Air Emissions from Ashbridges Bay Treatment Plant

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					      Air Emissions from
Ashbridges Bay Treatment Plant
   By
   Anthony Ciccone, Ph.D., P.Eng.                     –Golder Associates
   Ciara De Jong, MES                                 –Golder Associates
   Angela Li-Muller, Ph.D.                            –Toronto Public Health
   Mark Rupke, P.Eng.                                 –WES
   Diane Michelangeli, Ph.D.                          –York University
   Jean Yves Urbain, P.Eng.                           –Earth Tech



   Policy Analysis Tools for Air Quality and Health

   19 May 2005




                                                                               1
Objective of Emission Study
   Evaluate the past, current and
    future impacts of air emissions
    South Riverdale and Beach
    Communities




                                      2
Methodology
1.   Data collection and review
             Plant process information (including previous studies)
             Ambient air monitoring data
             Meteorological data
2.   Develop an air emission inventory
             Determine chemicals released
             Location of releases
             Stack and area characteristics
             Mass emissions into air
3.   Process meteorological data
4.   Build input data for CALPUFF
5.   Select 17 chemicals for modelling
6.   Model chemical impact on communities
7.   Analyze results



                                                                       3
                                                       The Modelling Process
                                                                                                                            Emissions



                 CALMET Predicted                                        Wind Direction Frequency -
              Wind Direction Frequency                                      ABTP OnS ite 1996



                             N                                                          N
                     12%                                                        16%
            NNW                      NNE                               NNW                     NNE
                                                                                14%
                     10%
      NW                                     NE                NW               12%                        NE
                      8%                                                        10%
                      6%                                                         8%
WNW                                                ENE   WNW                     6%                                 ENE
                      4%
                                                                                 4%
                      2%




                                                                                                                                                  Concentrations
                                                                                 2%




                                                                                                                          Meteorology
W                     0%                            E    W                       0%                                  E



WSW                                               ESE    WSW                                                        ESE




                                                                                                                                        CALPUFF
       SW                                    SE                SW                                          SE

            SSW                     SSE                                  SSW                   SSE
                             S                                                          S




                CALMET Predicted                                      Wind S peed (m/s) by Direction -
            Wind S peed (m/s) by Direction                                    ABTP OnS ite

                             N
                       20                                                               N
            NNW                     NNE
                                                                          NNW     20
                                                                                              NNE
       NW              15                    NE
                                                                    NW            15                  NE
                       10                                                         10
WNW                                               ENE        WNW                                            ENE
                        5                                                           5

 W                      0                          E           W                    0                           E


                                                             WSW                                            ESE
 WSW                                              ESE
                                                                    SW                                SE
       SW                                    SE
                                                                          SSW                 SSE
             SSW                    SSE                                                 S
                             S


                                                                   Average      Maximum

                   Average       M aximum




                                                                                                                          Receptors




                                                                                                                                                                   4
ABTP Historical Scenarios
1.   Incinerator was in full operation (pre-1996)

2.   Incinerator was in partial operation (2000-2002)

3.   After incinerator was discontinued (2003-2004)

4.   After incinerator was discontinued and odour control
     fully implemented (by 2010)




                                                            5
Concept Plan for Key Plant Areas




                                   6
Protocol to Select Chemicals
   Prioritize chemicals
     Ranking
       • Method 1a - Calculated Toxicity Equivalent for
         Cancer effects
       • Method 1b - Calculated Toxicity Equivalent Non-
         Cancer effects
       • Method 1c - Ranked chemicals based on toxicity,
         emissions, persistence, and bioaccumulation
     Select top 25 from rankings
     Above laboratory detection limits
     Important to communities


                                                           7
17 Chemicals Modeled

   Arsenic                    Mercury
   Benzene                    Nitrogen oxides
   Benz[a]pyrene (B[a]P)      PM2.5
   Bis(2-ethylhexyl)-         PCBs
    phthalate                  Sulphur dioxide
   Cadmium                    Total dioxins and furans
   Di-n-octyl phthalate       Total polyaromatic
   Hexachlorobutadiene         hydrocarbons (PAHs)
   Hydrogen sulphide          Vinyl chloride
   Lead

                                                           8
Hydrogen Sulphide
24 Hr Concentration Isopleths
                         AAQC – N/A ug/m3
                         Health Benchmark
                         – 10 to 2 ug/m3




                                            9
 Summary of Impacts on
 Communities
  Number of       Full Operation of   Partial Operation   Discontinued       Discontinued
Chemicals Above     Incinerators       of Incinerators    Incineration   Incineration and Full
                                                                            Odour Controls

Toronto Ambient
                         0                   0                N/A                N/A
  Air Quality
   MOE Air
                         0                   0                 0                   0
   Standards
                        2                   2
                                                              1
    Health          Cadmium &           Cadmium &
                                                           Hydrogen                0
  Benchmarks         Hydrogen            Hydrogen
                                                           Sulphide
                     Sulphide            Sulphide




                                                                                                 10
Conclusions - 1
   Little difference between air quality
    on South Riverdale vs Beaches due
    to ABTP
     Elevated stack has slightly higher
      impact to the northeast because of high
      velocity winds from the southwest
     Low elevations sources have higher
      impact to the northwest because of
      lower velocity winds from the southeast


                                                11
Conclusions - 2
 Significant process changes since
  1995 has changed the ABTP air
  emission profile
 Removal of incineration eliminated
    • arsenic,
    • cadmium,
    • lead,
    • PCBs, and
    • Dioxins/Furans

                                       12
Conclusions - 3
   Compared to Toronto Ambient Air
    While Incinerator Operating
     Predicted maximum levels below
      Toronto measured ambient levels




                                        13
Conclusions - 4
 15 chemicals were unequivocally
  detected at ABTP
 All detected chemicals below MOE
  air quality criteria/standards for all
  time scales




                                           14
Conclusions - 5
   Most detected chemicals below health
    benchmarks except
     Hydrogen Sulphide above the lower chronic
      limit (2 ug/m3) for some scenarios
     Cadmium exceeds only during incineration
   By 2010, all detected chemicals meet
    health benchmarks
   All detected chemicals below Toronto
    measured levels during incineration

                                                  15
Conclusions - 5
   Benzo[a]pyrene/PAHs less than
    detection limits
   At B[a]P detection limits,
     Health benchmark exceeded for all scenarios
     MOE air quality criteria will be met by 2010
   Maximum predicted impact was greater
    than measured
   Impact over estimated


                                                     16