Children & poverty by monkey6

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									NATIONAL POVERTY WHEEL

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SOUTH AFRICAN CHILD GAUGE
About the map

Children & poverty
About the Children’s Institute The Children’s Institute is a policy research institute aimed at contributing to policies, laws and interventions that promote equity and realise the rights and improve the conditions of all children in South Africa, through research, advocacy, education and technical support. For more information on the Institute, see www.ci.org.za or phone +27 21 689 5404 or e-mail info@ci.org.za. Data sources for provincial portraits and poverty wheel
• • • • • Statistics South Africa (2006) General Household Survey 2005. Pretoria, Cape Town: StatsSA. Statistics South Africa (2005) General Household Survey 2004. Pretoria, Cape Town: StatsSA. Department of Education (2005) Education statistics in South Africa at a glance in 2004. Pretoria: Department of Education. Actuarial Society of South Africa (2005) ASSA2003 Aids and Demographic Model. Available www.assa.org.za. Department of Social Development (2005; 2006) SOCPEN database. Eligibility analysis by Debbie Budlender, Centre for Actuarial Research, UCT, using Statistics South Africa (2005) General Household Survey 2004. • Bradshaw D, Nannan N, Laubscher R, Groenewald P, Joubert J, Nojilana B, Norman R, Pieterse D & Schneider M (2004) South African National Burden of Disease Study 2000 – Estimates of Provincial Mortality. Cape Town: Medical Research Council. • Labadarios D (ed) (1999) The National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS): Children aged 1 – 9 years, South Africa, 1999. Pretoria: Department of Health.

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About the South African Child Gauge

children not 78% e x p e r ie n c i ng hunger

The South African Child Gauge is produced by the Children’s Institute, University of Cape Town. This annual publication reports on the situation of the country’s children to highlight the challenges related to the promotion and protection of their rights. The theme of the 2006 edition is children and poverty.

This map is a companion to the South African Child Gauge 2006 and provides a provincial portrait of key child-centred socio-economic indicators. The data comes from the Children Count – Abantwana Babalulekile Project, which uses selected indicators to track the realisation of children’s rights over time. The indicators, related commentary and technical definitions can be found in the South African Child Gauge 2006. See the last panel for data sources.

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INDICATOR DEFINITIONS

ZIMBABWE
NORTH WEST PROVINCE: • Is home to 1.4 million children – 8% of South Africa’s child population. • Slightly more than two-thirds (67%) of its children live in rural parts. • 18% of its children live in informal housing and more than onequarter (27%) live in overcrowded households. • About one in four children (26%) of primary school-age attend schools that are more than 30 minutes travel from their homes, and 36% of secondary school-aged children are in the same situation. • Has the largest proportion of deaths due to lower respiratory infections among children younger than five years: 8% of deaths in boys and 9% of deaths in girls. • 75% of eligible children receive the Child Support Grant. GAUTENG PROVINCE: • Has the smallest geographical area, but is home to more than 2.6 million children – 15% of South Africa’s children. • Has the country’s largest share (31%) of urban children – 96% of its children live in urban areas. • Nearly one in three children (30%) are informally housed and live in overcrowded dwellings. • 15% of secondary school-aged children travel more than 30 minutes to reach school. • Has an HIV-prevalence rate of 2.5% among children, and has the second largest proportion of children receiving antiretroviral treatment (39%).
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ABOUT THE POVERTY WHEEL
The wheel is a legend for the provincial wheels on the map and also reflects the multidimensionality of poverty. When the subject of poverty is raised, many people think of income poverty or other types of material deprivation such as lack of food or clothes. But children’s experiences of poverty are on many dimensions. Inadequate housing, limited access to water and sanitation, and inability to get schooling are all dimensions in the lives of children living in poverty. And there are many more. Developing consensus on all the dimensions of poverty for children, and defining and measuring exactly what they are, is important for monitoring and planning. It is particularly important to define the minimum core – what no child should be without – and then ensure that national policies and programmes meet this minimum core. Please note – only one indicator has been selected for each dimension on the poverty wheel. There are many other indicators which show whether children have access to income, education, food, health, water and housing.
FOOD: Percentage of children (7 – 17) who never or seldom went hungry. HOUSING: Percentage of children (0 – 17) in formal housing. WATER: Percentage of children (0 – 17) with clean reliable water supply in their house or yard. HEALTH: Percentage of children who travel less than 30 minutes to reach the nearest clinic, using the means of transport household members usually use. INCOME: Percentage of children (0 – 17) living in households with a total income of R1,200 or more per month. EDUCATION: Percentage of children (0 – 17) attending an education facility.

LIMPOPO PROVINCE: • Is home to 14% of South Africa’s child population – over 2.6 million children. • 88% of its children live in rural areas. • A small proportion of its children live in informal housing (5%) or traditional dwellings (5%). • Over one-third (35%) of children of secondary school-age travel more than 30 minutes to attend school. • Has the second largest proportion of deaths due to diarrhoeal diseases in children younger than five years: 16% of deaths in boys and 17% of deaths in girls.

