t put on the slide and I should have, of course, is that the Ethernet that came out of the Xerox work in 1973. By that time, by the Eighties, it had And,

become, ah... what was it, the DIX standard.

ah... those networks were hopping very, very fast and they, ah... ah... did in addition to the workstations, really fueled interest in the use of Internet technology. this, whoops! Thank you for reminding me. Back. So, ah...

Uhm... I—I want to just hit a We‟ve already done a—

couple of important things here. up to ‟83.

Th—nobody was making any money on this at

all, you understand, until ‟86 when Len Bozak started

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Cisco Systems.

And, ah... and they were starting to

sell routers to universities whose method of creating routers eh—had--didn‟t work anymore. Th-the way he

used to make a router was to find a computer in a graduate student and you‟d wrap the graduate student around the router--or around the computer and turned it into a router. But, you know, you-you-after awhile you

run out of graduate students, so, uhm... <laughter> so, uhm... Lenny‟s company, ah... started selling these things. <Inaudible> His first customer, if I remember And so, HP was actually a closet

right, was HP.

Internet, ah... you know, hive of activity, but they didn‟t admit it to anybody, especially not the senior management. So, ah... because, you know, they had

other, ah... protocols that, you know, D S (ph) and all that stuff. So, ah... the engineering guys were out

there sucking up most of the production of Cisco and creating this underground, ah... capability. It had it

in the largest private Internet anywhere for quite some time. Ah... by 1989 an interesting thing happened.

Uhm... I‟d gone to—I‟d left, ah... ARPA, went to MCI the first time, did MCI Mail and then joined <inaudible> in ‟86 at CNRI, Corporation for National Research Initiatives. And a couple of years into that,

he and I, ah... started to think about the problem of

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commercializing the Internet, because we figured it would not grow very big if the government had to pay for all of it. And unless it had an economic engine

under it, it would drive the, ah... you know, co—would drive revenues and therefore create assets that you could spend money on and create a larger network. Uhm... e—we didn‟t think it would get very big. went to the, what was then called the FRICC, the Federal Research Internet Coordinating Committee, which later became the Federal Networking Council, and asked them for permission to connected MCI Mail to the Internet. Partly, because it was an interesting So, I

experiment to take these two mail systems that actually were not particularly compatible and see what—how we could hook them together. But, more importantly, I

wanted to break the, uh... log jam, and break the precedent that said you couldn‟t put a commercial system up on the Net. in ‟89. So, we got permission to do it

And, ah... about that same time, the World Only nobody knows it, ah... by

Wide Web get invented.

Tim Berners Lee, and ah... ah... Robert, ah... Cailliau at CERN. By 1990, there were two commercial Internet

services, ah... PSI Net and UU Net, that were offering service, ah... to the public. retired. And the ARPANET was

So, the NSF Net became the backbone of the,

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ah... of the Internet.

The commercial networks are

hooked up to it and also hooked to each other so the commercial traffic wouldn‟t go through the NSF Net. Uhm... and we started to see the beginning of, ah... commercialization. By the time Netscape came along

with the World Wide Web in 1994, now the general public is starting to notice that something is going on and by 1995, even Bill Gates figures out there might be something happening, <laughter> and—and he sort of aims his company in the direction of the Internet. Ah...

the NSF Net gets retired in 1995, another amazing step, I mean, I have to give a lot of credit to NSF and some of the other government agencies. They knew when to—to

extract themselves from the activity and turn it over to, ah... the public, or over to industry. And NSF did

an incredibly good job of extracting itself step by step. So, when the NSF net was retired, they left

behind a kind of a frame work for a competitive Internet backbone. Now you have lots of competing And then, by 1998, ah...

Internet service providers.

there was a-one—another step, sort of a way <inaudible> of government away from control. It relinquished,

ah... e—not all, but most of its responsibilities, which had been exhibited through funding of the Internet assigned numbers authority and Jonathan

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Postel, at, you know, the company called ICANN was formed: The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names And, I‟m not going to spend any time

and Numbers.

tonight talking about the schtoolmendong (ph) and politics and everything else of ICANN, but this has been a tough birth. Uhm... and I‟ve been watching it,

ah... more closely than I ever expected I would have to in the recent months having assumed the chairmanship recently. Uhm... but, that‟s an important step, again.

And once again the U. S. Government has, ah... I think, gets the credit for having taken the initiative to do that. What did Al Gore do? <Laughter> Al Gore, in

fact, did do something.

In fact, Bob Kahn and I wrote

a small editorial about this because we thought that the Vice President was getting a bad rap. Uhm... in

1986, I remember a, ah... hearing that Al Gore held, ah... Bob Kahn was one of the panelists, and he raised the question in that, ah... in that hearing about optical fiber networks, which he‟d heard about. High

capacity networks and, ah... supercomputers, and he wanted to know, you know, could you hook the super— supercomputers together with the optical fiber networks and would that do anything? And—and so that was one of the dangling, ah... questions that, ah... that the then Senator Gore, sort of left with the panel and, ah... it

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was Gordon Bell (ph) that wound up holding the bag at NSF to answer the question. And, ah... that‟s when he

assembled the 150 of us out in San Diego in February of 9—of ‟87 and out of that came the National Research and Education Network Plan. The Vice President continued

his interest in this technology and as, ah... <coughing, inaudible.> senator did and as Vice

President, was very supportive of both the R&D programs, all high performance computing and communications programs, ah... and legislation that ultimately allowed NSF to be utilized as a framework for commercialization of the network until it was retired in ‟95. So, the—the—to make a long story

slightly longer, the Vice President really does deserve credit for some of the things he did. What he said

was, “I took the initiative in creating the Internet.” And the context in which he said it was the legislative context and he‟s absolutely right. There are others in

Congress who were equally interested, may—but not as early, I think, as he was. George Brown was one of

them; one of the Representatives from California, was a very strong proponent of science and technology, in general, and networking in particular. where are we? Okay. So,

Well, you know, you—you—you-we‟ve talked

a little about the—a lot about the, uhm... some of the

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anecdotal evidence of the evolving network. say the Internet.

