OVC Bulletin Template 707602

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OVC Bulletin Template 707602 Powered By Docstoc
					U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Office for Victims of Crime

              A P R I L 2 006

A Multimedia Program To                                                                         Message From
Improve Criminal Justice                                                                           the Director
System Participation and                                                                            The impact of violent crime is devas-
                                                                                                tating to victims, their family members,

Reduce Distress Among                                                                           and loved ones.Although we under-
                                                                                                stand that there is never closure or a
                                                                                                return to normalcy for victims and
Physically Injured Crime                                                                        their loved ones, we do know that help-
                                                                                                ing victims understand and assert their

Victims                                                                                         rights and access needed services is
                                                                                                critical if they are to regain a sense of
                                                                                                control.While the services and support
      Connie L. Best, Ronald E. Acierno, and Heidi S. Resnick                                   of victim advocates are critical to crime
                                                                                                victims, it literally takes a community to
                                                                                                ensure that victims understand and
                                                they are called on to participate in the        have access to the services and com-
Introduction                                    process (e.g., testify in court). Thus, after
                                                                                                pensation they are entitled to. Especial-
                                                                                                ly important are medical and social
                                                experiencing interpersonal violence, and

       ictims of violent crime experience                                                       service professionals, who must know
                                                even after sustaining physical injury,          how to respond to the needs of crime
       extreme emotional distress, which is
                                                many victims receive no information             victims injured by violence with infor-
       particularly intense for those who
                                                about crime victim compensation pro-            mation about responses to trauma and
suffer serious physical injuries that require
                                                grams, suffer enduring emotional distress,      the processes of the criminal justice
hospitalization. Unfortunately, most vic-                                                       system, and by connecting them with
                                                and avoid court participation. Services
tims leave the hospital without receiving                                                       professionals who specialize in provid-
                                                that will have the maximum impact on
any services to reduce this distress or any                                                     ing services to victims of crime.
                                                reducing victim suffering and increasing
information about crime victim compen-
                                                knowledge about crime victim compensa-             The Recovering From Your Crime-
sation programs to which they may be
                                                tion and the criminal justice system are        Related Injuries DVD and brochure will
entitled. Moreover, many victims do not                                                         enhance the ability of first response
participate in the judicial process because                                                     service providers to deliver effective,
such participation would exacerbate the                                                         empathetic services to victims who
                                                Violence remains an unavoidable facet
emotional problems they are experienc-                                                          are hospitalized as a result of their
                                                of human experience. Virtually no one
ing and because they know little about                                                          crime-related injuries, in the immediate
                                                escapes at least vicarious exposure to          aftermath of serious crime.
it. This lack of criminal justice system
                                                severe interpersonal conflict, and more
knowledge may further contribute to vic-                                                        John W. Gillis
                                                than 10 percent of the population endures
tims’ emotional problems, particularly if                                                       Director
                                                direct aggression in the form of simple,

             O f f i c e o f J u s t i c e P r o g r a m s • Partnerships for Safer Communities • www.ojp.usdoj.gov
OVC Bulletin