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• A large proportion (86%) of eligible children receives the Child Support Grant.

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WAT
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LIMPOPO
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H E A LT H
83%

FOOD

86%

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65

WAT
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H E A LT H
58%

• Has the highest take-up rate (90%) of the Child Support Grant.

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For data sources, see the panel in the top right hand side.

NORTH WEST

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NAMIBIA

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91

WAT
%

FOOD

75%

57

%

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ER
H E A LT H
56%

FOOD

75%

GAUTENG

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9

31

%

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SWAZILAND smallest proportions (7%) of children living in • Has one of the
South Africa – that is 1.3 million children. • 65% of its children live in rural areas. • 12% of children are informally housed – however one in four (25%) children live in overcrowded households. • More than one-third (35%) of secondary school-aged children travel more than 30 minutes to reach school. • Has the second largest proportion of deaths due to HIV/AIDS in children younger than five years: 47% of deaths in boys and 50% of deaths in girls.

MPUMALANGA PROVINCE:

FREE STATE PROVINCE: • Has the second smallest share (6%) of South Africa’s child population, just over 1.1 million children. • More than two-thirds (68%) of its child population live in urban areas. • 6% of its children live in traditional dwellings, and another 19% live in informal housing. • 19% of its children of secondary school-age travel more than 30 minutes to reach school. • Has the second highest HIV-prevalence rate among children (2.6%), and the second smallest proportion of children receiving antiretroviral treatment (25%). • 82% of eligible children receive the Child Support Grant.

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28

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MPUMALANGA

H

OU

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H

OU

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7

4%

90

WAT
%

FOOD

78%

FREE STATE
ER
H E A LT H
73%

5

0%

47

WAT
%

ER
H E A LT H
48%

• 77% of eligible children receive the Child Support Grant – the second lowest take-up rate among the provinces.

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9

31

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KWAZULU-NATAL PROVINCE: • Has the largest share (21%) of children living in South Africa – more than 3.8 million children. • Has the country’s second largest proportion (17%) of rural children – 63% of its children live in rural sites. • 13% of its children live in informal housing, while more than one-third (37%) live in traditional dwellings. • Nearly one in three children (30%) of primary school-age attend schools that are more than 30 minutes travel from their homes, and 40% of secondary school-aged children are in the same situation. • Has the largest proportion of deaths due to HIV/AIDS in children younger than five years: 48% of deaths in boys and 52% of deaths in girls. • 85% of eligible children receive the Child Support Grant, an increase of 20% between mid-2005 and mid-2006.

FOOD

78%

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H E A LT H
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LESOTHO

NORTHERN CAPE PROVINCE: • Has the smallest share (2%) of South Africa’s child population – just over 337,000 children. • Three-quarters (75%) of its child population live in urban areas. • A small proportion of its children live in informal housing (11%) and close to one-third (32%) of its children live in overcrowded dwellings. • 20% of secondary school-aged children attend schools that are more than 30 minutes from their homes. • Has the second lowest death rate among children younger than five years – 68 children die out of every 1,000 born alive. • Has the largest increase in the take-up of the Child Support Grant between mid-2005 and mid-2006, increasing from 65% to 89% over this period.

FOOD

81%

NORTHERN CAPE

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9

35

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KWAZULUNATAL

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9

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32

WAT
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H E A LT H
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FOOD

70%

WESTERN CAPE PROVINCE: • Has a fairly small child population – just over 1.5 million children (9%) of the country’s child population. • The majority of children live in urban areas (87%). • Less than one-quarter (23%) of its children live in informal housing, although close to one-third (32%) live in overcrowded dwellings. • 9% of secondary school-aged children travel more than 30 minutes to reach school. • Has the lowest HIV-prevalence rate among children (0.8%) and has the highest proportion of children receiving antiretroviral treatment (61%). • 71% of eligible children receive the Child Support Grant, the lowest take-up rate in the country.
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OU

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5%

93

WAT
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UC 6 % ATI ON

9

20

%

INC

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EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE: • Is home to more than 3.1 million children – the second largest population (17%) of children in South Africa. • 77% of its children live in rural parts of the province. • 53% of its children live in traditional dwellings and 7% live in informal housing. • Nearly 50% of secondary school-aged children travel more than 30 minutes to reach school. • Has the highest rate of death among children younger than five years in South Africa – 105 children die out of every 1,000 born alive. • 87% of eligible children received the Child Support Grant in mid-2006, an increase of 20% from the previous year.

POORER

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H E A LT H
93%

7

EASTERN CAPE

WESTERN CAPE

FOOD

81%

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9

64

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Visit www.childrencount.ci.org.za for more data

This map was conceptualised and compiled by Lizette Berry, Katharine Hall, Annie Leatt, Double-Hugh Marera, Jo Monson, Jean Redpath, Maylene Shung-King and Charmaine Smith. Design by Jenny Young.

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