We always

But it isn‟t just one net, it‟s

hundreds of thousands of them that all hook together. And, of course, it works, in part, because they all use the same set of protocols. When Bob and I were doing

this work, and others, ah... I think we recognized that we didn‟t know what was going to happen to communications technology. We knew it would evolve.

We knew there would be new communications systems, but we didn‟t know what they would look like. And we were

desperate to try to make the architecture adapt and absorb and ingest any new communication system that came along. make it. So, the IP level was as simple as we could

You know, take this bag of bits and move „em

from point A to point B with some probability greater than zero. <Chuckling> That, you know, that‟s all we And, so, ah... that I think

asked this thing to do.

has been fairly successful because, you know, we look at, you know, ATM and Sonnet and Frame relay and all these other things and MPLS have come along and we‟re putting IP on top of all of them. So, I had ah...,

<inaudible> me that says IP on everything. <Chuckling>. And, that sort of <laughing> had a try to Now, something happens, eh

get the point across.

heh... so--something happens when you do this, I mean,

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when—not when you pee on everything, but when you, ah... <chuckling> when you, <chuckle> something happens when you do that, too. <Laughter> Ah... when you—

when you create an infrastructure, because if you get enough of this stuff out there so people start to assume that it‟s there, then they start putting things on top of it. They assume it‟s there and they

integrate it into their architecture and designs and they start stacking new, ah... applications on top. So, in a sense, the World Wide Web took advantage of the existence of the underlying TCP/IP substrate. now I have to make a tee shirt. So,

And I haven‟t got it

designed yet, but what it‟s going to say is, “IP under everything.” <Chuckling> Because, essentially, that‟s

what happened now is, it‟s now underneath and there‟s a convergence of all kinds of technologies that are assuming it‟s there and doing its job. Well, ah... I

used to say that we were in the middle of an Internet gold rush and it‟s not so clear we are after the dot bomb in April a year ago, ah... but I will say, that with an Internet that‟s only been, ah... commercial in any sense, for about eleven years, ah... we still have a really fluid environment. People don‟t really know

for sure what a good business model is for the Internet and that part of the reason there was such a mess in

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the market.

Uhm... I can tell you that the one

important lesson that you can take away from the gold rush. others. It has worked for us at WorldCom and I think for And the lesson you take away there is, that

the people that make money in the gold rush are not the ones looking for gold. They‟re the ones that sell the

picks and shovels to the other people looking for the gold. And that‟s turned out to be a very good, ah... We

business for WorldCom and for others in this game. think now that—that you‟re going to have to start

adding value to the bits and the bytes and the packets, or you won‟t really have a very good business model. So, we have pursued that some. Uhm... these are some

rough statistics and it—it gives you a kind of a, ah... three year—three and a half year glimpse at, ah... what‟s going on. The number of hosts over the last,

ah... since—since the middle of July of ‟97 to, ah... or June of ‟97 to January this year, jumped by almost factor of five. Number of countries has increased. I

think every country in Africa now has a little bit of— of access to the Internet. Although, frankly, that‟s a

really difficult environment to work in „cause the communications facilities are quite limited. The

number of users has quadru—has—has actually grown by a factor of eight in that period of time. Now, to be

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fair, y-you‟d have to put this in some context, ah... there are a-1.1 billion telephone terminations around the world. About 750 million are wire lined and about Most of which are right

350 million are cell phones. here in Sunnyvale. tell, anyway.

Uhm... at lea—as near as I can

Ah... so, Internet‟s still small by

comparison, but it‟s growing at a very, very rapid pace. And it‟s also gone to place, that, you know, it If I‟d shown you this chart five

didn‟t used to be.

years ago, in 1995 or 1996, most of the users would be in North America. Today, or in fact, e—a—even as,

ah... last November, ah... fewer than half of the users were in North America and the others are scattered around the world. So, it is clearly, ah... burst There are about

beyond its—its original boundaries.

400 million users now, and that number has been growing by about 80 per cent a year. I—these are some

statistics about how we use the—the Internet in the United States. And it is kind of interesting. Forty

per cent of—of the households in the U. S. seem to be on the Internet. That statistic is skewed, by the way, 60 per cent of the households Which means that we may

households with kids:

with kids are on the Internet.

see some generational things happen as these kids, uhm... grow through college and then come into the work

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force.

They‟ll be accustomed to using the network in And, ah...

ways that, ah... their parents were not.

and they will almost certainly color the way the marketplace evolves. Some 88 per cent of our use today

is dial up and only 12 per cent are using broad band, which is kind of disappointing. related. It‟s definitely income

It, you know, the more money you have, ah...

disposable income you have, the more likely you are to have broadband. Ah... and so, it has nothing to do An interesting and

with any other metric than that. surprising note:

90 per cent of the people who were

queried in this survey said that email was very important. Only 78 per cent said World Wide Web was Well,

important and only 40 per cent said ecommerce.