aggravated, or domestic assault at some        would die, or who actually were injured       assault meets these criteria. Data regard-
point in their lives (Resnick et al., 1993).   (Green, 1990; Kilpatrick et al., 1989;        ing the course of PTSD for rape victims
Indeed, in 2000, National Crime Victim-        Resnick et al., 1993; Wirtz and Harrell,      have been obtained, and, given the com-
ization Survey estimates approximated          1987). Of the assault victims who be-         parability of outcomes related to physical
6,475,000 violent crimes against citizens      lieved that their lives were threatened       and sexual assault, it is reasonable to
(Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2001). Fully    and who suffered physical injuries, 30.8      assume that similar proportions of serious-
60 percent of violent crimes are not           percent developed posttraumatic stress        ly physically assaulted victims will suffer
reported to police. Moreover, data indi-       disorder (PTSD), compared to 20.6 per-        from the disorder over time. Rothbaum
cate that repeated victimization charac-       cent of those who believed their lives        and colleagues (1992) found that fully 90
terizes a significant subgroup that could      were threatened and 25 percent of those       percent of rape victims met symptom cri-
benefit from risk reduction or crime pre-      who were injured but did not believe          teria for PTSD within 2 weeks of being
vention strategies. Tangible effects of        their lives were threatened (Kilpatrick et    raped, and about 50 percent continued to
physical assault are far-reaching and dev-     al., 1989). A more recent investigation of    meet criteria 3 months later. Moreover,
astating. The U.S. Department of Justice       251 victims of violent crime also found       Kilpatrick and colleagues (1987) showed
reports that annual violent crime results      that victims who were seriously injured,      that PTSD was present 17 years after the
in at least 2.2 million known injuries,        who feared that they would be seriously       assault in 16.5 percent of cases. Overall,
requiring more than 700,000 days of hos-       injured, and who believed their lives were    about 50 percent of those who meet the
pitalization (Harlow, 1989; see also Con-      threatened were more likely to suffer from    criteria for PTSD recover within 2 years,
way et al., 1995). It is, therefore, not       PTSD (Freedy et al., 1994). Because per-      while almost 33 percent do not experi-
surprising that violence is considered both    ceived threat of serious injury and actual    ence full remission of symptoms, even
a social and public-health emergency in        injury are both risk factors for posttrau-    after several years (Kessler et al., 1995).
the United States and other countries          matic emotional distress, it is important
(Koop, 1992; Novello, 1992). The overt         to identify which forms of trauma are         Effects of Emotional Distress
economic and medical difficulties that         associated with an event. Along these            During victimization, individuals ex-
victims endure often come with less visi-      lines, Resnick and colleagues (1993)          perience extreme fear, anxiety, dread,
ble, albeit equally significant, psychologi-   demonstrated that the threat of injury or     and aversive physiological arousal. Im-
cal and emotional complications. These         actual injury were most often observed in     mediately following victimization, they
include extreme levels of anxiety, depres-     physical assault victims (90.8 percent),      may experience additional symptoms of
sion, substance abuse, and impaired inter-     followed by rape victims (67.9 percent).      depression and panic as outlined above.
personal and vocational functioning            Further, 61.1 percent of physical assault     These negative emotional responses
(Kessler et al., 1995; Kilpatrick et al.,      victims and 36.7 percent of rape victims      become associated with salient triggers
1987; Resnick et al., 1993).                   reported both perceived threat of injury      present in the environment during the
                                               and actual injury.                            attack (e.g., perpetrator race and build,
Effects of Criminal Violence                                                                 location, weapon) which then elicit emo-
                                               These findings are hardly surprising when
    Across studies, physical assault is                                                      tional distress in the future. Thus, a vic-
                                               considering that most assailants plan to
either the most common, or among the                                                         tim’s exposure to reminders of the violent
                                               inflict pain and injury during physical
most common forms of trauma experi-                                                          crime, such as those present during partic-
                                               assault. Specific emotional problems that
enced in the general population (Breslau,                                                    ipation in criminal justice system pro-
                                               follow an assault include PTSD, depres-
Davis, and Andreski, 1991; Kessler et                                                        ceedings, triggers an anxiety response. To
                                               sion, substance abuse, and panic disorders.
al., 1995; Resnick et al., 1993). Several                                                    reduce or eliminate the extreme discom-
                                               According to the Diagnostic and Statistical
aspects of victimization are strongly re-                                                    fort of this anxiety response, individuals
                                               Manual of Mental Disorders (American
lated to subsequent development and/                                                         will avoid these triggers. Because avoiding
                                               Psychiatric Association, 1994), a diagno-
or exacerbation of emotional distress.                                                       these triggers temporarily diminishes emo-
                                               sis of PTSD is assigned only when an
Indeed, the risk of posttraumatic emo-                                                       tional distress, the individual is likely to
                                               individual is exposed to a traumatic event
tional problems is greatest for individuals                                                  continue avoiding them and any likeli-
                                               that presents both of the following: actual
who reported that during the trauma they                                                     hood that the victim will participate in
                                               or threatened death or serious injury to
feared they would be seriously injured or                                                    the criminal justice system process may be
                                               oneself or others, and intense fear, help-
                                                                                             decreased. More important, however, the
                                               lessness, or horror. Obviously, physical


