Docstoc

Five Steps to Turn Around the Fight against Crime

Document Sample
Five Steps to Turn Around the Fight against Crime Powered By Docstoc
					Five Steps to Turn Around the Fight against Crime
A Democratic Alliance Discussion Document
May 2008

1

Introduction Crime continues to have a devastating effect on South Africa. It destroys lives, causes unimaginable pain and suffering and ultimately will undermine South Africa’s future by chasing away skills and undercutting the gains we have made since 1994. As stated by respected economist Dr. Azar Jammine: “…If the crime rate was not curbed, it had the potential to slowly kill South Africa’s long-term future by forcing large scale emigration of skilled South Africans. The economy was increasingly being supported by its tertiary sector, such as finance, property and business services, transport, storage and communications. These industries relied on skilled labour, which was already in short supply.”1 Crime is an insidious phenomenon that turns communities into fortresses, breeds mutual distrust and fear and erodes public confidence in state institutions such as the police and the courts. South Africans have never felt more afraid of criminal activity than they do right now. A recent survey by the Institute for Security Studies2 reported that 62% of South Africans felt “very unsafe”. This is not an irrational fear for South Africans have every right to fear criminal activity. Aggravated robbery3 statistics, widely regarded as one of the most accurate barometers of criminal activity, have increased dramatically over the past few years and show no signs of abating. From the 1994 – 2006 statistics, we can see that aggravated robbery has risen from 84,785 (1994) to 126,558 (2006) – an overall increase of 49% over 13 years. No More of the Same Quite clearly government’s current approach to combating crime is not working. The high violent crime rate is affecting our status as a country that values human rights, peace and democracy. Our national status has been tainted and our tourism and business sectors damaged by loss of confidence. South Africa spends more than double the international norm on criminal justice4, but we have little to show for the money spent. In order to turn the crime situation around in our favour, we do not need more of the same from government. We only have to look at the 1994 – 2006 crime statistics to see the absence of any sustainable and significant decrease in crime. The DA proposes a fresh approach that prioritises five basic steps which, if properly implemented, would put power back into the hands of law-abiding citizens. This document proposes five action steps that can be implemented within three to six months.

The Five Steps in Brief Step One: Reinstate and Expand the Specialised SAPS Units
Specialist police units are essential in the fight against crime because they allow for the development and retention of expertise in specific crime areas. The DA calls for the:

1 2

“Crime could reduce country’s skills base”. SAPA: 18 September 2007 citing Dr. Azar Jammine. Louw, A. (2008). “Results of the 2007 National Victim Survey”. Institute for Security Studies. 8 May 2008. 3 Referred to as either ‘robbery with aggravating circumstances’ or ‘aggravated robbery’ and refers to crimes of robbery with aggravating circumstances, such as unlawful, intentional and violent removal and appropriation of movable corporeal property belonging to another. 4 South Africa Tourism Report Second Quarter 2008 published by Business Monitor International

2

• • •

Reinstatement of the specialist SAPS units such as the Vehicle Theft, Anti-Hijacking, Family Violence, Child Abuse and Sexual Offences, Serious and Violent Crimes and the Narcotics Bureau units; Expansion of the SAPS specialist units so that there is one of each unit for every district; and Provision of adequate resources, personnel and equipment for all the specialist units.

Step Two: Improve Collaboration and Cooperation between Private Security and SAPS

The private security sector has a constructive role to play in the fight against crime, provided that the proper oversight mechanisms and standards are put into place. • As of 2005, there were 4,639 active registered security businesses in South Africa, 288,686 active registered security officers and a further 638,181 inactive registered In contrast, there were 137,607 members of the SAPS security personnel.5 (excluding civilians) as of April 2008; • By bringing the private security sector to work effectively with the SAPS, the number of people available for the fight against crime can be more than doubled; • In order to facilitate proper collaboration between the private security sector and the SAPS, the role and powers of the Private Security Industry Regulatory Authority (PSIRA), as well as the content of the PSIR Act, both of which regulate the private security sector, need to be reviewed; • National standards for the private security sector in respect of recruitment, registration, training, operational procedures and reporting must be implemented to ensure effective functioning of the private security sector as well as to facilitate efficient collaboration between the private security sector and the SAPS; and • Special oversight bodies and coordinating mechanisms need to be established within an enforceable national framework that operates at local level, thus creating the opportunity for participation at municipal and community levels by members of the private security sector, civil society, the SAPS and local government.