40 per cent said ecommerce was not very important, so that means 60 per cent must have thought it was. So,

plainly email is still the most important application. Probably the one that we spend the most time dealing with. At least, I can certainly say I do. Ah... if

you‟re interested in the data, you can find it at that URL. Ah... I‟ve been plotting how many users are on

the Net, and you know, roughly as—as estimated by various, ah... people doing surveys and the like. And,

if we continue to grow at th-about 33 per cent every six months, or 80 per cent a year, ah... it‟s—this

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suggests that we‟ll have more than half the world‟s population on line by the end of the decade. Now, I

don‟t know, of course, whether it‟s going to be that way, but I can tell you that so far, in spite of the dot bomb and everything else, I‟m still seeing 80 per cent per year growth in the estimated number of users on the Net around the world. So, it may very well be

that the Net, by the end of the decade, will have penetrated almost as far, or maybe farther than the telephone system has. Ah... the other scary thing is And I

how many <inaudible> are going to be on the net.

used to be really comfortable up until about, ah... June or July of last year. The yellow, ah... bar chart

was my estimate of the growth rate of the number of things that were on the Net. And that estimate, is—

said about 900 million things‟d be on the Net by 2006. And, using the 32 bit address space, which has 4.2 billion addresses in it, ah... if you could be a hundred per cent ah... efficient in their allocation, 900 million was 25 per cent. And I thought being e— And

per—25 per cent efficient wouldn‟t be too hard.

so, it felt like we had some room, you know, to deal with the growth of the Net. Then, I went to visit

Ellen (ph) Erikkson, and they showed me their estimates of the number of Internet enabled cell phones and they

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said there‟d be a billion and a half of them by 2000 and four. And I thought, well, probably some of that‟s And I said, but if they—

got to be advertising hype.

what if it—they were off by a couple of years and it was 2000 and six before they had that billion and a half Internet enabled cell phones, that‟s still means there‟d be 2.4 billion devices on the Net that needed permanent IP addresses. And that, ah... was a scary,

because 2.4 billion is sixty per cent of the 4.2 billion that‟s available. And we‟ve never been that So, this immediately

efficient about allocating IPV4.

started off alarm bells in my head and, ah... I‟ve been an active proponent of moving to a higher—the—the newer, ah... IPV6 protocols with the larger address space, which I will touch on in a minute. But I wanted

to shift gears for a moment and just say that we‟re being asked to do stuff that, ah... we didn‟t know we were going to be asked to do. <Cough> We did Ah... you

experiment with video and audio on the Net.

know, with the, heh, ah... <cough> drunken Norwegian compression protocol and all this stuff. But, ah...

now were expected to do this in large quantities. We‟re expected to deliver real video. is working pretty well. Ah... now, radio

There is something like nine

or ten thousand radio stations that put their audio on

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the Net.

And it‟s only 15 to 20 kilobits per second

and the only funny thing about it is it‟s—it‟s a one way transmission and you buffer this stuff up so that you don‟t run out of packets before e-the next packet shows up. And you fill a bucket full of, ah... of a—of

audio packets and then you play them out, only after the bucket‟s about half full. Uhm... so, there are It‟s

lots of people who do that quite successfully.

the tune one of these Internet radios and it‟s just sticky. Nothing happens for a little while after And then it comes out.

you‟ve tuned to the station. Video is the same way.

Except that you need 400 And, you

kilobits a second to do good quality video.

know, you‟re not going to do that on a dial up 56 kilobit line, although that doesn‟t stop people from trying. <Laughter> And you have people watching these

little two inch television screens, you know, at 67 frames a second, with a caption that comes up at the bottom that says congratulations you‟ve turned your five thousand dollar lap top into a 1928 television set. <Laughter> But, you know, they watch „em anyway.

So--so telephony, which is another <cough> started out a few years ago, in ‟96 as kind of an oddity, is now turning into something we have to do. And we—we are

doing it at WorldCom for the very simple reason that if

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somebody‟s going to eat your lunch, it might as well be you. And—and so, it‟s a purely defensive measure,

we‟re implementing, ah... Internet telephony as a service. Uhm... the hard part about Internet telephony You know, it—it--it‟s, ah... it‟s not It‟s just the why. And if you‟ve, you

is the why. bandwidth.

know, you‟ve done a double satellite hop, ah... communications, you know that it is as much as a second of round trip time and if you had a conversation with someone with one second of round trip time in it, well, I mean, if I were talking to Larry, and I said, “Larry, what do you think of that idea?” It‟s g-one before I‟m And that

going to hear anything come back, at best.

one second feels like it‟s a minute and you‟re immediate thought is, “Jeeze, Larry thinks it‟s the dumbest idea he‟s ever heard and he‟s trying to think of a nice way to say that.” would never do that. Now, I know Larry, you

But, ah... you would—you would—

wouldn‟t wait, ah... to say what you thought. <Chuckling> But, uhm... but the fact is, that—that—

that the delay is actually, you know, destroying the social value of the communication so, ah... there is a lot of effort going on now to put some quality of service capability into the Net so that the packets that need to be delivered quickly get delivered, ah...

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more quickly than the ones that could sustain, ah... more delay, like file transfers and mail. Ah... the

other thing that‟s interesting is that the Internet is infiltrating some of the other media. So, ah... you

know, you—direct broadcast satellite MPEG transmissions can carry imbedded Internet traffic. Which is really

pretty interesting because it means you can deliver more than just video and audio. You can deliver almost

anything that can be digitized in that same stream. The other side of it is finding ways of getting higher bandwidth access. And I am sure we have all lived Uhm... I am a

through the DSL and cable modem follies. gigabit Ethernet is looking exciting. Ricochet fan.

Uhm...

I‟ve been using their stuff here, in

Sunnyvale, San Jose, as far north as, ah... as, ah... Tiburon, ah... with some success. I—the way somebody

put it recently was, when it works, it‟s great. <Chuckling> And, yeah, there are <inaudible> doesn‟t And they don‟t have it installed

work everywhere. everywhere.

