Cereal Seed Treatments 2010

Document Sample
Cereal Seed Treatments 2010 Powered By Docstoc
					www.pir.sa.gov.au/factsheets                                                                            FS 2/86/10


Cereal Seed Treatments 2010
Hugh Wallwork, Principal Plant Pathologist, SARDI



Observations from 2009
Net form net blotch and Rhizoctonia were the                     Growers are recommended to maintain their use
most damaging diseases in cereal crops in 2009.                  of treatments effective against powdery mildew
The widespread occurrence of net blotch will lead                even where Dividend™ is used for Rhizoctonia
to much higher levels of inoculum in stubbles in                 management.
2010 as well as on seed. Whilst there are no
treatments able to suppress inoculum derived                     New products
from stubbles, both Vitavax200FF and Dividend                    There have been no new active ingredients
will provide some protection from seed-borne                     brought onto the market in the past year and only
inoculum. Where levels of seed-borne infection                   minor changes in the range of labelled products
are high however the protection provided by                      available.
these treatments may be overwhelmed since only
low levels of infection from seed can lead to                    Choice of seed or in-furrow
severe early outbreaks of the disease. Crops                     treatments
sown in the vicinity of infected stubbles will also
likely receive high levels of early infection                    Wheat
reducing any benefits from seed treatments.
                                                                 The principal reason for using a fungicide at
Compared to net blotch, Rhizoctonia levels in                    sowing for wheat crops is for the control of smuts
2010 will be less directly related to crop                       and so regular use of one of the products in Table
performance during the 2009 season with a                        1 is recommended as a minimum treatment.
greater influence being played by summer /
autumn conditions, sowing date and paddock                       Where control or suppression of other diseases is
nutrition levels. Where there is a higher risk of                required then a seed treatment from Tables 2 or 3
Rhizoctonia occurring in 2010 then the use of                    or a fertiliser-applied treatment from Table 4 is
Dividend™ seed treatment should be considered.                   needed.
Mixed results from the use of Dividend™ for control
                                                                 Caution should be taken in using products in Table
of Rhizoctonia suggest that to gain the most benefit
                                                                 2 other than triticonazole as they may reduce
of this seed treatment it is important that other
                                                                 coleoptile length and cause emergence problems
control measures for Rhizoctonia such as providing
                                                                 under some conditions. Wyalkatchem has a shorter
good plant nutrition and disturbance of the soil
                                                                 coleoptile than most other varieties and thus may
layer below the seed should be included in crop
                                                                 be more seriously affected by these treatments.
management strategies. The most effective long
term strategy should include increasing the carbon
content of the soil allowing a wide range of
alternative microbes to compete with the fungus.

Powdery mildew was less of a problem in barley
crops in 2009 most likely through more careful
choice of seed and fertiliser applied fungicides.


For further information phone (08) 8226 0222, or any office of
Primary Industries and Resources South Australia.                                                     ISSN 1323-0409
Information may be used with acknowledgement.                                                          November 2009
Stripe rust

The benefits of seed treatments to control stripe        The accepted tolerance levels are nil for bunt and
rust will depend mostly on when stripe rust first        three infected pieces in half a litre of grain for
appears in crops. Seed treatments can provide            loose smut. Any wheat exceeding these limits will
significant benefits where infection occurs early        not be accepted. There is a nil tolerance level for
as it will delay the spread of epidemics. Where          any smutted barley or oat grain.
stripe rust first arrives after July, benefits of most
seed treatments against this disease are likely to       Emergence problems
be very limited. In these situations however the         Several factors can cause poor seedling
longer efficacy of treatments based on                   emergence: these include some of the stronger
fluquinconazole or fertiliser- applied fungicides        seed treatments, deep sowing, surface crusting,
should provide some benefit against stripe rust in       short coleoptile varieties, soil temperatures and
prone areas.                                             trifluralin.
Take-all
                                                         Sowing too deep is a common cause of
Where wheat is to be sown in a paddock with a            emergence problems. The coleoptile, which
high risk of take-all, then treatments including         surrounds the first leaf until the shoot emerges,
fluquinconazole in Table 2 or one of the in-furrow       protects and guides the shoot as it grows through
treatments in Table 4 could be considered.               the soil. If seed is sown deeper than the length of
Sowing an alternative crop should also be                the coleoptile the plant can fail to emerge.
considered to reduce inoculum levels. A Predicta-        Because coleoptile lengths vary from one variety
B soil diagnostic test to assess the risk of take-all    to another some varieties can tolerate deeper
is available through agronomists.                        sowing than others. Of the current wheat
                                                         varieties most have intermediate length
Powdery mildew                                           coleoptiles although Wyalkatchem has a shorter
Although no seed treatments are currently                coleoptile. Coleoptile lengths vary greatly from
registered for control of powdery mildew in wheat,       one batch of seed to another. The source of seed
some useful control can be expected from the             is often more critical than the variety in
products listed for control of powdery mildew in         determining coleoptile length. For this and other
barley in Table 2.                                       reasons farmers should seek to use the best
                                                         seed possible.
Smut Control
                                                         Most emergence problems occur in heavy clay
Wheat, barley and oat seed should be treated to          soils where surface sealing occurs. Extra care is
control bunt, flag and loose smut in wheat,              required when treated seed and/or trifluralin is
covered and loose smut in barley and smut in             used in such soils.
oats. These diseases generally occur at low or
trace levels but, in the absence of seed                 Further advice:
treatments, they have the potential to increase
rapidly causing significant economic losses to           Hugh Wallwork, South Australian Research &
growers. Where farmers decide not to treat seed          Development Institute
for one year, they are advised to treat the              (08) 8303 9382 or hugh.wallwork@sa.gov.au
following year.