Step Three: Focus on SAPS Stations and Forensic Support Services
Well-equipped and staffed police stations and are non-negotiable in combating crime. The DA calls for: • The identification of high calibre individuals for detective training, thus increasing the number of detectives by 30,000; • Allowing lateral entry into the detective branches, which would enable skilled individuals from the private sector to cross over directly into the detective branch; • The implementation of a quarterly stock-take of equipment and resources such as bullet-proof vests, weapons, vehicles etc. at every police station and correcting all shortages within one month; and • In addition to station capacity, it is imperative that the Forensic Science Laboratories (FSLs) are adequately resourced. As of March 2008, the national backlog at the Forensic Science Laboratories was 10,121, an increase from last year’s 6,086 samples. Well-functioning and efficient FSLs are a critical component of the fight against crime. Unless evidence such as DNA or blood samples can be swiftly and accurately analysed, justice is delayed and as a result, often denied. Victims of crime can wait months, if not years, for their cases to progress at court because critical samples are backlogged at the FSLs. The lengthy trial delays impact on the victim’s ability to give evidence and criminals are likely to walk free when cases are struck from the court roll. It is an essential part of the fight against crime that the FSLs are adequately staffed and resourced.

Step Four: Crime Statistics
Berg, J. (2007). “The Accountability of South Africa’s Private Security Industry: Mechanisms of control and challenges to effective oversight”. Criminal Justice Initiative Occasional Paper Series. Open Society Foundation
5

3

Updated and accurate information on crime is essential to empower people at local as well as national level in the fight against crime. In order to ensure that critical information is available, the DA proposes that: • A real-time crime statistics information management system be implemented to enable communities to access the latest crime trends in their area on request; and • Integrated real-time national crime-related statistics be maintained and made available to the public that reflect critical information such as cases referred to court, cases thrown out, numbers of repeat offenders, numbers of suspects out on bail, parolees and high risk offenders across the departments of Justice, Correctional Services and Safety and Security. This will assist with the assessment of how well the various departments are functioning.

The relationship between substance abuse and crime is complex and requires a sophisticated response. The DA calls for the following actions to be taken: • Identification, assessment and integration of all national, provincial and grassroots activities from the public and civil sector that target substance abuse and related criminal activities; • The establishment of a public-private partnership oversight and coordinating body that ensures effective collaboration between all relevant stakeholders in combating substance abuse and related criminal activities; and • The implementation of a national plan that facilitates the above two elements, containing clearly defined stakeholder responsibilities, objectives, deliverables and impact assessment criteria.

Step Five: Concentrated Focus on the Dynamic Relationship between Substance Abuse and Crime

4

The Five Steps to Turn Around the Fight against Crime
Step One: Reinstate the Specialised SAPS Units
As part of a comprehensive restructuring process, the SAPS has closed down many of its specialised units and reallocated specialist skills and experience to station level. This was claimed to be an attempt to ensure that stations have access to specialist skills. However, the result has been the following: • Members of specialist units have been separated from each other and thus no longer have access to similarly skilled and experienced people. Working in isolation at station level, such people are deprived of support and learning and growth opportunities; • The specialist skills and expertise allocated to station level are frequently not used as intended, as many such members are given ordinary policing duties as well as administration duties to fulfill; • Many members at station level are not provided with adequate equipment and resources. For example, some members of the former Family Violence, Child Abuse and Sexual Offences (FCS) unit operate out of cars and storerooms; and • Specialist members are no longer supervised by similarly-experienced and skilled members and thus do not receive the proper specialist supervision and guidance that they require in order to fulfill their duties. From studies such as the DA survey of the FCS units in KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga6, as well as anecdotal information, it becomes clear that the closing down of the specialist units has had a negative impact on service delivery. Targeting specific criminal activities requires the concentration of skills, expertise and resources in a targeted and strategic fashion. This is the reason for the existence of specialist units across the globe. Specialised units allow for the cultivation of expertise and skills, the accumulation of institutional knowledge, research and analysis, and investigation of complex and sophisticated crime operations. One such example is the highly successful Directorate of Special Operations, or Scorpions, and the results that the DSO has been able to deliver since its creation speak for themselves: • The conviction rate for the DSO has remained between 82 and 94% since 20027; • The number of people arrested by the DSO increased from 66 (2002) to 617 (2006); and • The number of prosecutions finalised increased from 180 (2002) to 214 (2006). The closing down of such units flies in the face of common sense and established best practice. If the government and the SAPS are serious about crime, the emphasis should be upon the reinstatement of the specialised units. In order to ensure that all stations can access these specialist skills, specialised units should be established at district level, with sufficient resources and personnel to service the local population properly.