For a long time I—I had access to Ricochet

in Washington, D.C. from the 6th floor of my office, ah... in Reston, Virginia, actually. And I had really

good access there, because we were up high and had a good, straight shot. kilobits per second. That was getting a solid 38 Of course, my office was

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connected to the Internet at OC3, and so I had to explain to the Metricom guys that having radio access at 38 kilobits for my 6th floor office was not a big thrill, ah... and it wasn‟t workable at home or any place else as near as I could tell. That‟s improved

over time, as they got, you know, ah... laptop, ah... radio repeaters now that they didn‟t have then. the other thing I wanted to mention is that we‟re starting to see some new modalities of interaction coming, like handwriting. Anybody that‟s watched the Uhm...

guys with palm pilots and visors and so on, know that some people have learned how to write graffiti—graffiti in real time, you know, at incredible speeds. Uhm...

one—one fellow who used to be, uhm... at, uhm... at ah... at the White House now is at IBM. escaping me right now. Whose name is

Uhm... writes this stuff at

incredible speed, you know, like ten pages of notes in a meeting and then he‟ll beam them to you after he‟s done. But, I got to thinking though, w--, you know,

what if we all started—started to do that, we all learned to write graffiti and some anthropologist, you know a hundred and fifty years from now, would notice that all of the handwriting changed at some—one jump, you know. <Laughter> And—and wondered what the hell

happened, you know, and the answer is, we all started

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to write graffiti.

Something else that-that‟s that‟s

happening that I‟m interested in because it‟s sort of the culmination of forty years‟ worth of, ah... other people‟s research, is voice recognition and the possibility of talking to a machine that‟s on the Internet. Uhm... and, there—there are companies in the

Bay Area, like Nuance, who are deep into the middle of that and what I find fascinating about this possibility is, imagine now, you have a machine on the Net, and you can talk to it, and it understands what you‟re saying and, since it‟s on the Net, it can turn around and send packets to anything. And so, if it understands what

you said, it can turn around and control things for you. So, it actually makes sense to have imagined

talking to a computer on the Net, saying, “Please record, ah... Star Trek at 10:00 on Tuesday night.” And the thing turns around and it sends the instructions to your Internet enabled video cassette recorder to tell it how to do that. This is better

than finding an eleven year old to program it. <Laughter> And, I‟ve run out of eleven year olds at Ah... I‟ve

home, so, I, you know, I—I need something.

been impressed with what can be done today with small vocabularies, simple sentence structure and predictable, what‟s important is predictable

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vocabularies.

So, ah... stock brokerage houses like

eSchwab have, uhm... computer based systems you can talk to about ordering, buying and selling stock and looking at your portfolio. Ah... United Airlines has

an interesting system that lets you find out what‟s happening to, ah... air line flights. And, I can

remember driving to Dulles Airport and, uhm... I didn‟t know whether the flight I was in, was going to meet, was on time or not, so I picked up a phone, a cell phone, and I called. And the computer says, uh.. And I said, "I don't

"What's the flight number?" know."

And it said, "Okay, let's find another way to He said, "What time is it coming in?" And it said, "I- I heard you say 9:14. And I said, "No." And he says, "Okay,

figure it out." I said, "9:40." Is that right?"

you must've said 9:40." coming from?" "Oh!

He said uh.. "Where is it And he says,

I said, "San Francisco."

That's Flight 222.

It's coming into Gate C25, And so, at which point, I

and it's 20 minutes early."

accelerated, and- But it was an absolutely natural conversation. You know, I'm- maybe that was an unusual

experience, and I've heard other people say, "No, no, it drives me crazy." we could do that. But, I was impressed, Uh.. that

So now, I have the idea that- that If you can

we can speech enable almost anything.

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Internet-enable something on the Net, and then you have something you can talk to about it, then in theory, you can control almost anything. You'd walk around the

house, talking about all the appliances, and having them do things. Now, you might wonder why I think all

these gadgets are gonna' be on the Net, and one answer is, if we put the uh.. protocols into hardware, this was sometime back, almost two years ago, now, a year and a half. Two guys at the University of You know, 1-

Massachusetts did this 2-chip web server.

1 chip did the file protocol, uh.. you know, dumped the HTML at you. came from. And that's where these pictures and text And the other one did TC/PIP. Now, I'm you

know, it's uh.. it was not much bigger than those two quarters. They probably cost more than 50 cents, but-

but the fact is, as time goes on, you drive the cost down with the hardware experience and- and volume. So,

my prediction is that lots and lots of things will be Internet-enabled, because the graduate students who get their hands on these things, and they'll do anything. It doesn't matter whether it makes sense, they just want to try it out. toaster? in 1989. What if I Internet-enable a

You know, everybody knows somebody did that It was in an Interop Show, in fact, and you

know, they- they In- Internet-enabled a toaster, and

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you could send an SNMP packet to say how burned you wanted your toast. So, lots of these devices are

gonna' be on the Net, so it's not just the cell phone guys that are gonna' create the avalanche. It's gonna' And

be anybody that Internet-enables almost anything. it's already happening.

There's a refrigerator that's

made by Electrolux that's Internet-enabled. It's got a nice liquid, crystal touch sensitive display. And you

know, you can go online and you know, search the Net, send or receive email. Uhm.. And it's uh.. it's to

augment the existing communication system we all have at home, made up of paper and magnets. You know, that

go on the front of the- they- they go on the front of the refrigerator. Now this one, absolutely floored me. Somebody came in and said there's an Internet-enabled picture frame. And my first reaction was boy! That

sounds about as useful as an electric fork!

And you

know, then after I got done making jokes about electric forks, then he went out and bought one. And it turns

out, they make electric forks. They have little LCD displays, and- and they have a lot of knowledge. one has a lot of knowledge about pasta. 17 different kinds of pasta. This

It knows about

And you push the little Then it

button, and you pick the pasta that you want. says, "How much do you- are you cooking?"