Smut spores spread on wheat seed and harvest
machinery and flag smut can survive in soil for
several years infecting subsequent crops. Where
infection is observed, growers are advised to buy
new seed and use the full rate of seed
treatments. Ensure that any machinery that has
been in contact with the diseased seed is
cleaned.




Cereal Seed Treatments 2010                              2
    Table 1: Products available that control smuts but not leaf diseases
                                                          Active ingredient                                             Smuts controlled at low/high rates
    Product                   Company             Fungicide         Insecticide          Form Rates              Wheat and barley    Oats           Flag smut
                                                                                                                                  #
                                                                                                (per 100kg)      Loose Covered                seed-borne soil-borne
    Advance / Vitaflo C       Chemtura            carboxin            cypermethrin         f    125/250 mL        ─/✓        ✓         ✓           ✓          ─
    Vitavax 750C              Chemtura            carboxin            cypermethrin         p    70/125 g          ─/✓        ✓         ✓           ✓          ─
    Vitavax 200FF             Chemtura            carboxin + thiram           -            f    250/500 mL        ─/✓        ✓         ✓           ✓         ─/✓
    Veteran C                 Crop Care           flutriafol          cypermethrin        p/f/l 100 g/mL           ✓         ✓         ✓           ✓          ✓
    Vibrant 25C               Conquest            flutriafol          cypermethrin          l   100 mL             ✓         ✓         ✓           ✓          ✓
    Vincit C                  Ospray              flutriafol          cypermethrin        p/f/l 100 g/mL           ✓         ✓         ✓           ✓          ✓
    Veteran C Zinc            Crop Care           flutriafol          cypermethrin         f    100 mL             ✓         ✓         ✓           ✓          ✓
    Vincit Zinc               Ospray              flutriafol                  -            f    400 mL             ✓         ✓         ✓           ✓          ✓
    Blaster 25C               Genfarm             tebuconazole        cypermethrin         f    100 mL             ✓         ✓         ✓           ✓          ✓
    Tebby-C                   Campbell            tebuconazole        cypermethrin         f    100 mL             ✓         ✓         ✓           ✓          ✓
    Tebuconazole 25C          Innova (Syngenta)   tebuconazole        cypermethrin         f    100 mL             ✓         ✓         ✓           ✓          ✓
    Veto 25C                  Conquest            tebuconazole        cypermethrin         f    100 mL             ✓         ✓         ✓           ✓          ✓
    Proguard T                Chemtura            tebuconazole        triflumuron          f    100 mL             ✓         ✓         ✓           ✓          ✓
    Raxil T                   Bayer CropScience   tebuconazole        triflumuron         p/f 100 g/mL             ✓         ✓         ✓           ✓          ✓
    Tebuconazole 25 T         4 Farmers           tebuconazole        triflumuron          f    100 mL             ✓         ✓         ✓           ✓          ✓
    Titan                     Chemtura            triticonazole       cypermethrin         f    100 mL             ✓         ✓         ✓           ✓          ✓
    Premis Protect / ProC     Crop Care           triticonazole       cypermethrin         f    100 mL             ✓         ✓         ✓           ✓          ✓
    Dividend                  Syngenta            difenoconazole              -            f    100/130 mL        ─/✓*       ✓         ─           ✓          ✓
                                                  + metalaxyl
                                                                                                                                    #
                                                                      p = powder               * only registered for                  bunt in wheat
                                                                      f = flowable             suppression in barley     ─/✓ = only registered at the higher rate
                                                                      l = liquid




