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Construction of indices

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Construction of indices

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									Appendix 7

Construction of indices

Appendix 7

Creation of indices

Creation of indices: About Access
Frequency of use
Frequency of usage on campus.
2 items. 4 point scale never to daily Min 2 Max 8 Items: A1.1How often do you use a computer at Cape Tech? A1.2 How often do you use this computer to access the Internet?

Frequency of usage generally
4 items. 4 point scale never to daily Min 4 Max 16 Items: How often do you use a computer A20.1to communicate with people A20.2for study A20.3for recreation A20.4to access information

Frequency of usage overall (two indices combined)
6 items. 4 point scale never to daily Min 6 Max 24 Items: Combined of above

Adequacy and ease of use
Ease of use
3 items. 4 point scale very difficult to very easy Min 3 Max 12 Items: A4 How difficult is it to find a computer when you need one?

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A13 How difficult is it for you to use the computer you referred to in A11 A28.1 I am able to use a computer for long enough periods of time for my learning requirements

Adequacy of use
3 items. 4 point scale Strongly disagree to strongly agree Min 3 Max 12 Items:
A28.3 The internet access at Cape Tech is adequate for my subject requirements. A28.4 The internet access off campus is adequate for my subject requirements. A28.5 The technical support I receive from Cape Tech for using computers for learning is adequate

Adequacy and ease of use ON CAMPUS
3 items. 4 point scale Strongly disagree to strongly agree 4 point scale very difficult to very easy Min 3 Max 12 Items:
A28.3 The internet access at Cape Tech is adequate for my subject requirements. A28.5 The technical support I receive from Cape Tech for using computers for learning is adequate A4 How difficult is it to find a computer when you need one?

Adequacy and ease of use OFF CAMPUS
2 items. 4 point scale Strongly disagree to strongly agree 4 point scale very difficult to very easy Min 2 Max 8 Items: A13 How difficult is it for you to use the computer you referred to in A11
A28.4 The internet access off campus is adequate for my subject requirements.

Adequacy and ease of use Overall
6 items. 4 point scale Strongly disagree to strongly agree 4 point scale very difficult to very easy Min 6 Max 24

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Creation of indices

Items: Combined above

Off campus access
Physical
3 items. Items
A8 Do you have use of a computer where you live? A10 Does this computer have access to the internet? A11 Besides where you live, do you have access to a computer elsewhere off campus?

Recoded as follows 0 NO access off campus 1 a computer elsewhere ONLY 2 a computer at home ONLY 3 a computer AND the Internet at home 4 a computer at home AND elsewhere 5 a computer AND the Internet at home AND a computer elsewhere Min 0 Max 5

Practical
2 items. Items
A14 How many people share use of this computer? A15 If you share use of a computer are you the primary (main) user?

Recoded as follows 1 Not primary user AND >3 people share access 3 Share equally AND 2 people share use 5 Primary user or Only person using computer Min 0 Max 5

Overall off campus access
Combination of physical and practical indices Min 0 Max 10

Personal agency

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Creation of indices

Individual disposition
8 items. 4 point scale Strongly disagree to strongly agree Min 8 Max 32 B24.1 The use of computers is likely to result in more valuable learning experiences. B24.2 The use of computers is likely to improve communication amongst students. B24.3 The use of computers is likely to improve communication between students and teachers B24.4 Computers can give valuable support to my courses B24.5 Computers will help me do routine tasks (like enrolments and obtaining results) more quickly B24.6 I am a person who likes to try out new ways to carry out my learning. B24.7 I can picture myself encouraging fellow students to use computers for learning A28.2 I am a person who has a high general level of interest in new technological developments.

Individual aptitude
Min 1 Max 12
A17 When did you first start using a computer A18 Have you ever attended training on using a computer at Cape Tech? A24 How would you rate your ability with using a computer generally?

<2 yrs poor average good excellent 1 4 7 10

3-5 yrs 2 5 8 11

>6 yrs 3 6 9 12

And then ranked into 3 categories low <=4 Med >4 <=8 High >8

Context
10 items. 2 point scale Disagree Agree Min 10 Max 20

A25Overall my close friends think it’s important to use computers for educational purposes. are competent computer users. . use computers in their daily lives. use computers for recreational purposes. . use computers as a means of communicating with each other

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A26

Overall my close family think its important to use computers for educational purposes. . are competent computer users. . use computers in their daily lives. use computers for recreational purposes. . use computers as a means of communicating with each other.