You know, a

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quarter of a pound, or half a pound. And uh.. and then it tells you how long to cook it so it's al dente. then, you know, the alarm goes off when it's ready. And then you use the fork in the normal way, to put the pasta on the plate. So, I can't make jokes about This- I And

electric forks, 'cause they actually work.

have one of these sitting on my desk now, uh.. in the office. It does only one thing. It goes online, on It

the Net, sucks ten pictures in cycles through them. goes to a predetermined website, which and you get,

the- the company, Siva <ph>, gives you uh.. you know, a user name and a password. And you go in, and you can

uh.. update whatever information you want to on that uh.. on that display. So, you know, this is really

cool for the grandparents that want to watch the grandchildren growing up. They don't want to get you

know, uh.. learn to uh.. boot up Windows, and you know, and hack around and all that stuff. They- they just

plug this picture in, and it automatically pulls pictures up. Of course, uh.. security could be an

issue, you know, somebody gets- hacks into the uh.. server website, and the pictures that start coming up are not the ones of the grandchildren. That could be a problem. Uh.. So, you know, we learn a lot about Uhm.. I thought- I'm not- I'm just

security that way.

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an engineer, so I don't know anything about business, but it occurred to me, that maybe if the- if one out of the ten pictures was an advertisement, you might actually be able to subsidize the cost of putting these things up in somebody's home. So, uh.. this is just the beginning, I think, of a- of just an onslaught of Internet-enabled devices. Uh.. And there are, now, In-

Internet-enabled telephones, that are- that are real products. And they're just- they're no longer toys.

They're no longer experiments. There are companies that buy, and install, and distribute these. at- at WorldCom. We use them

Uh.. SIP stands for Session

Initiation Protocol, and it's- it's a pretty important, very general end-to-end negotiating protocol for two processes to decide a set of parameters that they're going to require for their service. And then after

they've made the uh.. negotiation, sometimes they'll go down and ask the network for a special quality of service to achieve the objective. So there are lots of

companies now that make these uh.. these uh.. SIP phones. They're just part of the uh.. will become part I think

of the normal uh.. Internet environment.

there'll be a lot more of these kinds of things around. And many of them will be programmable with high level languages like JAVA and PICon, which is pretty

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important because it means those devices can be uhm.. in some sense adapted, you know, almost in real time to do new functions that they didn't do before, because somebody provided you with another JAVA APPLET, or a PICon uh.. script, or a program to run. So, you've seen a lot of these already, I mean, WebTVs were not terribly successful in the market, although I can tell you, they are very well received by people uh.. older folks, who didn't want to learn how to run PCs, but liked the idea of sending email, and uh.. surfing the Net. The Palm Pilot uh.. and other you know, Visor and PDAs are very popular, and also

Handspring, and so on. Internet-enabled. telephone.

The Nokia 9000 is a three-way uh..

It's a pager, it's a cell phone, and it's You- you open it up, and

also a little email station. there's a- a keyboard.

It's like this, I wear a two-

way pager uh.. that's Internet-enabled, and it has a liquid crystal display, and a keyboard that's suitable for people that are 2 inches tall. Uh.. That- that- but it- what's important about it is that it does send and receive email, and uh.. it- People get carried away with it. I- My Chief of Staff is sitting on the other

side of the conference table, and I'll get an email from her pager to mine, saying you know, "Don't forget to say something to Mr. Smith, or your fly is down, or

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some other important piece of information!"

The uh..

The Japanese are making video games, and you notice, I don't remember the numbers, 90 million of these things have been purchased in the United States. Uh.. Their Internet-enabling them. And so, my belief now, despite

all the uh.. the best efforts of our marketing department to create a market for video-conferencing. My belief is that video-conferencing will come to uh.. industry by way of the video game business. scenario's really easy. And the

Uh.. The kids that play the

games like to hear each other and see each other while they're playing. And if they're physically separated

at home, then the best way to help them out to hear and see each other is to put a microphone on the uh.. on this game, and put a television set, uh.. television camera uh.. on the television set. Because, they're

sitting in front of it, and the then tend not to move away. So, you can distribute the images and sound of Okay, so you have

the kids that are playing the game.

a bunch of people that can hear each other, see each other, and shoot at each other, which sounds like a good video conference. So- so, I- My thought is that,

well, these are consumer devices, and so the people will bring them in to work, and they'll use them for video-conferencing on you know, on the corporate Net.

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And if the video conference gets boring, you can always go back to playing the computer game. Remember the Uh.. Some

refrigerator that was Internet-enabled?

people have suggested that we put a bar code scanner in it, and that way we'd know what was in it. You know,

so every time you put something in, it would record that back. So, you wonder what does a refrigerator do Well,

that knows what's in it, and it's on the Net?

you know, it goes around searching for recipes that it knows you could make with the stuff it has in it. And

when you get home, you see a list of recipes, and say, "Here's things you can make." In which case, you

shouldn't be too surprised to get an email- Say suppose, you're on vacation, you get an email from your refrigerator, and it says, you know, "Uh.. I don't- I don't know how much milk is left, but it went in there three weeks ago, and it's gonna' crawl on its own if you don't do something." Or, you might be shopping,

you know, and you get a page from your refrigerator and it says, "Don't forget the Marinara sauce! everything else I need with me!" I have

Now, some- some of us

actually believe that these uh.. you know, InternetInternet- enabled devices will eventually be found in our clothing. Okay. That- that we'll wind up wearing And uh.. so this-

things that are Internet-enabled.

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now the scenario gets even more interesting. Uh.. You can imagine that uh.. you could interrogate your sock drawer, and uh.. "It says there are 17-pairs of socks in here, and there are three unmatched socks. Number 11411163L, is missing." Sock

And uh.. so you send

out a multi-cast, and- and you know, and you get back a note saying, "This is sock 116384L, you know. buried in the sofa, in the-" I'm

So, uh.. or you know, the "This is uh..

shirt drawer, you know, the same thing. Vint Cerf's shirt drawer, speaking.

