The Field of Organizational Behavior

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					     The Field of
Organizational Behavior

       Chapter 1
        Learning Objectives

1.   Define the concepts of organization and
     organizational behavior (OB).

2.   Describe the field of organizational behavior’s
     commitment to the scientific method and the three
     levels of analysis it uses.

3.   Trace the historical developments and schools of
     thought leading up to the field of organizational
     behavior today.

4.   Identify the fundamental characteristics of the field of
     organizational behavior.                               2
        Learning Objectives

5.   Describe how the field of OB today is being shaped
     by the global economy, increasing racial and ethnic
     diversity in the workforce, and advances in
     technology.

6.   Explain how changing expectations about the desire
     to be engaged in work, the need for flexibility in
     work, and the pressure to promote quality have
     influenced the field of OB.

                                                           3
         Organization

A structured social system consisting
 of groups and individuals working
 together to meet some agreed-upon
 objectives.




                                        4
OB Field Characteristics

 Applies Scientific Method to Managerial
  Problems
 Studies Individuals, Groups, and
  Organizations
 Multidisciplinary in Nature
 Enhances Organizational Effectiveness and
  Individual Well-Being

                                          5
        Practical Managerial
             Problems
 How Goals Can Enhance Job Performance
 How Jobs Can Be Designed to Enhance Employee
  Satisfaction
 When Individuals and Groups Make Better Decisions
 How Organizational Communication Can Be
  Improved
 How Work-related Stress Can Be Alleviated
 How Leaders Can Enhance Team Effectiveness
                                                      6
      Multidisciplinary Roots

   Psychology
   Sociology
   Anthropology
   Political Science
   Economics
   Management Science

                                7
               OB Matters

 Satisfied Employees
  •   More Pleasant at Work
  •   Lower Costs
  •   Higher Productivity
  •   Less Likely to Quit

 Unsatisfied Employees
  • Reject Organization Policies
  • More Likely to Steal
  • Increased Mental and Physical Illnesses
                                              8
Fundamental Assumptions

          No “One Best”
       Contingency Approach

  Behavior
   Contingent Upon Certain Conditions



                                        9
              OB History



 Scientific Management
  • Efficient Design of Jobs


 Human Relations Movement
  • Hawthorne Studies


                               10
                 OB History

 Classical Organizational Theory
  • Efficient Organization Structure
  • Division of Labor
  • Bureaucracy


 OB as a Social Science

 The Infotech Age
                                       11
     Prominent Trends

  Increasingly Global Businesses

 Multinational Enterprises (MNE)
  • Repatriate
  • Culture Shock
  • Expatriate
 Changing Management Perspectives
  • Convergence Hypothesis
  • Divergence Hypothesis
                                     12
       Prominent Trends

 Responding to Technology Changes
 Leaner Organizations Creation
  • Downsizing
  • Outsourcing

 Virtual Organization Creation

 Increasing Telecommuting Use

                                    13
          Prominent Trends
  Responding to Changing Expectations

 Increasing Engagement
 Increasing Flexibility
   • Idiosyncratic Work Arrangements
      •   Flexible Hours
      •   Contingent Workforce
      •   Compressed Workweeks
      •   Job Sharing
      •   Voluntary Reduced Work Time




                                        14
       Prominent Trends

Responding to Changing Expectations

 The Quality Revolution
  • Total Quality Management
  • Benchmarking
  • Malcolm Baldridge Quality Award



                                      15