triggers retain their power to produce fear,   development of a video-based interven-          The visual presentation that accompanies
and victims experience emotional distress      tion for rape victims (Resnick et al.,          the verbal information on the DVD in-
indefinitely.                                  1999) to develop a standardized DVD             cludes multiple scenes with actors demon-
                                               intervention for physically injured crime       strating the following situations: patients
In addition to triggering emotional prob-      victims.                                        receiving medical care, health care
lems such as anxiety, fear, and depression,                                                    providers treating patients, patients and
the criminal justice system may also seem      Description of the DVD                          providers in a physical therapy setting,
confusing and intimidating to many vic-                                                        outpatient care scenes, and crime victim
                                                  The DVD is a 12-minute color DVD
tims of crime. Either of these factors alone                                                   compensation program coordinators help-
                                               for use with any seriously injured crime
may discourage victims from actively par-                                                      ing patient victims fill out paperwork.
                                               victim, regardless of the type of victimiza-
ticipating in the criminal justice system;                                                     Images that are frequently associated with
                                               tion or injury. The DVD, which is based
combined, they are likely to severely cur-                                                     the criminal justice system are also fea-
                                               on a model created by Resnick and col-
tail victim participation.                                                                     tured, such as law enforcement officers,
                                               leagues (1999) for use with sexual assault
                                               victims in an emergency department,             police stations, and bond hearings and
What Can Be Done                                                                               other courtroom scenes. Finally, the
                                               consists of two major components, each
   Victims’ lack of knowledge about the        with several subcomponents. The overall         DVD features multiple scenes of patient
criminal justice system, including its         goals are to educate victims about the          victims engaging in positive behaviors
processes and the potential benefits of        criminal justice system and to help them        that help reduce emotional distress and
participating in them, must be addressed.      reduce the emotional distress they              are associated with healthy outcomes,
However, educational campaigns deliv-          experience.                                     such as keeping outpatient medical ap-
ered through mass media presentations                                                          pointments, returning to an acceptable
are exceedingly expensive “one-shot”           The first component of the DVD includes         level of previctimization daily routine,
attempts that increase knowledge very          general information about the criminal          spending time with friends while avoid-
little. Victims need individualized educa-     justice system and the crime victim com-        ing overuse of alcohol, and seeking out
tion, which must be developed at low cost      pensation program. It includes definitions      professional mental health services.
and delivered consistently and in standard     of terms frequently used in criminal jus-       Throughout the DVD, graphic overlays
format to ensure its quality.                  tice (e.g., indictment, victim impact           summarize the major points with written
                                               statements); a discussion of victim notifi-     text.
This report describes a standardized serv-     cation rights and other victims’ rights,
ice that can be delivered individually to      such as the right to be present at bond         A multicolored, trifold brochure that
crime victims at very little cost. We have     hearings and to comment on plea bar-            accompanies the DVD summarizes its
carefully scripted and filmed a DVD            gains; and a description of the crime vic-      main points and contains several screen
(Best, Resnick, and Acierno, 1999) to          tim compensation program and how to             shots from the DVD to remind the viewer
address the needs and knowledge deficits       access it.                                      of the points it illustrates.
of physically injured crime victims. The
DVD addresses concerns raised in the pre-      The second component focuses on com-
vious section by increasing crime victims’     mon psychological reactions to victimi-         Method
knowledge about, and familiarity with,         zation and strategies for reducing the
the criminal justice system, its relevance     distress of these reactions. It describes          The DVD was part of an ongoing serv-
to their case, and the benefits of partici-    common victim reactions to crime such           ice delivery program by the National
pation, such as crime victims’ compensa-       as feelings of depression, fear, and anxiety;   Crime Victims Research and Treatment
tion programs. It also includes                the tendency to avoid people or places          Center (CVC) at the Medical University
information about PTSD and ways to             that remind the victim of the crime; and        of South Carolina, a large tertiary care
cope with its symptoms. Finally, the con-      the potential for increasing use of alcohol     teaching hospital. Individuals who receive
tent is delivered in a manner that is nei-     and/or other substances. It explains the        serious injuries are admitted to the Trau-
ther threatening nor embarrassing to           potential development of these difficulties     ma Center. Those who survive their
crime victims. The following sections          and offers strategies for reducing distress     injuries are subsequently admitted to the
describe our efforts to this end. In short,    and effectively dealing with these feelings.    surgical trauma service. The CVC project
we used knowledge gained from our