You know, I have

14-shirts in here, uh.. shirt Number 172A has been uh.. was washed on October 24th." Uhm.. Now, you know all

of this is- is cool, uh.. although there could be some interesting side effects. You know, like uh.. suppose

that you're calling home and uh.. and you say uh.. "Hi, uh.. Hi, honey. office." I'm- I'm working uh.. late in the

And she says, "Well, that's really

interesting, because your shirt is down at the bar!" Uh.. So, you know, this may not be a good thing. Well,

there are other examples of these, I- I think we've filled up more time than I intended here. But you- you Oh! I

can see the kind of future we may be facing.

left out one other really important one, the bathroom scales. The Internet uh.. The Japanese have built an And you step

Internet-enabled, gath- bathroom scale.

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on it, and your weight is sent to the doctor to become part of your medical record. And so, somebody said,

"Well, geez, what if the refrigerator gets the same information!" You know, it- it- You'll find diet

recipes when you come home, you know, on the uh.. Either that, or just flat refuses to open, 'cause it knows you're on a diet! Uh.. Okay. Wireless Internet, I- I just want to

I- Let me not go through all this.

say that I would be remiss if I didn't say that wireless is becoming a very important mode of communication. Uh.. It's not just cell phones. It's

all kinds of other wireless, and infrared, radio uh.. RF, and infrared communications. Uh.. The uh.. 802.11 stuff the high speed wireless LANs are turning out to be uh.. very, very popular. I can tell you they have Uh.. I

social effects, that you might not anticipate.

have a wireless LAN at home, and I have one in the office uh.. You know, I go home and turn my machine on, and it's online. Well, I found that we have ended up,

uh.. we've left the uh.. the laptop on the uh.. the dining room table now, when we have dinner. And it

used to be that we would have discussions, and then we'd get stuck. something. You know, where we didn't know

And normally, we'd have to get up and go

down the hall to the library, and look in the books.

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And it would turn, of course, that the books weren't getting any more up-to-date, and we would almost never find what we were looking for. But now that we have

this wireless LAN, we just leave the laptop on the table, and when we get stuck in the conversation, we go on the Net, find the answer, and continue. And we have

much more interesting conversations, as a result, because we don't get stuck. So, uh.. it's, you know,

it's not to do email, it's actually become a part of our, of our uh.. evening ritual. Now, there is a

problem, though, that the more of this stuff that's uh.. radio uh.. enabled, the more demand there will be for IP address base, 'cause once it's turned on, it's on and it needs an IP address. And that leads to this Uh.. There is

problem of running out of address base.

a uh.. a more advanced version of Internet protocol, called IP Version 6. And if you're counting, you

wonder what happened to IP Version 5, since we're using IP Version 4 now. Five was uh.. once known as the ST

Protocol, or Stream Protocol, and it sort of led to a dead end, so we didn't do it anymore. the next number for the Version 6. address space. And we picked

It has 128-bits of

And you know, I'm embarrassed to say

that I used to go around saying, "10 to the 38th addresses is enough so every electron in the universe

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can have its own web page if it wants."

Until I got a

note from somebody at Cal. Tech, who said, "Dear Doctor Cerf, you jerk, you know, there's 10 to the 88th electrons in the universe, and you're wrong by 50 orders of magnitude!" So uh.. I- I went off, and I did Let's

a different calculation, and I said, "All right.

see, the human habitat, it covers 30-percent of the earth's surface, and it's about a kilometer high." I took the volume of that, and I divided it by 10 to the 38th, and that came out to 4600 molecules. So, as So,

long as the nano-engine guys don't go things that are smaller than 4600 molecules, we have enough address space to handle all of the nano-engines. And I figure

that's enough until after I'm dead, and after that, it's somebody else's problem. There's other things

that go into V-6, like IP security, end-to-end is required. Uh.. And flow Ids to do some things with So, uh.. I consider it to be a very

quality service.

important step, but it's not gonna' be an easy to make. There are lots of loose ends that have to be dealt with. But it's now an official uh.. standard and uh..

allocations are being uh.. taken on IP- uh.. VPversion-6 address space, by all of the uh.. address registries around the world. So, uh.. that's something

that you can anticipate, uh.. will be under increasing

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pressure to get to, especially as a lot of these Internet-enabled devices show up. Uh.. Third

generation cell phone guys have announced that they're gonna' use IPV-6 for their uh.. IP addressing space, and so that will put some pressure on. Well, if I were

to actually try to address this list, uh.. we'd be here all- all day and next- the rest of the month. The- the

reason I wanted to- to mention policy though, is to say to you that those of you who think of Internet as being an interesting technological phenomenon, still filled with lots of technical challenges. Uh.. I can tell you, as- uh.. as an engineer, that the policy challenges, uh.. the- the engineering challenge is pale compared to the policy challenges. The- these issues of privacy

and cryptography and export, and Steve Squires is here in the audience. And he's Chief Science Officer for

HP, and he can tell you, having lived- lived through a lot of the export situation, it's a very tough nut to crack. Uh.. The trademarks and copyright regulations

and everything else, are very complicated, especially because Internet's so global, that uh.. the problems are not solvable necessarily with the simple, national solutions, or national legislation. There really needs So, the

to be some international coordination.

problems are quite difficult uh.. to solve, though we

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have to deal with them, because the Net's here to stay. Okay, I'm gonna' take just a few more minutes, if it's okay. I am way, way over my- How- how far over am I? About an hour and a half, right? Yeah, okay. Uhm..