6 7

Available on www.da.org.za National Prosecuting Authority (NPA). Annual report 2006/2007

5

Step Two: Improve Collaboration and Cooperation between Private Security8 and SAPS
As of 2005, there were 4,639 active registered security businesses in South Africa, 288,686 active registered security officers and a further 638,181 inactive registered security personnel.9 There are 137,607 members of the SAPS (excluding civilians) as of April 2008. Given the fact that there are more private security personnel in South Africa than SAPS members, it makes sense to revisit the powers and role of the private security industry. It has long been acknowledged that the private security sector could have a constructive role to play in the fight against crime in terms of: i) Sharing of crime information10; ii) Acting as a force multiplier for visible policing and security in public spaces such as malls, trains, bus stations, etc; and iii) Increasing community involvement in different kinds of private security (block watch, street watch, car watch) with different cost implications. The debate about using the private security sector with the SAPS has been on the table for some time, but little has been done about it. Draft legislation that revisits the Private Security Industry Regulation (PSIR) Act is due to appear before Parliament this year. The SAPS was instructed to establish a Task Team to review the PSIR Act. This was approved by the Minister of Safety and Security in January 2008. However the shortened 2008 parliamentary terms coupled with the high number of other bills on the parliamentary agenda, means that it is unlikely to be finalised this year. The review of the PSIR Act needs to be expedited in order that the resources that lie within the private security sector can be utilised better in the fight against crime. The most immediate issues11 that need to be addressed with regard to increasing private security and the SAPS collaboration are the following: • Revisiting powers of private security personnel - the powers of arrest and search and seizure may need to be reviewed and more powers granted to private security personnel; • Status of legal claims and liability12 – If private security providers are to play a more active role in areas covered by the SAPS, it will be necessary to clarify to what extent the private security sector is liable for civil claims for damages and loss in the event of increased crime combating activities; • Standardising equipment and resourcing – to ensure that basic health and safety standards are met by all private security providers; • Improved oversight – oversight of the private security sector and regulation compliance enforcement for the private security sector needs to be reviewed and enhanced; • Registration requirements – to eliminate fly-by-night security operations, as well as employees with criminal records, and bring the sector in line with uniform health and safety standards;

This section refers specifically to private domestic security and not to private military security. Berg, J. (2007). “The Accountability of South Africa’s Private Security Industry: Mechanisms of control and challenges to effective oversight”. Criminal Justice Initiative Occasional Paper Series. Open Society Foundation 10 Minnaar, A. (1999). “Partnership Policing: A Role for the Private Security Industry To Assist the SAPS in Preventing Crime?” African Security Review. Volume 8. No. 2. 1999. 11 This list is not exhaustive and many other areas exist that need to be addressed 12 Minnaar, A. (1999). “Partnership Policing: A Role for the Private Security Industry To Assist the SAPS in Preventing Crime?” African Security Review. Volume 8. No. 2. 1999.
9

8

6

•

Improved and standardised training - increased private security sector involvement in the fight against crime will require that the training of private security officers be broadened to include human rights and legal issues.