OVC Bulletin

staff, working with the surgical staff, see    incomplete data. Of these, 23 were             been apprehended. Fully 48 percent of
patients within 24–48 hours of their           women and 163 were men. Approximate-           victims recognized the assailant, meaning
admission or as soon as their medical con-     ly 70 percent were African-American,           that they had seen the assailant before at
dition allows and provide a variety of vic-    25 percent were Caucasian, and 5 per-          some point in their lives. Of the group of
tim services to those individuals whose        cent were Hispanic. Fifteen percent were       assailants, 23 percent were acquaintances
injuries are a result of a crime. Services     married, 10 percent were separated or          of their victims, 18 percent were relatives
include providing information about com-       divorced, 57 percent were single, and the      or boyfriends, and the rest were strangers.
munity agencies and social services that       remaining 18 percent failed to provide         Fully 90 percent of offenders were male,
the victim patients may need, contact          marital information.                           and 90 percent used a weapon of some
information for victim advocates in the                                                       sort to commit the crime.
police department, referral information        Injuries Experienced
for mental health providers, and assis-           Crime types ranged widely, as did
tance in completing the crime victim           injury types, and several individuals          Results: Video and
compensation application. Furthermore,
the project staff, with the permission of
                                               reported more than one form of injury.         Nonvideo Participants
                                               All 186 participants reported, or had
the victim patients, assist with obtaining     someone report, the crime to the police.       Feasibility Questions
copies of inpatient and outpatient med-        Many individuals (36 percent) were
ical and counseling bills, police reports,                                                       Sixty-six participants were assigned to
                                               unable to provide information on the
and any other paperwork the patients                                                          watch the video, and 52 were assigned to
                                               type of crime and injury, probably due to
need to complete their application for                                                        the nonvideo condition. Seventy-five per-
                                               the severity of their injuries and loss of
crime victim compensation. Even after                                                         cent of participants (n = 50) in the video
                                               consciousness during the assault. Partici-
the patient’s discharge from the hospital,                                                    condition indicated that they were able to
                                               pants experienced gunshots, stabbings,
project staff continue to serve as a liaison                                                  pay attention to the video either “most of
                                               and other forms of aggravated assault.
between the patient and law enforce-                                                          the time” or “all of the time.” Ninety-one
                                               The following categories are not mutually
ment, the courts, the victim compensa-                                                        percent reported that the information was
                                               exclusive: 16 percent presented with knife
tion fund, and other victim service                                                           clear and understandable. Fully 95 per-
                                               wounds, 33 percent had been shot, 11.3
agencies.                                                                                     cent (n = 63) noted that they experi-
                                               percent had broken bones or lost teeth,
                                                                                              enced little to no anxiety watching the
                                               25 percent suffered internal injuries, 11
The DVD and brochure used in the proj-                                                        video. Thus, participants could watch the
                                               percent had head injuries, 5 percent lost
ect were added to the comprehensive vic-                                                      video, thought it useful, and were not
                                               consciousness, and 18 percent were badly
tim service delivery project described                                                        upset by it.
                                               bruised or cut. About half had been vic-
above. They were presented to the victim
                                               tims of interpersonal violence prior to this
patients at the initial project staff visit                                                   Crime Victims’ Rights
                                               incident. Of the victims surveyed, 83 per-
using a portable videocassette player. Proj-                                                  and Compensation
                                               cent thought that they were going to be
ect staff then asked the victims to com-                                                         When individuals were asked to list
                                               seriously injured, and 59 percent reported
plete a survey.                                                                               some of the rights that the criminal jus-
                                               that they thought they were going to die
                                               during the incident. Clearly, this is a        tice system affords crime victims, there
                                               group of people who had been thoroughly        were no significant differences between
Participants                                   victimized and severely injured.               the responses of individuals who watched
                                                                                              the video and those who did not. They
Participant Demographics                       Criminal Justice System                        had similar responses in terms of crime
   One hundred eighty-six physically           Activities                                     victim compensation funding, victim
injured crime victims receiving services                                                      impact statements, victim notification
                                                  As mentioned previously, all 186 of the
from the Medical University of South                                                          rights, the right to be present during bond
                                               survey participants reported, or had some-
Carolina provided data for this report.                                                       hearings, and the right to comment on
                                               one report, the crime to police; 33 per-
Some participants were unable to com-                                                         plea bargains. However, when asked
                                               cent indicated that approximately 2 to 4
plete the entire survey, and provided                                                         specifically whether they had heard of
                                               days after the crime, the assailant had
                                                                                              crime victim compensation, 25 percent of