Because I want to- to tell you about a project, which is not a WorldCom activity. This is something that I've been dealing with the jet propulsion laboratory. uh.. I think we've done a fair job, you know, collectively, of getting the Internet going on- on the earth. And you know that we've been studying the rest We've

of the solar system by launching missions that we communicate with, through the deep space network. There are three of these uh.. kinds of big antennas uh.. scatted at a 120-degrees around the uh.. earth in Spain, and Australia, and in Goldstone, California. And they communicate with various devices uh.. like this uh.. space vehicle that might be in orbit, or might be flying past an asteroid, like the one that landed, actually on Erus <ph>. Uh.. The major focus of NASA's And we had a couple The

missions recently have been Mars.

of successes, and some not so successful pieces.

successful one was a little uh.. rover that went around uh.. sending all those images back. That you might not

know is that a lot of those missions are absolutely uh.. you know, sort of stovepipe, in the sense that

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they have their own communications' facilities and standards, they- Well, they don't have standards. They have their own uh.. idiosyncratic communication protocols, and because there haven't been standards for space communication, there hasn't been much reuse of any of the uh.. assets that are out there, and still functional. So, uh.. three years ago, uh.. a bunch of us got together uh.. at JPL, and uh.. concluded that we should try to standardize the communication protocols, and we picked as our basic framework, uh.. an extension of the Internet to interplanetary space. So, that's

what we're doing, and we anticipate a number of missions coming up to Mars uh.. dropping uh.. various sensory systems down, and and self-organizing radio networks, to transmit data back. Eventually, there'll

be people uh.. who go out there, and I hope they'll have a place to stay, because Mars it turns out, is 9months away. And when you get onto the planet, you

have to stay there for another 9-months or so, while it gets around in its orbit, until you have enough, you know- So you still have enough fuel to get back to earth. So, it's a 27-month uh.. round-trip. Uh.. So,

I- you know, I mean they'll have a nice place to live while they're there. Uh.. At least, I hope so. Uh..

So, our most uh.. immediate uh.. project uh.. is the

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expansion of Internet to interplanetary space. model is really simple.

The

We use standard Internet on

the surface of the planets, then the various satellites, and in all the space vehicles, just standard Internet. But when we have to go any uh.. I mean

long distance, where the delays are very high.

we're talking about speed of light delays that might be 40-minutes, or an hour, or two hours or more, even one way. That's way beyond the profile of TCP. So, uh..

we've uh.. got an interplanetary gateway concept, where you exit the ordinary Internet, and you go into a new interplanetary mode, where a whole new set of protocols that deal with the very long delays, asymmetric communications, the fact that you're episodically connected, but not always connected. There's all kinds

of- of hair in there. Uhm.. But we've now got prototypes that have been implemented, and in fact, the Mars network is the first major project. We'll be

launching in 2003, two Rovers to go to Mars, both of which we- we expect will carry the interplanetary Internet protocols. Subsequent missions will bring

satellites around Mars, so that by 2008, we should have anywhere from six to eight satellites that are part of the two planet, uh.. Internet system. The whole idea

is to do it incrementally, so that each mission brings

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another piece of the interplanetary system into being. And as long as those assets are still functional, they can be part of the interplanetary backbone. So, you

know, by 2020, or 2040, or something, uh.. we hope to have enough missions out there to have filled out a fair amount of the interplanetary backbone. the uh.. the interplanetary story. So, that's

Uhm.. If you're

interested in any of this material, uh.. I've- I will put this particular slide set uh.. up, uh.. on my Cerf's Up website, at uh.. WorldCom. You're welcome to

use it, there's nothing, you know, uh.. copyright uh.. protected. Uhm.. I- If you find it helpful, I'd be And

uh.. perfectly happy for you to make use of it.

that uh.. finally, uh.. John, uh.. concludes my formal remarks. Uh.. And I'll be- If there is time, I'm

willing to do questions, or do people want to get drunk, or whatever it is. Thank you. It's- it's up to you. Okay.

I'm sorry, one other thing I need to do, I

have to show that I'm part of the 21st Century generation, so here, I've got my ponytail. ready. You see, there we are. Okay, I'm

It need- it needs to be

gray, and, or either that I need more Grecian Formula, but you know, this is- this is- Sir.

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Audience Question:

What effect do you think the

Japanese NTT DoCoMo will have?

Vint Cerf: It- Well, it's already had a really interesting effect. The NTT DoCoMo is a portable uh..

you know, it's the cell phone technology with what they call I-Mode. operation. Which is their uh.. Internet mode of- of

And uh.. something like 18 million Japanese

teenage girls uh.. have really adopted this thing, as their means of communication. Uhm.. It has been very successful, unlike WAP- the Wireless Application Protocol in Europe. And the primary reason for that,

is that the WAP guys built a gateway that required translation from the WAP protocols into the Internet protocols, and back. translation. And it was application level

So, as a result, the rate at which a

customer over on the radio side could get access to an application in the rest of the Internet, was a function of how quickly the WAP guy could reprogram the gateway. The DoCoMo I-Mode guys took a different uh.. path. They said that the gateway should be relatively transparent. The only thing that they ask is that the uh.. application builders use a particular version of ATMLwhich is compressed HTML. But they were essentially

cooperating a transparent gateway, and as a result, of

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course lots of services blossomed, and attracted a great deal of youth. So, uh.. the answer is, that it I

looks like it a uh.. very popular technology there.

know there's some uh.. interactions between NTT and ATT Wireless uh.. And it'll be interesting whether that bears fruit uh.. I still have a lot of trouble believing in people who find it useful to see such a tiny little screen, and do anything useful with it. But that's 'cause I'm 58, and I can't see that well, but you know, if you're 17, it's a whole other story. Uhm.. Another alternative, however, and the thing that excites me about the wireless communications, and its Internet-ennoblement. Is the possibility that you can

speak to a computer, and have the result come back, either you know, audibly through the phone, but it could just as well come back to another Internetenabled device. pager. So, it could come back to your two-way It could come So,

It could come back to your PDA.

back to the uh.. navigation display in the car.

the idea of having this cross-module uh.. interaction for applications is very attractive, or at least intriguing. And so uh.. I think, the DoCoMo-I Mode

has- has uh.. struck something really interesting. Let's watch and see what happens, you know, whether they continue to see the uh.. rapid acquisition, uh..