7

Step Three: Focus on SAPS Stations and Forensic Support Services
The capacity of police stations to fulfill their mandate is compromised by very real shortages of personnel, skills and equipment. The most critical components of a police station’s ability to combat crime are two-fold: detective capacity and general equipment availability. In addition, the DA has in the past highlighted the number of station commissioners who have not completed the requisite training for their posts - as few as 14% had completed the required management and leadership training as of February 2008.13 a. Detective capacity The detective component of the SAPS is critical to its overall success in fighting crime. If people do not have confidence in the police’s investigative ability, they will simply not bother reporting crimes, and furthermore, the entire credibility of the criminal justice system is brought into disrepute because of poor detective work. “I can say that the current environment – with the national police commissioner facing corruption charges – leads to a drop in efficiency and to more policemen taking short cuts. I wouldn’t be surprised if evidence tampering and witness assaults are on the increase”. (Peter Gastrow from the ISS)14 According to a 2006 report developed by 14 retired police commissioners, there is: • A national shortage of detectives; • A high volume of trivial and minor offences that consume investigative resources; • Inadequate resources allocation to detective units at station-level; and • Poor career pathing for detectives.15 The SAPS has 22,500 detectives available nationally. In order to bring the number of detectives up to an ideal level, an additional 30,114 detectives are required.16 However, it is not simply a matter of recruiting more people. Detectives require specific skills and attributes that general members of the SAPS do not need to have. For example, detectives are frequently better educated, have higher levels of literacy and should be highly competent in strategic and analytical thought. Good detectives also need to have excellent communication, writing and interviewing skills. Over and above this, detectives need to have undergone extensive training, from interrogation to crime scene analysis to basic forensics to psychological profiling training, as well as extensive on-the-job training. Developing and growing the SAPS detective base is a long-term effort and we must guard against the pressure to rush people through basic detective training modules in order to make the numbers look better. In order to balance quality with the need to increase detective numbers correctly, the DA proposes the following: • Improving the salaries, resources and status of detectives, and thus improving working conditions and career paths; • Prioritising merit-based recruitment and selection over equity and gender-based criteria; and
13 14 15

Parliamentary reply No. 147/2008 Joubert, P. (2008). “A ‘rudderless police service’”. Mail & Guardian: 1 May 2008. Basson, A. (2008). “Shocking state of the SAPS”. Mail & Guardian: 1 May 2008 16 Mapiloko, J. (2007). “We’re going to kill crime”. City Press: 22 September 2007.

8

•

•

Allowing for lateral entry into the SAPS detective branch from the private sector into the SAPS by means of a points test, where interested candidates score points for tertiary education, years of relevant work experience and skills such as computer literacy. For example, someone with a degree and four years experience could be selected as a lateral entrant, automatically acquire the rank of Detective-Inspector upon graduating from the relevant training courses and earn a competitive salary. A series of intensive high-quality and fast-paced training courses designed to fast-track lateral entrants must be designed in order to enable such entrants to be fully functional within 12 months of selection. b. Equipment and resource shortages

A station that does not have enough vehicles, radios, bullet-proof vests, handcuffs and weapons is not going to be effective in the fight against crime. Ensuring that all stations are adequately equipped is a serious problem for the SAPS, and one to which the DA has been drawing attention to on an ongoing basis. In a strategic planning session held in February 2008, the Portfolio Committee on Safety and Security was assured by senior SAPS management that there were no shortages of bullet-proof vests. However, according to a parliamentary reply17 received recently, the police are short of 7,458 bullet-proof vests. Given the fact that there are 112418 police stations in the country, this means that there is an average shortage of seven bulletproof vests per station. Last year, the DA conducted a series of police station visits and learnt that most stations visited were short of torches, handcuffs, vehicles suitable for the local terrain, cellphones, radios, roadblock kits, pepper spray and portable blue lights. It is imperative that all equipment and resource shortages be corrected within one month and that quarterly inventory management audits be conducted to ensure that shortages do not occur again. c. The Forensic Science Laboratories In addition to station capacity, it is imperative that the Forensic Science Laboratories (FSLs) are adequately resourced. As of March 2008, the national backlog at the Forensic Science Laboratories was 10,121, an increase from last year’s 6,086 samples. Wellfunctioning and efficient FSLs are a critical component in the fight against crime. Unless evidence such as DNA or blood samples can be swiftly and accurately analysed, justice is delayed and as a result, often denied. Victims of crime can wait months, if not years, for their cases to progress at court because critical samples are backlogged at the FSLs. The lengthy trial delays impact on their ability to give evidence and criminals are likely to walk free when cases are struck from the court roll. It is an essential part of the fight against crime that the FSLs are adequately staffed and resourced.