those who watched the video responded         there is enough evidence in a case to for-     levels of psychological distress. Both of
“yes,” compared to 9.6 percent of those       mally charge the perpetrator?” 13.4 per-       these results may have significant positive
who did not. When asked “How does CV          cent of video participants, compared to        impact for victims of crime, who fre-
comp work?” 25 percent of video respon-       7.7 percent of nonvideo participants,          quently report feeling a loss of control
dents volunteered that it would pay med-      answered correctly. Equal proportions of       over their lives after being a victim of
ical bills related to the crime, as opposed   both groups (about 45 percent) were            crime. By more fully participating in the
to 10 percent of nonvideo participants.       able to define an indictment as formal         criminal justice system, victims may ex-
About 3 percent of both groups noted          legal charges brought against an alleged       perience an increased sense of control in
that it would pay for counseling, and         assailant handed down in court. Similar-       their lives. Although participation in the
nearly twice as many video participants       ly, approximately equal proportions of         criminal justice system does not ensure
as nonvideo participants reported that it     both groups were able to define a grand        that the perpetrator will be successfully
would pay a percentage of lost wages (7.4     jury (about 70 percent), a bond hearing        apprehended and prosecuted, victims may
percent vs. 3.8 percent).                     (about 89 percent), and a victim impact        derive satisfaction from the knowledge
                                              statement (about 29 percent).                  that they did all they could to assist with
Knowledge of the Effects                                                                     the process. Victims’ increased participa-
of Interpersonal Violence                     The video addresses the relevance of par-      tion with the justice system provides
                                              ticipating in the criminal justice process     another benefit for society in general
   Participants in the video condition
                                              for victims of violent crime. The original     that may be self-evident: Victims are
were asked to list negative emotions that
                                              hypothesis was that such coverage would        essentially witnesses, sometimes the only
sometimes affect victims of violent crime
                                              affect the viewer’s willingness to partici-    witnesses, to the crimes in which they are
(the video mentions several). Depression
                                              pate in court and investigative activities.    victimized. Without the full participation
was identified as a common outcome by
                                              This appears to be the case; fully 95 per-     of victims, the likelihood that perpetra-
17 percent of the participants; 11 percent
                                              cent of those who watched the video            tors will be apprehended and subsequent-
reported that panic and avoidance were
                                              indicated a willingness to participate in      ly convicted is diminished, thereby
often experienced; 15 percent noted that
                                              the criminal justice process, and 67 per-      leaving the criminal to victimize other
general anxiety is a frequent occurrence;
                                              cent reported that the video increased         citizens. Along slightly different lines,
and 5 percent noted that increased sub-
                                              their willingness to participate.              victims’ increased understanding of the
stance use was possible. When asked what
a victim could do to effectively deal with                                                   crime victim compensation program
these problems (also covered by the                                                          would logically increase their use of a pro-
video), 14 percent spontaneously reported     Implications and                               gram that reimburses them for their hos-
that victims could seek counseling, 14        Applications                                   pital bills and lost wages. Any assistance
                                                                                             with financial matters would be of signifi-
percent indicated that therapeutic expo-
sure exercises could be helpful, and 30          The use of a brief, early intervention      cant benefit to those victims with insuffi-
percent reported that keeping active          video for seriously injured crime victims      cient resources.
would help. The video participants            appears to have many positive implica-
                                                                                             The use of the DVD as a brief, early inter-
seemed to have learned about negative         tions, as well as potential for numerous
                                                                                             vention to educate victims about com-
emotional reactions to crime, but more        points of application. The video, now
                                                                                             mon psychological reactions and to
important, they were aware of strategies      converted to a DVD, was specifically
                                                                                             provide them with strategies for reducing
they could use to reduce these negative       designed to help an individual to under-
                                                                                             those effects may have enormous benefits
emotions.                                     stand and navigate the criminal justice
                                                                                             for crime victims by lessening the devel-
                                              system, and to increase an individual’s
Knowledge of the Criminal                                                                    opment of crime-related psychological
                                              knowledge about common psychological
Justice Process                                                                              symptoms and/or disorders. The Resnick
                                              responses to crime and strategies to
                                                                                             and colleagues 1999 rape victim study,
   Participants were also quizzed about       reduce their negative effects. By using this
                                                                                             which was the model for the present proj-
the criminal justice process. In response     DVD, victims of crime can immediately
                                                                                             ect, gathered data that demonstrated the
to the question “Who decides whether          begin to participate more fully in the
                                              criminal justice system and reduce their