Cereal Seed Treatments 2010                                                          3
Table 2: Products available that control smuts and foliar diseases
                                                        Active ingredient                              Smuts controlled    Other diseases suppressed at low/high rates
Product                       Company               Fungicide       Insecticide      Form Rates        Wheat/   Oats    Stripe Leaf Barley Barley Septoria# Take-all#
                                                                                          (per 100kg)  barley            rust    rust  scald mildew
Jockey Stayer                 Bayer CropScience   fluquinconazole        -             f  300/450 mL     ✓**      ─       ✓       ✓     ✓**    ✓**        ✓        ─/✓
Jockey                        Crop Care           fluquinconazole        -             f  450 mL          ✓*      ─       ✓       ✓      ─      ─         ✓         ✓
Maxiflo / Quantum             Chemtura            fluquinconazole         -            f  300/450 mL     ✓**      ─       ✓       ✓     ✓**    ✓**        ✓        ─/✓
Armour C                      Ospray                   flutriafol   cypermethrin      p/f 100 g/mL         ✓      ─       ✓       ─      ✓      ✓         ✓         ─
Arrow C                       Crop Care                flutriafol   cypermethrin       f  100 mL           ✓      ─       ✓       ─      ✓      ✓         ✓         ─
Battalion C                   Crop Care              triadimenol    cypermethrin       f  100/150 mL       ✓      ✓       ✓       ─      ✓      ✓        ─/✓        ─
Foliarflo C / Proleaf C       Chemtura               triadimenol    cypermethrin       f  100/150 mL       ✓      ✓       ✓       ─      ✓      ✓        ─/✓        ─
Phoenix C                     Farmoz                 triadimenol    cypermethrin      p/f 100/150 g/mL     ✓      ✓       ✓       ─      ✓      ✓        ─/✓        ─
Seedpik 150C                  Genfarm                triadimenol    cypermethrin       f  100/150 mL       ✓      ✓       ✓       ─      ✓      ✓        ─/✓        ─
Triadimenol 150C              Innova (Syngenta)      triadimenol    cypermethrin      p/f 100/150 g/mL     ✓      ✓       ✓       ─      ✓      ✓        ─/✓        ─
Triadimenol 150C / 150+       4 Farmers              triadimenol    cypermethrin      p/f 100/150 g/mL     ✓      ✓       ✓       ─      ✓      ✓        ─/✓        ─
Tridim-C                      Campbell               triadimenol    cypermethrin       f  100/150 mL       ✓      ✓       ✓       ─      ✓      ✓        ─/✓        ─
Vanguard 150C                 Conquest               triadimenol    cypermethrin       f  100/150 mL       ✓      ✓       ✓       ─      ✓      ✓        ─/✓        ─
Baytan T                      Bayer CropScience     triadimenol      triflumuron      p/f   100/150 g/mL      ✓        ✓       ✓       ─       ✓       ✓       ─/✓        ─
Foliarflo T / Proleaf T       Chemtura              triadimenol      triflumuron       f    100/150 mL        ✓        ✓       ✓       ─       ✓       ✓       ─/✓        ─
Real 200C                     Crop Care            triticonazole    cypermethrin       f    75/150 mL         ✓        ─      ─/✓      ✓      ─/✓      ✓        ─         ─

                                                                                  p = powder               * wheat only
                                                                                  f = flowable             ** These products need to be mixed with Raxil (Bayer) or Proguard
                                                                                                            (Chemtura) for barley disease control
                                                                                                           # suppression only        ─/✓ = only registered at the higher rate




Cereal Seed Treatments 2010                                                                 4
       Table 3: Products available that control specific diseases
                                                                              Active ingredient                               Rates       Net-form
       Product                             Company                       Fungicide         Insecticide        Form         (per 100kg)    net blotch        BYDV        Pythium Rhizoctonia
       Vitavax 200FF                       Chemtura                  carboxin / thiram          -               f          250-375 mL         ✓               ─            ─         ─
       9 products available ∂              See below                          -           imidacloprid          f          120-240 mL         ─              ✓*            ─         ─
       Hombre                              Bayer CropScience           tebuconazole       imidacloprid          f            400mL            ─              ✓*            ─         ─
       Proguard Plus                       Chemtura                    tebuconazole       imidacloprid          f            400mL            ─              ✓*            ─         ─
       Proleaf Plus                        Chemtura                     triadimenol       imidacloprid          f            400mL            ─              ✓*            ─         ─
       Zorro                               Bayer CropScience            triadimenol       imidacloprid          f            400mL            ─              ✓*            ─         ─
       Dividend                            Syngenta                   difenoconazole            -               f          100/130 mL        ─/✓              ─            ✓         ─
                                                                        + metalaxyl                                          260 mL                                                  ✓
                                                                                                                                         * for aphid feeding damage and control of Barley Yellow
       ∂
           = Emerge (Syngenta), Gaucho 600 (Bayer), Genero 600 (Echem), Guardian (Chemtura), Imidacloprid 600 (Genfarm),                 Dwarf Virus
            Nuprid 600 (Nufarm), Picus (Ospray), Savage 600 (Kenso Agcare), Senator 600 (CropCare)
                                                                                                                       ─/✓ = only registered at the higher rate