17 18

Parliamentary reply No. 46/2008 Parliamentary reply No. 147/2008

9

Step Four: Crime Statistics
Crime statistics are a controversial issue. The government insists that accurate and regularly updated crime statistics are not a priority in the fight against crime. The DA and a range of experts disagree. According to a 2006 report compiled by 14 retired police commissioners headed by former deputy national commissioner Morgan Chetty, there is: …”a lack of proper crime information and intelligence…crime prevention operations are often not based on sound intelligence and the SAPS Crime Information Analysis Centres do not function optimally.19 The DA takes the position that accurate and updated crime statistics are an essential tool to empower people in the fight against crime. Once people know what is really happening in their local area, they will be able to drive community-based initiatives to tackle those specific problems. A proper information management system would allow for real-time updates of crime statistics as they are captured. Statistics would be released regularly and contain not only the above statistical categories, but also an indepth and updated analysis of criminal modus operandi and trends and an ongoing evaluation of the efficacy of crime prevention initiatives. This would enable the public to hold government to account in terms of public funds spent on crime prevention initiatives. It would also allow people to drive problem-specific solutions at the local level, thus empowering communities to engage in public-private partnerships with residents, local businesses and government, as opposed to encouraging people to wait passively for the government to ‘solve’ crime. Thus the DA calls for the following to be implemented: • A real-time crime statistics information management system to be implemented, thus enabling communities to access the latest crime trends in their area on request. This will enable the community to develop problem-specific solutions and to explore public-private partnerships to address crime in their area; and • Integrated real-time national crime-related statistics must be maintained and made available to the public that reflect critical information such as: Reporting of crimes per crime category; Arrest of suspects; Referral rate of cases to court; Conviction rate; Bail statistics; and Repeat offences statistics. This information must be reflected across the departments of Justice, Correctional Services and Safety and Security. This will assist with the assessment of how well the various departments are functioning.

19

Basson, A. (2008). “Shocking state of the SAPS”. Mail & Guardian: 1 May 2008

10

Step Five: Concentrated Focus on the Dynamic Relationship between Substance Abuse and Crime
It is well known that there is a critical link between substance abuse and criminal activities.20 Drug addiction is behind a great deal of criminal behaviour. People engage in criminal activity to feed their drug habit and while they are on drugs, they engage in behaviours that are frequently violent and abusive. According to available research21: • 1.97m South Africans are problem drinkers, while 3.2 m are risky drinkers; • 235,777 South Africans are problem drug users; • South African usage of cannabis, cocaine and amphetamine-type stimulants exceeds the world norm; • Socio-economic consequences of drug abuse, such as work absenteeism, unemployment, poverty and the fostering of asocial behaviours cost South Africa more than R20bn per annum; and • The average age of drug dependency is 12 years and decreasing and one in two schoolchildren has experimented with drugs. Some work has been done on the subject - for example, the tabling of the Prevention of Substance Abuse Bill and the creation of the Central Drug Authority (CDA) under the Department of Social Development. However, it remains to be seen whether the requisite interdepartmental cooperation and coordination will actually take place. The CDA has performed several activities such as awareness workshops and provincial roadshows, but its budget is tiny and there is little indication that these activities have had a meaningful impact on the scourge of illegal substances in the country. While there has been official movement in the right direction, progress needs to be much more substantial than it has been to date. As a more effective solution that is in keeping with the DA’s vision of an open, opportunity society for all, the DA calls for a public/private partnership between government and civil society in the fight against drugs and crime, instead of governmentdriven initiatives, such as the CDA and the National Drug Master Plan. The DA calls for the following: 1. All correlative and complementary activities on drugs, organised crime and ordinary crime must be identified, assessed and integrated. Areas which must be covered should include the following: a. Borderline security within the SAPS; b. Borderline support services provided to the SAPS by the SANDF; c. Transnational support in terms of resource sharing and pooling (expertise, training, purchasing of equipment, etc.) as well as joint exercise collaboration (border patrols, joint criminal investigations, etc.) between South Africa and neighbouring countries; d. South African Customs and Excise services at Points of Entry; e. Diplomatic relations and mutual legal agreements with relevant countries (points of origin, transition or destination for illegal substances) to share information, collaboration on joint criminal investigations; f. Directorate of Special Operations; g. The activities of the Organised Crime unit with the SAPS; h. The activities of the Independent Complaints Directorate (ICD) in respect of police complicity in criminal activities;

20

For further reading, please refer to Ryan, T. (1997). “Drugs, Violence and Governability in the Future South Africa”. Institute for Security Studies. Occasional Paper. No. 22. May 1997 and “Drugs and Crime in South Africa: A Study in Three Cities”. Institute for Security Studies. Monograph No. 69: March 2002. (Ed. Leggett, T). 21 Central Drug Authority (CDA). (2008). “The Central Drug Authority and the Drug Problem in SA: A Presentation to the Parliamentary Portfolio Committee on Social Development.” May 2008.