OVC Bulletin

efficacy of using a brief video as early       tributed directly to victims to ensure
intervention. Other studies have indicat-      that all victims have access to essential
ed that approximately one-third of seri-       information.                                 American Psychiatric Association. Diag-
ously injured crime victims who perceived
                                                                                            nostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Dis-
that their lives were threatened developed
                                                                                            orders, 4th ed. Washington, DC:
posttraumatic stress disorder. Therefore,      For More Information                         American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
an intervention that lessens the risk of
developing such a debilitating disorder is     For more information on this topic, please   Best, C.L., H.S. Resnick (Producers and
a tremendous benefit for crime victims         contact                                      Writers), and R. Acierno (Associate
and provides a new strategy for profes-                                                     Producer). Recovering From Your Crime-
sionals to use in their treatment.             Office for Victims of Crime                  Related Injuries. Charleston, SC: Jennifer
                                               U.S. Department of Justice                   Lorenz Productions, 1999.
This video project was designed for the        810 Seventh Street NW., Eighth Floor
trauma/surgical inpatient setting of a hos-    Washington, DC 20531                         Breslau, N., G. Davis, and P. Andreski.
pital where victims have acute injuries,       202–307–5983                                 Traumatic events and posttraumatic stress
but the resulting DVD may have much            Fax: 202–514–6383                            disorder in an urban population of young
broader uses. Other potential settings for     Web site: www.ovc.gov                        adults. Archives of General Psychiatry, No.
the DVD and accompanying brochure                                                           48, pp. 216–222 (1991).
may be outpatient emergency rooms,             For copies of this bulletin and other OVC
other hospital-based clinics, physical ther-   publications or information on additional    Bureau of Justice Statistics. Criminal Vic-
apy facilities, rehabilitation centers, or     victim-related resources, please contact     timization in the United States, 2001. Wash-
primary care offices and clinics. The DVD                                                   ington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice,
might also be used in nonmedical settings      OVC Resource Center                          2001.
such as the victim advocacy services at        P.O. Box 6000
police departments or courts, domestic         Rockville, MD 20849–6000                     Conway, T., T.C. Hu, C. Warshaw, P.
violence shelters, rape crisis centers, or     1–800–851–3420 or 301–519–5500               Kim, and A. Bullon. Violence victims’
other agencies that offer victim services.     (TTY 1–877–712–9279)                         perception of functioning and well-being:
Moreover, the DVD’s usefulness does not        Ask OVC: http://ovc.ncjrs.gov/askovc         A survey from an urban public hospital
appear to be limited to acutely injured        Web site: www.ncjrs.gov                      walk-in clinic. Journal of the National Med-
victims. Positive effects may result from                                                   ical Association, No. 87, pp. 407–412
                                               Or order OVC publications online at          (1995).
using the DVD with victims who have
long since recovered from their injuries;
                                               AlphaList.aspx.                              Freedy, J.R., H.S. Resnick, D.G. Kil-
they may benefit from a better under-
standing of the psychological reactions                                                     patrick, B.S. Dansky, and R.P. Tidwell.
                                               For information on training and technical    The psychological adjustment of recent
that they may still be experiencing. Final-
                                               assistance available from OVC, please        crime victims in the criminal justice sys-
ly, the DVD could also be used as a train-
                                               contact                                      tem. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, No.
ing tool for law enforcement, victim
service providers, and health care profes-                                                  9(4), pp. 450–468 (1994).
                                               OVC Training and
sionals who would like to increase their         Technical Assistance Center                Green, B.L. Defining trauma: Terminolo-
understanding of either the criminal jus-      10530 Rosehaven Street, Suite 400            gy and generic stressor dimensions. Jour-
tice system or typical crime victim reac-      Fairfax, VA 22030                            nal of Applied Social Psychology, No. 20,
tions. The best application of this            1–866–OVC–TTAC (1–866–682–8822)              pp. 1632–1642 (1990).
video/DVD intervention may lie with its        (TTY 1–866–682–8880)
use as part of a comprehensive victim          Fax: 703–279–4673                            Harlow, C.W. Injuries from crime. Bureau
service program, but it is also a stand-       E-mail: TTAC@ovcttac.org                     of Justice Statistics Special Report,
alone intervention tool which can be dis-      Web site: www.ovcttac.org                    NCJ 116811. Washington, DC: U.S.
                                                                                            Department of Justice, 1989.