Content
5 items. 2 point scale Disagree Agree Min 5 Max 10
B19 B20 B21 B22 B23 I am able to find content on the internet that is relevant to the subjects I am studying. I am able to find subject content on the internet that is relevant to South Africa. I am able to find subject content on the internet that has been produced locally The computer resources I have used for studying are available in the language I want The computer resources I have used for studying are available in more than 1 language.

Creation of indices: About Use
Event of Acquisition
5 items. 5 point scale Never to Often Min 5 Max 25 B6 How often have your lecturers explained or demonstrated a concept using

powerpoint or another type of presentation software audio and/or video clips multimedia eg animation images or slides text

Event of Discovery
5 items. 5 point scale Never to Often Min 5 Max 25 B9 If yes, how often do you use a computer to look for

electronic readings lecture notes internet resources general information about the module/ course examples of previous assignments

Event of Dialogue
5 items.

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5 point scale Never to Often Min 5 Max 25 B12 If yes, how often do you use a computer to

participate in email discussion eg a list server or newsgroup participate in online chat as part of a module/ course participate in online discussion forum as part of the module/ course participate in an online audio/video conference communicate with the lecturer by email

Event of Practice
5 items. 5 point scale Never to Often Min 5 Max 25 B15 If yes, how often do you use a computer to undertake a multiple choice quiz a simulation, role play or case study a game an interactive task which enables you to drill and practice a computer activity which provides feedback

Event of Creation
5 items. 5 point scale Never to Often Min 3 Max 15 B18 If yes, how often do you use a computer to write an assignment create something for example developing your own website or making a poster build something using specialised software like CAD, Macromedia Excel

Disciplinary groupings
Responses were categorised according to discipline and then ranked the response according to the median response. This created a new index where 1 = most frequent and so on. As an example we can examine staff responses to Question 6.3 asking “How often have you explained or demonstrated a concept using multimedia eg animation?” . The science and health sciences disciplines have a median of regularly. They were both given a ranking or 1. The humanities discipline has a median of occasionally, it was given a ranking of 2 and the business and engineering disciplines had a median of rarely and were given a ranking of 3

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Figure 1: Example of staff from different disciplinary groupings response to question 6.3 "“How often have you explained or demonstrated a concept using multimedia eg animation?”
Pie Ch art (f eb2006s taf f 136v *51 5c)

Often Never Regularly Regularly

Often Often Never

Never

Rarely

ccasionally Rarely

ccasionally Rarely

Regularly

Occasiona

Fac ultyGroup : Busine ss

FacultyGroup: Engineering

FacultyGroup: Health Science

Often Often Never egularly

Never

Rarely

Oc cas io n Rarely Occasionally Regularly

Fac ultyG roup : Human iti es

FacultyGroup: Science

B6.3

The ranking for this question was therefore 1. Health Science and Science 2. Humanities 3. Business and Engineering

Where the medians were all the same the disciplines were not ranked. This ranking exercise was conducted for both staff and student responses. It enabled us to examine in which disciplines students and staff are undertaking a particular activity frequently (in terms of each other) irrespective of the actual percentage frequencies which we know differ. The value of the index we created does not have a meaning in itself other than to indicate where that particular discipline lies in terms of overall ranking. For example, in the example above staff from health science and science disciplines regularly use multimedia as a presentational tool. They report the most frequent use of this activity and are ranked 1. However in terms of another activity the disciplines which are ranked 1 might only be undertaking the activity occasionally. However their occasional use is still more frequent than other discipline which might be reporting rare use so their ranking (in terms of overall frequency of use for that activity) is still 1.

Creation of indices: About demographics
Socio Economic Index
Students were asked 3 questions which we used to determine a rough SE index.

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Creation of indices

Occupation of primary breadwinner Highest education level of primary breadwinner If they were the first person in their immediate family to go to university These were coded as follows Occupation Unemployed 1 Retired 2 Unskilled 3 Trade 4 semi Professional Professional 6

5

Education Level None 1 Primary 2 Secondary 3 Apprentership 4 Diploma 5 Degree in progress 6 Degree 7 Postgraduate 8 No 1 Yes 2 The index represents a cumulative score of the 3 items has a minimum of 3 and a maximum of 16. The index was then split into three groupings. Those at the lowest part of the scale , those around the average and those with high SE Low SE <7.5 Average SE >7.5 and <12.5 High SE >12.5 1021 1943 1995 20% 39% 40%

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