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customer acquisition that they've had in the last 18months. And of course, it'll be interesting to see Yes, sir?

what happens with ATT Wireless.

Audience Question: Can you tell me-

Vint Cerf: If you use the microphone, you'll hearThey'll hear you, and so will I. I hope.

Audience Question: Could you tell me uhm.. CDD motivations of the- the change from NCP to TCP?

Vint Cerf: What was it?

What motivated it?

Audience Question: Oh, yes.

Vint Cerf: Okay, you mean besides, we wanted to just beat everybody up?

Audience Question: Right.

Vint Cerf: You know, what motivated this, was that at the time we had- The question was: change from NCP to TCP? What motivated the

The NCP was designed very, It

very much with the ARPINET in mind, because it had-

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assumed certain functionality from the ARPINET, sequential packet delivery, and ve- very reliable delivery through the Net. But the other networks, the

packet satellite net, and the packet radio net, and the Ethernet incidentally, didn't have that same reliability. It could not guarantee, and didn't try to In fact, the

guarantee a packet uh.. delivery. Ethernet was a dumb wire.

And so, you know, if the

packet didn't make it, it didn't make it, and the wire didn't know it. it end-to-end. So, if you did anything, you had to do So, uh.. it- This motivated the design

of the TCP protocol, and what we wanted, was to get everybody into a mode of operation where it didn't matter what the underlying network technology was anymore. That we could keep absorbing new networks And

into the Internet, and it would simply keep going. that's exactly what's happened. Sir?

Audience Question: For historic purposes, you actually might mention uh.. some of the competition that TCP raced against, in particular, X.25.

Vint Cerf: Oh, yes!

Actually, uh.. it seemed like uh.. You know, first it was

TCP was the target de jour.

X.25, this- this- 1975 was when the X.25 guys got

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started. In fact, Larry was the key developer of X.25, uh.. and I think it's fair to say, Larry, that part of the reason for having to do that, was that uh.. the virtual circuit concept was something you could sell to somebody who was familiar to circuits, but packets were hard to explain to somebody who didn't- didn't know that. So-

Audience Question: The second thing. standardize the <inaudible>-

You needed to

Vint Cerf: Do you want to use a microphone for this, or here? This is uh.. There-

Audience Question: There was a second problem. And- and that was uh.. if we had just done TCP or IP, then we couldn't have gotten X-29 standardized which was the typing end protocol uh.. that had to be done as well, in order for a terminal to the computer things to be able to be siliBuG, the- the carriers at that point. If it was just the other part, then that would've been non-standard, and- and that was the only thing we could sell those days, was terminal to computer service.

Vint Cerf: Yup.

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Audience Question: Computer to computer was useless at that point, because there wasn't any business yet.

Vint Cerf: So, there's part of the answer.

So, anyway,

it was part of a- It was- it was considered a competitor for a time, and yet, in the end, we just layered it underneath PCP, and under IP. thing happened with OSI. The same

Uh.. OSI came along, and just

as we were standardizing Version-4 of TCP in '78, the first uh.. OSI uh.. architecture paper came out. you know, there ensued a 10-year struggle. And

Lots of

governments decided they were going to go down the OSI path, and uh.. it took even the US Government decided to do that. Even the Defense Department. It was

really amazing, you know, three years after we uh.. managed to standardize TCP/IP in 1981, or '82, they decided they were gonna' go, you know, do uh.. OSI. And so there was a long 10-year period of uh.. struggle over that. And what eventually happened is that- that

nobody implemented enough of the OSI protocols to make a business out of it, and everybody was implementing and distributing TCP for free. And uh.. then

eventually, it just became the- the de facto uh.. preferred choice. ATM was another example of something

which has been placed up against these things, but it-

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it still persists, uh.. as a uh.. preferred standard. Sir?

Audience Question: Could you enlighten us- Well, first of all, great presentation, wonderful, thank you.

Vint Cerf:

Thank you.

Audience Question: Could you enlighten us a little bit on some of the most interesting problems you're seeing current, and then extrapolate into the future, on uh.. network security?

Vint Cerf: Oh, boy. Okay. Uhm.. First of all, you know, people talk about network security as if it's the network that's the problem. And you know, and in many cases, it's not the network that's the problem, it's the hosts that are on the network, that don't have adequately uh.. strong uh.. strongly protected operating systems. I don't mean to excuse the net from Uh.. We clearly have to

having to protest itself, too.

make sure that the uh.. the routing system, and the domain name system, and the other infrastructure in fact uh.. not impervious, but at least resistant uh.. to various kinds of abuse. Uh.. It's a- it's a fierily

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tough challenge to do that.

One thing I've learned,

and perhaps you have too, is that anyone who thinks that a firewall protects you, needs to think twice, because the model that- that you have; your internal network, and a firewall, and then the unwashed Internet. And as long as you have a firewall, you're

protected, the statistics that I hear are that most of the uh.. serious uh.. attacks, and invasions are uh.. taking place inside the firewall, because it's a disgruntled employee, or someone who has legitimate access to the uh.. assets that cause trouble. So, uh..

security's a tough uh.. problem, and it's not something that you just kind of slap on, or pour sauce on or something. You really have to build it in. That's one

of the reasons I'm glad to see IPv.6 has at least IP sec- is a required uh.. You don't have to do it with every packet, but if somebody wants to do it, you have to be able to respond. everything, either. Uh.. That's not a solution to

The tough part here is uh.. to be-

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