Kessler, R.C., A. Sonnega, E. Bromet, M.       Wirtz, P.W., and A.V. Harrell. Victim and     This project was prepared by the National
Hughes, and C.B. Nelson. Posttraumatic         crime characteristics, coping responses,      Crime Victims Research and Treatment
stress disorder in the National Comorbidi-     and short- and long-term recovery from        Center at the Medical University of
ty Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry,     victimization. Journal of Consulting and      South Carolina under grant number
No. 52, pp. 1048–1060 (1995).                  Clinical Psychology, No. 55, pp. 866–871      1998–VF–GX–0006, awarded by the Office
                                               (1987).                                       for Victims of Crime, Office of Justice Pro-
Kilpatrick, D.G., B.E. Saunders, L.J. Vero-                                                  grams, U.S. Department of Justice.The
nen, C.L. Best, and J.M. Von. Criminal                                                       opinions, findings, conclusions, and recom-
                                                                                             mendations expressed in this document
victimization: Lifetime prevalence, report-    Bibliography                                  are those of the authors and do not nec-
ing to police, and psychological impact.
                                                                                             essarily represent the official position or
Crime and Delinquency, No. 33(4), pp.          Kilpatrick, D.G., and R.K. Otto. Consti-      policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.
479–489 (1987).                                tutionally guaranteed participation in
                                                                                             The Office for Victims of Crime is a com-
                                               criminal proceedings for victims: Poten-      ponent of the Office of Justice Programs,
Kilpatrick, D.G., B.E. Saunders, A.
                                               tial effects on psychological functioning.    which also includes the Bureau of Justice
Amick-McMullan, C.L. Best, L.J. Vero-
                                               Wayne State Law Review, No. 34(1), pp.        Assistance, the Bureau of Justice Statistics,
nen, and H.S. Resnick. Victim and crime
                                               7–28 (1987).                                  the National Institute of Justice, and the
factors associated with the development                                                      Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
of crime-related Post-traumatic Stress Dis-    Kilpatrick, D.G., R. Acierno, H.S.            Prevention.
order. Behavior Therapy, No. 20, pp.           Resnick, B.E. Saunders, and C.L. Best. A
199–214 (1989).                                2-year longitudinal analysis of the rela-
                                               tionship between violent assault and sub-
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                                               834–847 (1997).                               About the Authors
                                               Resnick, H.S., and R.E. Acierno (Produc-      Connie L. Best, Ph.D., is Professor and
Novello, A.C. A medical response to vio-
                                               ers, Writers, and Directors). Prevention of   Director of Adult Services; Ronald E.
lence. Journal of the American Medical
                                               Postrape Stress. Charleston, SC: IVS          Acierno, Ph.D., is an Associate Pro-
Association, No. 267, pp. 3007 (1992).
                                               Productions, 1997.                            fessor; and Heidi S. Resnick, Ph.D., is
Resnick, H.S., D.G. Kilpatrick, B.S. Dan-                                                    a Professor, all at the National Crime
sky, B.E. Saunders, and C.L. Best. Preva-                                                    Victims Research and Treatment Cen-
lence of civilian trauma and PTSD in a                                                       ter, Department of Psychiatry and
representative national sample of women.                                                     Behavioral Sciences, Medical Univer-
Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psycholo-                                                 sity of South Carolina, Charleston.
gy, No. 61(6), (1993).

Resnick, H.S., R.E. Acierno, D.G. Kil-
patrick, M. Holmes, and N. Jager. Preven-
tion of post-rape psychopathology:
Preliminary findings of a controlled acute
rape treatment study. Journal of Anxiety
Disorders, No. 13, pp. 359–370 (1999).

Rothbaum, B.O., E.B. Foa, D.S. Riggs, T.
Murdock, and W. Walsh. A prospective
examination of posttraumatic stress disor-
der in rape victims. Journal of Traumatic
Stress, No. 5, pp. 455–475 (1992).

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