11

The activities of credible NGOs and civil society organisations that specialise in targeting drug addiction and offender rehabilitation; and j. The education and awareness-raising campaigns provided by the Department of Health and other relevant government departments. 2. This cross-sectoral and interdepartmental collaboration will require a functional overarching body that facilitates interaction and the efficient exchange of relevant information such as statistics and research reports as well as resource sharing and pooling. Thus, the DA calls for the creation of such a national body that contains both governmental and civilian oversight components, based on the model commonly used in other areas for public-private partnerships. 3. Implement a national plan integrating the above with provincial and grassroots components that clearly identifies: a. Stakeholder roles and responsibilities; b. Objectives; c. Specified deliverables for each area of activity (education, borderline and Point of Entry security, transnational cooperation, rehabilitation, organised crime, etc.); and d. Performance indicators for each specified deliverable which facilitate detailed impact assessments.

i.

Sources
1. Altbeker, A. (2007). “How we got it wrong: What to do about the failure of crime prevention”. Institute for Security Studies. SA Crime Quarterly No. 21: September 2007. 2. Altbeker, A. (2007). A Country at War with Itself: South Africa’s Crisis of Crime. Jonathan Ball Publishers. 3. Basson, A. (2008). “Shocking state of the SAPS”. Mail & Guardian: 1 May 2008 4. Berg, J. (2007). “Accountability of Plural Policing in the City of Cape Town” Presentation by Julie Berg. Institute of Criminology. Facility of Law. University of Cape Town. 5. Berg, J. (2007). “The Accountability of South Africa’s Private Security Industry: Mechanisms of control and challenges to effective oversight.” Criminal Justice Initiative Occasional Paper Series. Open Society Foundation 6. Burger, J. (2007). “Time to take action: the 2006/07 crime statistics”. SA Crime Quarterly No. 21. September 2007. Institute for Security Studies. 7. Burton, P. et all. (2004). “National Victims of Crime Survey South Africa”. ISS Monograph No. 101: July 2004. Institute for Security Studies. 8. Central Drug Authority (CDA). (2008). “The Central Drug Authority and the Drug Problem in SA: A Presentation to the Parliamentary Portfolio Committee on Social Development.” May 2008. 9. “Commission calls for SA to review its crime strategy”. Mail & Guardian: 24 October 2007. 10. Country Review Report: Republic of South Africa. May 2007. African Peer Review Mechanism. 11. Department of Social Development. National Drug Master Plan 2006 – 2011.

12

12. Gumedze, S. (2007). “The Private security sector in Africa: The 21st Century’s major cause for concern?” Institute for Security Studies Paper No. 133. February 2007. 13. Human Sciences Research Council. (2008). HSRC Review. Volume 6. No. 1 March 2008 14. Joubert, P. (2008). “A ‘rudderless police service’”. Mail & Guardian: 1 May 2008. 15. Leggett, T. (Ed). (2002).”Drugs and Crime in South Africa: A Study in Three Cities”. Institute for Security Studies. Monograph No. 69: March 2002. 16. Louw, A. (2008). “Results of the 2007 National Victim Survey”. Institute for Security Studies. 8 May 2008. 17. Mapiloko,k J. (2007). “We’re going to kill crime”. City Press: 22 September 2007. 18. Minnaar, A. (1999). “Partnership Policing: A Role for the Private Security Industry To Assist the SAPS in Preventing Crime?” African Security Review. Volume 8. No. 2. 1999. 19. National Prosecuting Authority (NPA). Annual report 2006/2007 20. Parliamentary replies: a. No. 46/2008 b. No. 147/2008 21. Ryan, T. (1997). “Drugs, Violence and Governability in the Future South Africa”. Institute for Security Studies. Occasional Paper. No. 22. Ma7 1997. 22. South African Press Association. (2007). “Crime could reduce country’s skills base”.18 September 2007. 23. South Africa Tourism Report Second Quarter 2008 published by Business Monitor International

13


				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Stats:
views:76
posted:12/19/2009
language:English
pages:13
Description: Five Steps to Turn Around the Fight against Crime