Cereal Seed Treatments 2010                                                                            5
Table 4: Fertiliser applied products
Product                     Company             Active ingredient    Form     Rates                 Smuts       Stripe       Leaf       Scald    Mildew    Septoria   Take-all
                                                                              (per 100kg)                        rust        rust
Bayonet                     Conquest                flutriafol      spray     200/400 mL/ha            ─          ✓           ─              ✓       ✓       ─/✓        ─/✓
Flutriafol 250              4 Farmers               flutriafol      spray     200/400 mL/ha            ─          ✓           ─              ✓       ✓       ─/✓        ─/✓
Flutriafol 250              Innova (Syngenta)       flutriafol      spray     200/400 mL/ha            ─          ✓           ─              ✓       ✓       ─/✓        ─/✓
Flutriafol 250SC            Genfarm                 flutriafol      spray     200/400 mL/ha            ─          ✓           ─              ✓       ✓       ─/✓        ─/✓
Flutriafol 250SC            Smart                   flutriafol      spray     200/400 mL/ha            ─          ✓           ─              ✓       ✓       ─/✓        ─/✓
Flutriafol 250SC            Titan                   flutriafol      spray     200/400 mL/ha            ─          ✓           ─              ✓       ✓       ─/✓        ─/✓
Furrowfol 250               Choice                  flutriafol      spray     200/400 mL/ha            ─          ✓           ─              ✓       ✓       ─/✓        ─/✓
Impact                      Ospray                  flutriafol      spray     200/400 mL/ha            ─          ✓           ─              ✓       ✓       ─/✓        ─/✓
Intake Combi / Flutriafol   Crop Care               flutriafol      spray     200/400/800 mL/ha        ─        ✓/✓/✓         ─         ✓/✓/─      ✓/✓/─    ─/✓/─      ─/✓/─
Jubilee                     Farmoz                  flutriafol      spray     200/400 mL/ha            ─          ✓           ─              ✓       ✓       ─/✓        ─/✓
Pollux                      Kenso Agcare            flutriafol      spray     200/400 mL/ha            ─          ✓           ─              ✓       ✓       ─/✓        ─/✓
Tricam                      Sipcam                  flutriafol      spray     200/400 mL/ha            ─          ✓           ─              ✓       ✓       ─/✓        ─/✓
Triadimefon 500             4 Farmers             triadimefon       powder    200 g/ha                 ─          ✓           ✓              ─       ✓        ─          ✓
Triadimefon 500             Techchem              triadimefon       powder    200 g/ha                 ─           ─          ✓              ─       ─        ─          ─
Tee-fon 500WP               Ronic                 triadimefon       powder    200 g/ha                 ─           ─          ✓              ─       ─        ─          ─
Triad 500WP                 Farmoz                triadimefon       powder    200 g/ha                 ─           ─          ✓              ─       ─        ─          ─
Triadimefon 500WP           Allfire               triadimefon       powder    200 g/ha                 ─           ─          ✓              ─       ─        ─          ─
Triadimefon 500WP           Genfarm               triadimefon       powder    200 g/ha                 ─           ─          ✓              ─       ─        ─          ─
Triadimefon 500WG           Allfire               triadimefon       granule   200 g/ha                 ─           ─          ✓              ─       ─        ─          ─
Triadimefon 500WG           Chemag                triadimefon       granule   200 g/ha                 ─           ─          ✓              ─       ─        ─          ─
Triadimefon 500WG           Imtrade               triadimefon       granule   200 g/ha                 ─           ─          ✓              ─       ─        ─          ─
Triadimefon 500WDG          PGR                   triadimefon       granule   200 g/ha                 ─           ─          ✓              ─       ─        ─          ─

                                                                                                  ─/✓ = only registered at the higher rate




Cereal Seed Treatments 2010                                                                   6